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Semiconductor Materials : An Introduction to Basic Principles

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The main objective of this book is to provide an introductory perspective of the basic principles of semiconductors, being an integrated overview of the basic properties, applications, and characterization of semiconductors in a single volume. This book is suitable for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for researchers, working in a wide variety of fields in physical and engineering sciences, who require an introductory and concise description of the field of semiconductors.

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Contents
CHAPTER 1. Introduction
CHAPTER 2. Interatomic Bonding, Crystal Structure, and Defects in Solids 2.1.Introduction 2.2. Interatomic Bonding 2.3.Crystal Structure 2.4. Defects in Solids 2.5.Lattice Vibrations 2.6. Summary Problems
CHAPTER 3. Band Theory of Solids 3.1.Introduction 3.2.Principles of Quantum Mechanics 3.2.1. The Wave–Particle Duality 3.2.2. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 3.2.3. The Schrödinger Wave Equation 3.3.Some Applications of the Schrödinger Equation 3.3.1. Free Electrons 3.3.2. Bound Electron in an Infinitely Deep Potential Well 3.3.3. Bound Electron in a Finite Potential Well 3.3.4. Electron Tunneling through a Finite Potential Barrier 3.3.5. The Kronig–Penney Model (Electron in a Periodic Crystal Potential) 3.4.Energy Bands in Crystals 3.5.Brillouin Zones and Examples of the Energy Band Structure for Semiconductors 3.6.The Effective Mass 3.7.Classification of Solids According to the Band Theory 3.8.Summary Problems
CHAPTER 4. Basic Properties of Semiconductors 4.1.Introduction 4.2.Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors 4.3.StatesThe Fermi–Dirac Distribution Function and the Density of 4.4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors 4.4.1. Intrinsic Semiconductors 4.4.2. Extrinsic Semiconductors 4.5.Donors and Acceptors in Semiconductors 4.6.CarriersNonequilibrium Properties of
vii
1
5 6 9 21 26 30 32
33 34 34 35 35 37 37 38 39 40 42 45
49 52 55 57 58
59 59 61 66 66 69 70 80
viii
4.7.Interband Electronic Transitions in Semiconductors 4.7.1.Optical Absorption 4.8.Recombination Processes 4.8.1.Radiative Transitions 4.8.2.Nonradiative Recombination Mechanisms 4.8.3.Recombination Rate 4.8.4. Luminescence Centers 4.9.Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission 4.10.Effects of External Perturbations on Semiconductor Properties 4.11.Basic Equations on Semiconductors 4.11.1.Poissons Equation 4.11.2.Continuity Equations 4.11.3.Carrier Transport Equations 4.12.Summary Problems
CHAPTER 5. Applications of Semiconductors 5.1.Introduction 5.2.Diodes 5.2.1.Thep–nJunction 5.2.2.Schottky Barrier 5.2.3.Heterojunctions 5.3.Transistors 5.3.1.Bipolar Junction Transistors 5.3.2.Field Effect Transistors 5.4.Integrated Circuits 5.5.Light Emitting and Detecting Devices 5.5.1.Light Emitting Devices 5.5.2.Light Detecting Devices 5.6.Summary Problems
CHAPTER 6. Types of Semiconductors 6.1.Introduction (Semiconductor Growth and Processing) 6.2.Elemental Semiconductors 6.3.Compound Semiconductors 6.3.1.III–V Compounds 6.3.2.II–VI Compounds 6.3.3.IV–VI Compounds 6.3.4.I–III–VI2 (Chalcopyrite) Compounds 6.3.5.Layered Compounds 6.4.Narrow EnergyGap Semiconductors 6.5.Wide EnergyGap Semiconductors 6.6.Oxide Semiconductors 6.7.Magnetic Semiconductors 6.8.Polycrystalline Semiconductors
CONTENTS
81 81 87 88 92 94 96 98 100 102 102 103 103 104 104
107 107 107 116 117 120 120 122 124 125 125 129 133 134
135 142 144 144 146 147 147 148 148 149 152 153 154
CONTENTS
6.9.Amorphous Semiconductors 6.10.Organic Semiconductors 6.11.Lowdimensional Semiconductors 6.12.Choices of Semiconductors for Specific Applications 6.13.Summary Problems
CHAPTER 7. Characterization of Semiconductors 7.1.Introduction 7.2.Electrical Characterization 7.2.1.Resistivity (Conductivity) and the Hall Effect 7.2.2.Capacitance–Voltage Measurements 7.2.3. Photoconductivity 7.3.Optical Characterization Methods 7.3.1.Optical Absorption 7.3.2.Photoluminescence 7.3.3.Raman Spectroscopy 7.3.4.Ellipsometry 7.3.5.Optical Modulation Techniques 7.4.Microscopy Techniques 7.4.1.Optical Microscopy 7.4.2.Electron Beam Techniques 7.4.3.Scanning Probe Microscopy 7.5.Structural Analysis 7.5.1.Xray Diffraction 7.5.2.Electron Diffraction 7.5.3.Structural Analysis of Surfaces 7.6.Surface Analysis Methods 7.6.1.Auger Electron Spectroscopy 7.6.2.Photoelectron Spectroscopy 7.6.3.IonBeam Techniques 7.6.4. Comparison of Surface Analytical Techniques 7.7.Summary Problems
APPENDICES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX
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154 157 158 167 168 170
171 175 175 178 180 182 183 184 187 188 189 189 190 191 198 203 203 204 205 205 206 207 208 213 215 215
217
219
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