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Global Austria

352 pages

After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Austria transformed itself from an empire to a small Central European country. Formerly an important player in international affairs, the new republic was quickly sidelined by the European concert of powers. The enormous losses of territory and population in Austria's post-Habsburg state of existence, however, did not result in a political, economic, cultural, and intellectual black hole. The essays in the twentieth anniversary volume of Contemporary Austrian Studies argue that the small Austrian nation found its place in the global arena of the twentieth century and made a mark both on Europe and the world. Be it Freudian psychoanalysis, the “fin-de-siècle” Vienna culture of modernism, Austro-Marxist thought, or the Austrian School of Economics, Austrian hinkers and ideas were still wielding a notable impact on the world. Alongside these cultural and intellectual dimensions, Vienna remained the Austrian capital and reasserted its strong position in Central European and international business and finance. Innovative Austrian companies are operating all over the globe. This volume also examines how the globalizing world of the twentieth century has impacted Austrian demography, society, and political life. Austria's place in the contemporary world is increasingly determined by the forces of the European integration process. European Union membership brings about convergence and a regional orientation with ramifications for Austria's global role. Austria emerges in the essays of this volume as a highly globalized country with an economy, society, and political culture deeply grounded in Europe. The globalization of Austria, it appears, turns out to be in many instances an “Europeanization.”


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Cover

Global Austria

Austria's place in Europe and the World

Günter Bischof and Fritz Plasser (dir.)
  • Publisher: innsbruck university press, Innsbruck University Press
  • Year of publication: 2011
  • Published on OpenEdition Books: 29 septembre 2016
  • Serie: Contemporary Austrian Studies
  • Electronic ISBN: 9783903122406

OpenEdition Books

http://books.openedition.org

Printed version
  • ISBN: 9783902811202
  • Number of pages: 352
 
Electronic reference

BISCHOF, Günter (ed.) ; PLASSER, Fritz (ed.). Global Austria: Austria's place in Europe and the World. New edition [online]. Innsbruck: innsbruck university press, 2011 (generated 30 September 2016). Available on the Internet: <http://books.openedition.org/iup/561>. ISBN: 9783903122406.

The text is a facsimile of the print edition.

© innsbruck university press, 2011

Terms of use:
http://www.openedition.org/6540

After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Austria transformed itself from an empire to a small Central European country. Formerly an important player in international affairs, the new republic was quickly sidelined by the European concert of powers. The enormous losses of territory and population in Austria's post-Habsburg state of existence, however, did not result in a political, economic, cultural, and intellectual black hole. The essays in the twentieth anniversary volume of Contemporary Austrian Studies argue that the small Austrian nation found its place in the global arena of the twentieth century and made a mark both on Europe and the world. Be it Freudian psychoanalysis, the “fin-de-siècle” Vienna culture of modernism, Austro-Marxist thought, or the Austrian School of Economics, Austrian hinkers and ideas were still wielding a notable impact on the world. Alongside these cultural and intellectual dimensions, Vienna remained the Austrian capital and reasserted its strong position in Central European and international business and finance. Innovative Austrian companies are operating all over the globe. This volume also examines how the globalizing world of the twentieth century has impacted Austrian demography, society, and political life. Austria's place in the contemporary world is increasingly determined by the forces of the European integration process. European Union membership brings about convergence and a regional orientation with ramifications for Austria's global role. Austria emerges in the essays of this volume as a highly globalized country with an economy, society, and political culture deeply grounded in Europe. The globalization of Austria, it appears, turns out to be in many instances an “Europeanization.”

Der Zerfall der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie hatte zur Folge, dass die einstige Großmacht der Habsburger zu einem Kleinstaat im Herzen Europa wurde. Der enorme Verlust an Territorium und die Verringerung der Bevölkerung hinterließ allerdings keineswegs ein politisches, wirtschaftliches, kulturelles oder intellektuelles Vakuum. Die Aufsätze des 20. Jubiläumsbandes der Contemporary Austrian Studies zeigen vielmehr, dass die Republik Österreich ihren Platz in Europa und der Welt halten konnte: Sei es die Psychoanalyse von Freud, das Wien des fin-de-siècle oder der Austro-Marxismus, österreichische Ideen fanden weltweit Anklang. Auch in der internationalen Geschäfts- und Finanzwelt konnte sich Wien als Hauptstadt behaupten. Heute bestimmen der EU-Beitritt, der europäische Integrationsprozess sowie die Globalisierung das wirtschaftliche, gesellschaftliche und politische Leben Österreichs.

Table of contents
  1. Preface

    The Twentieth Anniversary Issue

    Günter Bischof
  2. Introduction

    1. Introduction

    1. Anton Pelinka
    2. Globalization and Austria: Past and Present

      Andreas Exenberger
      1. Introduction
      2. Measuring Globalization?
      3. A More Detailed View into the Globalization Discourse
      4. What is Globalization Today and What was it in the Course of the Twentieth Century?
      5. Austria’s and Austrians’Role in Globalization
      6. Conclusion: How Global is Austria?
  1. Topical essays

    1. I. Austria and the World

      1. Fin de fin-de-siècle Vienna?

        A Letter of Remembrance

        Steven Beller
      2. Ideology and Politics in the State that Nobody Wanted: Austro-Marxism, Austrofascism, and the First Austrian Republic

        Tim Kirk
        1. The Origins of Austro-Marxism
        2. Austro-Marxism and the Austrian Revolution
        3. Counter-Revolution and Fascism
        4. Austrian Ideologies and the Wider World
      3. The Austrian School of Economics and its Global Impact

        Hansjoerg Klausinger
        1. Being an Austrian Economist
        2. The Controversies of the 1930s
        3. The Postwar Mainstream and the Austrian Critique
        4. The Austrian Heritage and the Neoliberal Agenda
        5. Concluding Observations
      4. Vienna: The Eventful History of a Financial Center

        Andreas Resch and Dieter Stiefel
        1. The last Decades of the Habsburg Empire
        2. The Decline in the Interwar Years
        3. “Anschluss,” National Socialism and World War II
        4. The Reconstruction Period after 1945
        5. Development since the 1950s: Nationalbank and Stock Exchange
        6. Banks and Financial Institutions
        7. Privatizations and Mergers
        8. Internationalization
      5. Konferenzplatz Wien: Vienna as an International Conference Site

        Eric Frey
        1. The Birth of an International Role
        2. The Road to a United Nations Headquarters
        3. The Controversy of the Conference Center
        4. The End of the Mediator Role
        5. A Different Kind of Success Story
      6. OMV: A Case Study of an Austrian Global Player

        Alexander Smith
        1. The Internationalization of a National Oil Producer
        2. Expansion into East Central Europe
        3. Towards a Leading Position in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe
        4. OMV’s and Austria’s Role in European Energy Security
        5. OMV under Criticism
        6. Concluding Remarks
    1. II. The World and Austria

      1. Austria and its Migrants

        Rainer Münz
        1. Habsburg Monarchy, Interwar Period, and World War II
        2. Migration and Mobility Pattern since 1945
        3. Four Successive Waves of Migration
        4. Naturalization since 1945
        5. Recent Migration Flows
        6. Austria’s Migrant Population
        7. Education
        8. Employment
        9. Conclusions and Outlook
      2. Austria and Central Europe

        Emil Brix
        1. History of the Notion “Mitteleuropa
        2. The Cultural Debates of the 1980s
        3. Changes of Cultural Contents or Perceptions?
        4. Issues and Interests: Central Europe after 2000
      3. The Europeanization of Austrian Political Culture: Austrian Exceptionalism Revisited

        Fritz Plasser and Gilg Seeber
        1. 1. Political Involvement—Revisited
        2. 2. Political Trust—Revisited
        3. 3. Support for Democracy
        4. 4. Euroskepticism in Austria
      4. Austria’s Dismal EU Membership: From Enthusiasm to Ambivalence

        Sonja Puntscher Riekmann
        1. Introduction
        2. Austria’s Struggle for EU Membership
        3. Enthusiasm and Disappointment
        4. Treaty Ratification in the Light of Negative Referenda in France, the Netherlands, and Ireland
        5. Conclusions
  1. Forum: The Globalization of Austrian Studies

    1. Introduction

      Günter Bischof
    2. Austrian Studies in Australia

      Questionnaire: “The Globalization of Austrian Studies”

      Julie Thorpe
    3. Austrian Studies in the United States

      Gary B. Cohen
    4. Austrian Studies in the United Kingdom

      Peter Pulzer
    5. Austrian Studies in France

      Jacques Le Rider
    6. Austrian Studies with Chinese Characteristics? Some Observations

      Ke-chin Hsia and Fei-Hsien Wang
    7. The State of Austrian/Habsburg Historical Studies in Japan

      Atsushi Otsuru
      1. The Foundation of Studies of Western History in Japan: An Absence of Austria
      2. Japanese Historiography after World War II: The Introduction of Austrian History to Japan
      3. Scholarly Works Published in Recent Years
      4. Japanese Habsburg and Austrian Studies in the Future
  1. Book reviews

    1. William M. Johnston, Der österreichische Mensch: Kulturgeschichte der Eigenart Österreichs

      Vienna: Böhlau, 2010

      David S. Luft
    2. John W. Boyer, Karl Lueger (1844-1910): Christlichsoziale Politik als Beruf: Eine Biografie

    1. Vienna: Böhlau, 2010

      Peter Berger
    2. Peter Ruggenthaler and Walter M. Iber, eds., Hitlers Sklaven—“Stalins Verräter”: Aspekte der Repression an Zwangsarbeitern und Kriegsgefangenen: Eine Zwischenbilanz

      Innsbruck: Studienverlag, 2010

      Thomas R. Grischany
    3. Claudia Kuretsidis-Haider and Winfried R. Garscha, eds., Gerechtigkeit nach Diktatur und Krieg: Transitional Justice 1945 bis heute: Strafverfahren und ihre Quellen

      Graz: CLIO, 2010

      James J. Weingartner
    4. Walter M. Iber, Die Sowjetische Mineralölverwaltung in Österreich: Zur Vorgeschichte der OMV 1945-1955

      Innsbruck: Studienverlag, 2011

      Alexander Smith
    5. Thomas Fischer, Neutral Power in the CSCE: The N+N States and the Making of the Helsinki Accords 1975

      Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2009

    1. Michael Cotey Morgan
    2. David Tréfás and Jens Lucht, eds., Europe on Trial: Shortcomings of the EU with Regard to Democracy, Public Sphere, and Identity (Innsbruck: Studienverlag, 2010)

      Gertraud Diendorfer and Heidemarie Uhl, eds., Europäische Bilderwelten: Visuelle Darstellungen EU-Europas aus österreichischer Perspektive (Innsbruck: Studienverlag, 2009)

      Manfred Kohler
  1. Annual review

    1. Austria 2010

      Reinhold Gärtner
      1. Presidential Elections
      2. Elections in Burgenland, Styria, and Vienna
  2. List of authors

Preface

The Twentieth Anniversary Issue

Günter Bischof

The publication of the twentieth volume of Contemporary Austrian Studies (CAS) represents a minor triumph for the dedicated commitment of CenterAustria at the University of New Orleans (UNO) to the serious scholarly study of twentieth/twenty-first century Austria. We share this triumph with the Department of Political Science at the University of Innsbruck. This publication series has become a mainstay of a transatlantic university partnership that has been growing for almost forty years and is quite unique in its intensity of both faculty and student exchanges and a rich cross-fertilization of ideas.

The continued publication of CAS is all the more remarkable since the crisis in the public higher education arena in Louisiana has not been kind to university budgets, including the steady production of scholarly work and publications on a regular basis. These pressures to cut the financing of higher education budgets have afflicted the State of Louisiana for the past three years. To a lesser degree the same is true for Austrian university budgets, where massive cuts are also announced for the year 2012. This is the actual environment in which this publication series is carried on against all odds on both sides of the Atlantic.

Looking at this publication series quantitatively, over the course of the past twenty years we have moved 408 manuscripts through the editing process — 190 were published in the first ten volumes and another 218 in volumes XI to XX. Along the lines of Francis Bacon’s bonmot that “histories make men wise […] logic and rhetoric, able to contend,” about two-thirds of the manuscripts dealt with historical subjects and one-third with political science. In history we had a fairly even distribution of manuscripts over the principal periods of Austrian Zeitgeschichte since 1919 (post-World War I, World War II, post-World War II to the advent of what might be called the “populist turn” in 1986, 1986-2000, and finally the past ten years). Political science manuscripts have dealt more with the most recent past than those dealing with history. While in history the post-World War II period to the end of the Cold War has been addressed most prominently, in political science the past decade has had pride of place.

In the past ten volumes, we have caught up with the immediate post-World War I period with the Postwar volume (XIX), following the issue on the 1930s The Dollfuss/Schuschnigg Era (XI). We have also addressed a separate volume on World War II (XVII), following previous essays and roundtables on Austrian memories of World War II and post-World War II restitution of property apprehended by the Nazis. Volumes on the The Changing Austrian Voter (XVI) and The Schüssel Era (XVIII) reflect the interest of political scientists in the immediate past, while Austrian Foreign Policy in Historical Perspective (XIV) contained essays that spanned the entire twentieth century diachronically. We have also addressed separate volumes to larger societal issues such as Religion (XIII) and Sexuality (XV). A special interest in larger themes of the Austrian-American relationship have been addressed in The Marshall Plan (VIII), followed by The Americanization/Westernization of Austria (XII). The current volume on Global Austria (XX) continues and broadens this theme of vast outside influences changing Austrian society in the twentieth century. We would like to warmly thank Alexander Lassner, Hermann Denz, Michael Gehler, Dagmar Herzog, Barbara Stelzl-Marx, Peter Berger, Anton Pelinka, and Alexander Smith for serving as guest editors of volumes during the past decade.

Political/social, diplomatic/international, and economic history have been most prominent in our pages through the entire twenty-year run. More recently cultural history and issues of identity have also been covered. Domestic politics and political culture have been most prominent in the political science category, but Austria’s relationship with the European Union has been a topic regularly addressed, too. We have carried on with our annual review of Austrian politics over the past ten years for those readers who like a quick overview of Austrian elections and basic economic data.

We have taken great pride over the years in the reviewing culture of CAS. One hundred and two book reviews and twenty-seven review essays in these twenty volumes attest to that. We have regularly tried to get top experts on both sides of the Atlantic to pen critical book reviews of some of the most important books published on Austrian affairs. Whether these reviews are read by anyone else but the authors and editors we do not know.

CAS 1-10

 
 

1918-1938

1938- 1945

1945- 1983

1984-2000

 

HISTORY

     

Political/Social

2

5

5

  

Diplomatic/International

  

11

2

 

Economic

  

11

2

 

Intellectual

1

    

Memory

  

12

1

 

Culture/Identity

 

2

1

  

Religion

     

Gender

1

3

3

  

Intelligence

 

2

3

  

POLITIAL SCIENCE

     

Domestic/

     

Political Culture

  

11

17

 

Foreign Relations/

 

2

 

9

 

International

   

6

 

European Union

     

ROUNDTABLES/

   

3

 

FORUMS

     

REVIEW ESSAYS

   

12

 

BOOK REVIEWS

   

51

 

ANNUAL REVIEW

   

10

 

INTRODUCTIONS

   

21

 

TOTAL

   

190

 

CAS 11-20

 

pre-1914

1918-1938

1938-1945

1984-1983

1984-2000

2000-2010

HISTORY

      

Political/Social

2

11

8

8

 

2

Diplomatic/International

1

5

 

8

2

2

Economic

 

8

1

4

 

4

Intellectual

1

2

 

1

 

2

Memory

 

2

 

2

 

1

Culture/Identity

 

2

 

6

  

Religion

    

3

5

Gender

1

1

 

7

 

2

Intelligence

      

POLITIAL SCIENCE

      

Domestic/

      

Political Culture

   

3

3

10

Foreign Relations/

     

3

International

     

2

European Union

      

ROUNDTABLES/

  

3

2

 

3

FORUMS

      

REVIEW ESSAYS

     

15

BOOK REVIEWS

     

51

ANNUAL REVIEW

     

10

INTRODUCTIONS

     

9

TOTAL

     

218

Needless to say, the editors would like to think that these volumes measure up to a high standard of scholarship, and their peers have the last word on the quality of Contemporary Austrian Studies as a serious and engaging scholarly forum. Unfortunately, we have never had the time nor the means to do a serious study or survey of the reception of these volumes in the scholarly community, let alone in the broader public. Circumstantial evidence seems to suggest that the Anglo-American scholarly community peruse and cite the essays in these volumes more regularly than colleagues in Austria. As someone who tries to read much of the literature on twentiethcentury Austria appearing on both sides of the Atlantic, my sense is that few Austrian colleagues and students are familiar with this publication series. Whether that is due to an unwillingness to read English or a rugged determination to ignore foreign and foreign-language scholarship will never be known. While most major American research universities have subscriptions to the CAS series, that does not seem to be the case in Austria. CAS has been regularly reviewed in the German Studies Review but few other scholarly journals have bothered to review CAS volumes, probably reflecting the fact that while individual CAS volumes are monographic in the nature of their topical essays, it is still a serial publication with book reviews. Austrian newspapers now and then take short notice of CAS; Austrian scholarly journals seem to ignore it.

Within the UNO-University of Innsbruck partnership, many people have helped to keep CAS going over a period of twenty years and make it a success. At Innsbruck’s Department of Political Science, Anton Pelinka was my co-editor for the first fifteen volumes, and Fritz Plasser has shared those duties for the past five years. It is hard to imagine more reliable partners than Anton and Fritz. For most of that time Ellen Palli, Anton’s and Fritz’s hard-working office manager, was involved in the everyday business of the production of volumes, and she also type-set most of the volumes. Franz Mathis was delegated by the Senate of the University of Innsbruck to coordinate the UNO partnership. I cannot think of a more congenial counterpart than Franz — he was always a pleasure to work with. More recently, Klaus Frantz had taken on that job. Rektors Manfried Gantner and Karlheinz Töchterle have blessed this project as well. Erich Thöni, the University of Innsbruck’s “foreign minister” has been productively involved in the partnership with UNO from the beginning. Matthias Schennach from the Auslandsamt of the University of Innsbruck has been generous over the years in giving us financial support. Margaret Davidson, who has been serving as CenterAustria representative in Innsbruck for many years, has jumped into the fray when needed. Christina Sturn, who started out as a CenterAustria fellow at UNO and has been coordinating the UNO office at the University of Innsbruck for a couple of years, has been helpful, too. The fantastic thing about our deep university partnership is that all these people have become dear friends over the years and enriched our life here at UNO.

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