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Millimeter-Wave Waveguides

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Millimeter-Wave Waveguides is a monograph devoted to open waveguides for millimeter wave applications. In the first chapters, general waveguide theory is presented (with the emphasis on millimeter wave applications). Next, the book systematically describes the results of both theoretical and experimental studies of rectangular dielectric rod waveguides with high dielectric permittivities. This structure makes the book suitable both for teaching and research purposes. Simple and accurate methods for propagation constant calculations for isotropic as well as anisotropic dielectric waveguides are described. Both analytical and numerical approaches are covered. Different types of transitions have been simulated in order to find optimal configurations as well as optimal dimensions of dielectric waveguides for the frequency band of 75-110 GHz. Simple and effective design is presented. The experimental studies of dielectric waveguides show that Sapphire waveguide can be utilized for this frequency band as a very low-loss waveguide. Design of antennas with low return loss based on dielectric waveguides is also described.

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Table of Contents
General theory of waveguides 1.1Basic relations for regular waveguides 1.1.1 Vector transmissionline equations 1.1.2 Longitudinal and transverse fields 1.2Boundary conditions and waveguide modes in closed guides 1.2.1 Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions 1.2.2TE and TM modes 1.2.3 Lossy waveguide walls. Hybrid modes 1.2.4 TEM mode 1.3Orthogonality of the modal fields 1.3.1The proof 1.4Fundamental properties of open waveguides 1.4.1 Boundary conditions for open waveguides 1.4.2 Eigenwaves in planar dielectric waveguides 1.5Inhomogeneities in waveguides 1.5.1 Transmissionline theory applied to waveguides 1.5.2Equivalent circuits for basic inhomogeneities 1.6Periodically inhomogeneous waveguides
Theory of highfrequency resonators 2.1Modes of closed and open resonators 2.1.1 Eigensolutions 2.1.2Cylindrical resonators 2.1.3 Mode orthogonality 2.1.4Losses in resonators. Quality factor 2.2resonatorsExcitation of 2.2.1Eigenfunction expansion 2.2.2Excitation of resonators as sections of waveguides
5 6 7 8 9 9 10 13 13 15 15 18 19 20 24 24 25 33
39 39 39 40 42 43 44 44 46
Waves in crystals and anisotropic waveguides 3.1ReciElectromagnetic properties of anisotropic crystals. procity 3.2Electromagnetic waves in nonmagnetic crystals 3.2.1 Plane waves. Poynting vector 3.2.2Eigenwaves in uniaxial crystals 3.3Waveguides with anisotropic fillings
Nonreciprocal media, waves in ferrite waveguides 4.1Properties of magnetized ferrites 4.2Faraday effectLongitudinal propagation. 4.3Transverse propagation 4.3.1 Microsrip line on ferrite substrate. Isolator
49 51 52 53 57
63 63 68 72 74
Dielectric waveguides: classical methods for propagation constant calculations79 5.1Marcatili’s method80 5.1.1 Rectangular dielectric rod waveguide in air82 5.1.2 Some properties of rectangular dielectric waveguides83 5.1.3 How well does Marcatili’s method work?84 5.2Goell’s method85 5.3Open anisotropic waveguides87 5.3.1 Modification of Marcatili’s method for the calcula tion of anisotropic rectangular dielectric waveguides87 5.3.2Application of Goell’s method for the calculation of anisotropic rectangular dielectric waveguides92 5.4Comparison of modified Marcatili’s and Goell’s methods with experimental results95
Fabrication and measurements 6.1Methods for material testing 6.2Open FabriPerot resonators for material testing in the millimeterwave region 6.2.1 Classical theory and its extensions 6.3Materials for millimeterwave dielectric waveguides
103 103
104 106 110
7Excitation of millimeterwave dielectric waveguides: com puter simulations and experiments 115 7.1Computer simulations with Finite Element Method117 7.1.1 Tapers of the dielectric waveguide117
7.1.2Field distribution near the taper section Experimental measurements of dielectric waveguides 7.2.1 Waveguide samples and the experimental setup 7.2.2Sapphire dielectric rod waveguides 7.2.3GaAs dielectric waveguides 7.2.4Hornlike structure implementation 7.2.5Conclusions Some notes about metal waveguides
Dielectric waveguide devices and integrated circuits 8.1Dielectric waveguides for integrated circuits 8.1.1Nonradiative dielectric waveguide 8.1.2 Dielectric waveguide circuits on metal and dielec tric substrates 8.2Passive devices 8.2.1 Whispering gallery resonator 8.2.2Directional couplers 8.2.3 Phase shifters and attenuators 8.2.4Isolators and circulators 8.3Active devices 8.3.1 Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in bulk negative resistance media 8.3.2 Experimental observations of millimeterwave am plification with active waveguides 8.3.3 Slow electromagnetic wave amplification with drifting electrons in semiconductor waveguide structures 8.4Dielectric waveguide antennas 8.4.1 Classification 8.4.2Dielectric rod antennas 8.4.3 Leakywave antennas
Appendix A: Dyadics
Appendix B: Reciprocity theorem
Appendix C: Description of Matlab programs
130 135 135 136 140 144 146 146
149 149 150
151 154 154 155 157 160 160
168 170 170 171 172
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