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Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management

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488 pages
The second edition of Wildlife Ecology, Conservation, and Management provides a thorough introduction to general ecological principles and examines how they can be applied to wildlife management and conservation.
  • Expanded and updated, this second edition includes new chapters on understanding ecosystems and the use of computer models in wildlife management
  • Gives a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of ecology including the latest theories on population dynamics and conservation
  • Reviews practical applications and techniques and how these can be used to formulate realistic objectives with in an ecological framework
  • Examples of real-life management situations from around the world provide a broad perspective on the international problems of conservation
  • Worked examples on CD enable students to practice calculations explained in the text

Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/sinclair. An Instructor manual CD-ROM for this title is available. Please contact our Higher Education team at HigherEducation@wiley.com for more information.

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

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Contents
Preface
1
Introduction: goals and decisions 1.1 How to use this book 1.2 What is wildlife conservation and management? 1.3 Goals of management 1.4 Hierarchies of decision 1.5 Policy goals 1.6 Feasible options 1.7 Summary
Part 1
2
3
Wildlife ecology
Biomes 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Forest biomes 2.3 Woodland biomes 2.4 Shrublands 2.5 Grassland biomes 2.6 Semi-desert scrub 2.7 Deserts 2.8 Marine biomes 2.9 Summary
Animals as individuals 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Adaptation 3.3 The theory of natural selection 3.4 Examples of adaptation 3.5 The effects of history 3.6 The abiotic environment 3.7 Genetic characteristics of individuals 3.8 Applied aspects 3.9 Summary
xi
1 1 2 3 5 7 8 8
9
11 11 12 14 14 15 17 17 17 18
19 19 19 19 21 23 27 27 33 35
v
vi
4
5
6
7
8
CONTENTS
Food and nutrition 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Constituents of food 4.3 Variation in food supply 4.4 Measurement of food supply 4.5 Basal metabolic rate and food requirement 4.6 Morphology of herbivore digestion 4.7 Food passage rate and food requirement 4.8 Body size and diet selection 4.9 Indices of body condition 4.10 Summary
The ecology of behavior 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Diet selection 5.3 Optimal patch or habitat use 5.4 Risk-sensitive habitat use 5.5 Quantifying habitat preference using resource selection functions 5.6 Social behavior and foraging 5.7 Summary
Population growth 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Rate of increase 6.3 Fecundity rate 6.4 Mortality rate 6.5 Direct estimation of life-table parameters 6.6 Indirect estimation of life-table parameters 6.7 Relationship between parameters 6.8 Geometric or exponential population growth 6.9 Summary
Dispersal, dispersion, and distribution 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Dispersal 7.3 Dispersion 7.4 Distribution 7.5 Distribution, abundance, and range collapse 7.6 Species reintroductions or invasions 7.7 Dispersal and the sustainability of metapopulations 7.8 Summary
Population regulation, fluctuation, and competition within species 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Stability of populations 8.3 The theory of population limitation and regulation
36 36 36 40 42 46 49 51 52 53 59
60 60 60 66 69
70 72 77
78 78 78 82 82 84 85 87 88 89
90 90 90 92 93 98 99 104 108
109 109 109 111
9
10
11
8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10
Evidence for regulation Applications of regulation Logistic model of population regulation Stability, cycles, and chaos Intraspecific competition Interactions of food, predators, and disease Summary
Competition and facilitation between species 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Theoretical aspects of interspecific competition 9.3 Experimental demonstrations of competition 9.4 The concept of the niche 9.5 The competitive exclusion principle 9.6 Resource partitioning and habitat selection 9.7 Competition in variable environments 9.8 Apparent competition 9.9 Facilitation 9.10 Applied aspects of competition 9.11 Summary
Predation 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Predation and management 10.3 Definitions 10.4 The effect of predators on prey density 10.5 The behavior of predators 10.6 Numerical response of predators to prey density 10.7 The total response 10.8 Behavior of the prey 10.9 Summary
CONTENTS
Parasites and pathogens 11.1 Introduction and definitions 11.2 Effects of parasites 11.3 The basic parameters of epidemiology 11.4 Determinants of spread 11.5 Endemic pathogens 11.6 Endemic pathogens: synergistic interactions with food and predators 11.7 Epizootic diseases 11.8 Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife 11.9 Parasites and the regulation of host populations 11.10 Parasites and host communities 11.11 Parasites and conservation 11.12 Parasites and control of pests 11.13 Summary
vii
116 120 121 125 131 134 134
135 135 136 138 143 146 146 153 153 154 159 162
163 163 163 163 164 165 169 170 176 178
179 179 179 180 183 184
184 186 187 188 190 191 194 195
256 258 264 267
253 253 254
217
200 207 212 215
268 268 268 269 272 274 279 287
Part 2
196 196 196 196 197
Consumer–resource dynamics 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Quality and quantity of a resource 12.3 Kinds of resources 12.4 Consumer–resource dynamics: general theory 12.5 Kangaroos and their food plants in semi-arid Australian savannas 12.6 Wolf–moose–woody plant dynamics in the boreal forest 12.7 Other population cycles 12.8 Summary
14
Wildlife conservation and management
244 244 247 248 251 252
219 219 219 219 221 226 235 241 243
Experimental management 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Differentiating success from failure 16.3 Technical judgments can be tested 16.4 The nature of the evidence 16.5 Experimental and survey design 16.6 Some standard analyses 16.7 Summary
Counting animals 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Estimates 13.3 Total counts 13.4 Sampled counts: the logic 13.5 Sampled counts: methods and arithmetic 13.6 Indirect estimates of population size 13.7 Indices 13.8 Summary
Age and stage structure 14.1 Age-specific population models 14.2 Stage-specific models 14.3 Sensitivity and elasticity of matrix models 14.4 Short-term changes in structured populations 14.5 Summary
16
Model evaluation and adaptive management 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Fitting models to data and estimation of parameters 15.3 Measuring the likelihood of models in light of the observed data 15.4 Evaluating the likelihood of alternative models using AIC 15.5 Adaptive management 15.6 Summary
CONTENTS
12
15
13
viii
17
18
19
20
21
CONTENTS
Conservation in theory 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Demographic problems contributing to risk of extinction 17.3 Genetic problems contributing to risk of extinction 17.4 Effective population size (genetic) 17.5 Effective population size (demographic) 17.6 How small is too small? 17.7 Population viability analysis 17.8 Extinction caused by environmental change 17.9 Summary
Conservation in practice 18.1 Introduction 18.2 How populations go extinct 18.3 How to prevent extinction 18.4 Rescue and recovery of near extinctions 18.5 Conservation in national parks and reserves 18.6 Community conservation outside national parks and reserves 18.7 International conservation 18.8 Summary
Wildlife harvesting 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Fixed quota harvesting strategy 19.3 Fixed proportion harvesting strategy 19.4 Fixed escapement harvesting strategy 19.5 Harvesting in practice: recreational 19.6 Harvesting in practice: commercial 19.7 Age- or sex-biased harvesting 19.8 Bioeconomics 19.9 Game cropping and the discount rate 19.10 Summary
Wildlife control 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Definitions 20.3 Effects of control 20.4 Objectives of control 20.5 Determining whether control is appropriate 20.6 Methods of control 20.7 Summary
Ecosystem management and conservation 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Definitions 21.3 Gradients of communities 21.4 Niches 21.5 Food webs and intertrophic interactions
ix
289 289 289 291 297 298 299 300 305 310
312 312 312 321 323 324 332 332 334
335 335 335 341 344 346 346 347 347 352 353
355 355 355 356 356 357 358 364
365 365 365 366 366 366
x
CONTENTS
21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9 21.10 21.11 21.12 21.13 21.14 21.15
Appendices Glossary References Index
Community features and management consequences Multiple states Regulation of top-down and bottom-up processes Ecosystem consequences of bottom-up processes Ecosystem disturbance and heterogeneity Ecosystem management at multiple scales Biodiversity Island biogeography and dynamic processes of diversity Ecosystem function Summary
368 370 371 373 374 376 377 379 381 383
385 389 401 450