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Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.
DESCRIPTION, ANALYSIS AND EXPLANATION AT A STEAM SHIP WRECK.. 1
1.1 DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................................1 1.2ANALYSIS AND EXPLANATION...................................................................................... 3 Chapter 2: Xantho and Broadhurst in context
2.
THE CONTEXT OF THE FIND........................................................................................7
2..1 MARINE ENGINEERING......................................................................................................8 2.1.1 The iron hull...................................................................................................................8 2.1.2 Marine propulsion............. ..........................................................................11 2.1.3 Boilers, condensers, and other machinery..................................................15 2.I,4 The advent of compounding .........................................................................19 2.1.5 The "ideal"1870s steamer............................................................................... 24 2.2 THECOLONIAL SETTING...........................................................................................24 2.2.1 Steamers in Western Australia.......................................................................25 2.3 THE BROADHURST IN CONTEXT: AN INADEQUATE RECORD................................................29 2.3.1 Victorian squatters...........................................................................................32 2.3.2 Northwest pastoralists..........................................................................................32 2.3.3 Pearlers in the northwest..............................................................................36
xi
xii
CONTENTS
2.4 BROADHURST ANDXANTHO.............................................................................................40 2.4.I Xantho: A transport for pearl divers......................................................42 2.4.2 Xantho the tramp steamer: An indigenous record?..................................44 2.4.3 The last voyage.....................................................................................................46
Chapter3:Xanthothe transformations
3. A WEALTH OF INFORMATION......................................................................................49
3.1 THE SPECIFICATIONS:CONSTRUCTION AS A PADDLE STEAMER......................................49 3.3 THE FIRST TRANSFORMATION.............................................................................................53 3.2.I Xantho: A hybrid refugee from the scrap heap.........................................53 3.3 THE LOSS OFXANTHO: THE THIRD TRANSFORMATION..................................................55 3.3.1 Abandonment behavior and its effect on the material record.................57 3.4 BREAKUPAND SALVAGE: THE THIRD TRANSFORMATION.............................................58 3.5 ANOTHER CONTEMPORARY RECORDOFXANTHO?.......................................................60 3.6XANTHO:ANAVIGATIONAL HAZARD.................................................................................62 Chapter 4: The wreckexamined
4.
PROCESSES IN WRECK SITE
ANALYSIS.................................................................67
4.1 THE DISCOVERY AND INSPECTION OF THE SITE. .................................................................67 4.2 EARLY IRON AND STEAMSHIP ARCHAEOLOGY EXAMINED...........................................69 4.3 APREDISTURBANCE STUDY:NEW DIRECTION IN 1983..................................................70 4.3.I Natural transformation forces analyzed.......................................................72 4.3.2 Results of the predistaubance survey...........................................................75 4.4 ANOMALOUS FEATURES IDENTIFIED................................................................................77 4.5SITE SURVEY AND TEST EXCAVATION.....................................................................................79 4.6 TEST EXCAVATION METHOD..............................................................................................81 4.7 REUSTLSFOTEHSURVEYANDTESTEVACXOITA..N........................................................83 4.8 THEAPPLICATION OF ANODES..........................................................................................86
Chapter 5: Site formation processes
5.
POSTDEPOSITIONAL PROCESSES AT AN IRON WRECK........................................90
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5
THEEFFECT OF CORROSION AND CONCRETION.................................................................90 MUCKELROY’S INDEX APPLIED TO MODERN SITES........................................................92 JOHN RILEY'S OBSERVATIONS: THEWATERLINE THEOR.Y............................................97 OTHER COMMONALITIES OBSERVED...............................................................................................99 THE FORMATION OF THEXANTHOSITE........................................................................106
CONTENTS
Chapter 6: The investigation continues in the archives
6.
xiii
THE ARCHIVAL AND MATERIAL RECORDS AT ODDS.......................................111
6.1 THEMATERIAL RECORD INCORRECTLY READ.........................................................113 6.2 DlSTORTIONS IN THE WRITTEN RECORD....................................................................115 6.3 THENAVAL ORIGINS OF THEXANTHOENGINE..............................................................116 6.4BROADHURSTREVISITED.... ................................................................................................121 6.4.I Pearling at Shark Bay.................................................................................123 6.4.2 American influences.....................................................................................123 6.4.3 Broadhurst: A great success........................................................................I24 6.4.4 Broadhurst: The consistent failure ......................................................................125 6.4.5 Broadhurst's other enterprises ..................................................................125 Chapter 7: Excavations at the site
7.
EXCAVATIONPROCESSES..................................................................................................129
7.1HERESEARCH STRATEGY......................................................................................129 T 7.2 PRELIMINARYFIELDWORK.....................................................................................130 7.3 FURTHER SlTE ASSESSMENTS..................................................................................131 7.4 THEENGINE CUT FREE.............................................................................................133 7.5 BUDGETSAND REWARDS.....................................................................................134 7.6 THEIRON AND STEAMSHIP WRECK SEMINAR............................................................135 7.7 THEEXCAVATION................631.................................................................................................. 7.8 THEENGINE REMOVED.....................................................................................................138 7.9 THEEXCAVATION AND RECORDING OF THE STERN............................................139 7.10 THESTERN CUT FREE......................................................................................................143 7.11 SUBSEQUENT ON-SITE EXCAVATIONS......................................................................145 7.12 AN UNSUCCESSFUL ATTEMPT TO EXAMINE NINETEENTH-CENTURY SHIPBUILDING METHOD.........................................................................................................................147 7.13 ACLUE TO THE RAPIDITY OF CONCRETION FORMATION...............................148 7.14 RESULTS OF THE 1984-1994 EXCAVATION......................................................149
Chapter 8: Excavation in the laboratory
8. DECONCRETION: EXCAVATION AND EXPERIMENTATION..................................151
8.1 THE REMOVAL OF CHLORIDES EXPLAINED.............................................................153 8.2DECONCRETION OF THE OUTER SURFACES.............................................................153 8.3 ENGINEERING ANOMALIES IDENTIFIED......................................................................160
xiv
CONTENTS
8.4 FURTHER DECONCRETION............................................................... ..................162 8.5 UNEXPECTED CONSERVATION PROBLEMS.........................................................163 8.6 FURTHER EVIDENCE OF ABANDONMENT BEHAVIOUR......................................163 8.7 THE EXTERNALS TOTALLY DECONCRETED.....................................................164 8.8 THE ENGINE MODEL............................................................................................165 8.9 ER E L E A SE DM A R K IN G S: B R O A D H U R ST N G IN E .....................................167 8.10 THE DISASSEMBLY OF THE ENGINE............................................................170 8.10.1 The direct flame method applied to the Xantho.................................171 8.11 ACONCRETION FORMATION MODEL PROPOSED.............................................171 8.12 FURTHER EXPERIM ENTS IN DECONCRETION........................................172 8.13 ANALOGY IN ENGINE EXCAVOTION......................................................173 8.14 DISMANTLING THE MACHINERY...........................................................174 8.15 ENTERING THE CYLINDERS..........................................................................177 8.16 THE BRITISH STANDARD WHITWORTH(BSW) THREAD...........................178 8.17 FURTHER EVIDENCE OF POOR MAINTENANCE.................................................179 8.18 ASETBACK IN THE FINAL STAGES..............................................................181 Chapter 9: Conclusion
9. IRON WRECKS AS ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES...................................................185
9.1 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS.......................................................................................................186 9.2 ANALYSIS AND EXPLANATION........................................................................190 9.3 THEXANTHO/BROADHURST EXIHIBITION........................................................................199
Appendices
10.
11.
APPENDIX1:HORSEPOWER.............................................................................201
10.1 NOMINAL HORSEPOWER............................................................................................202 10.2 INDICATED HORSEPOWER.............................................................................................20.3
APPENDIX2::WAGES AND SALARIESIN1870.........................................................205
Bibliography.........................................................................................207
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