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Jacques Lefèvre d'Etaples and the Three Maries Debates

De
520 pages

Le grand éditeur et exégète humaniste, Jacques Lefèvre d’Etaples, publia de 1517 à 1519 quatre opuscules connus sous le titre des Trois Marie. Parus au moment même de l’émergence de la Réforme luthérienne, vite assimilés – à tort – à la lutte déjà entamée entre novateurs et conservateurs, mais déclenchant à leur tour une querelle célèbre où s’ébauchent les grandes lignes de la campagne antiluthérienne, ces écrits – les seuls qu’il ait publiés comme auteur – définissent la pensée de Lefèvre. En traitant, au nom de la piété et d’une lecture éclairée des textes sacrés, de la question de l’identité de la Madeleine et de la véracité d’une tradition qui fit des saintes femmes des Evangiles les demi-soeurs de la Vierge, Lefèvre s’attaquait à un culte cher à ses contemporains, que ceux-ci défendirent avec acharnement. En outre, sa discussion de la manière de calculer les ‘trois journées’ (le triduum) entre la Crucifixion et la Résurrection du Christ, peu connue, et qui ne provoqua guère de répliques, est peut-être la plus révélatrice de son exégèse, et de ses rapports avec Erasme. Sheila Porrer donne la première édition moderne des quatre opuscules, en établissant le texte latin assorti d’une traduction anglaise. Son introduction et ses notes critiques retracent les origines et le cours d’une querelle essentielle de l’histoire religieuse et culturelle.


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3Travaux d’Humanisme et Renaissance
N° CDLI
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www.droz.org
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www.droz.org
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Comment citer ce livre ? Cette publication numérique résulte d'une conversion de l'édition papier. Afin que les lecteurs des différentes formes de l'ouvrage aient des références communes, le numéro de page de la version papier est reporté dans le flux ou dans la marge du texte, sous la formeAAA. Ce livre est cité de la même manière que sa version papier : Auteur (Prénom NOM) ou (NOM, Prénom), Titre de l'ouvrage, Lieu d'édition, Éditeur commercial, année de publication (Titre de la Collection, no dans la collection), p. AAA. Références numériques :
EAN : 9782600312486
Copyright 2013 by Librairie Droz S.A., 11, rue Massot, Genève. Published with the support of the Warburg Institute of London and the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. Références de l’édition papier :
ISBN : 978-2-600-01248-5 ISSN : 0082-6081 Copyright 2009 by Librairie Droz S.A., 11, rue Massot, Genève. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or translated in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm, microfiche or any other means without written permission.
7ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My sincere thanks go to the patrons without whose financial support this edition could not have been published.
It is an especial pleasure to acknowledge a generou s grant from the Warburg Institute's Erasmus fund, which links me with the site of my earlier studies in London. I am no less delighted to express my gratitude for a similarly liberal award from theCarnegie Trust,underlines my current connection with which Scotland.
* * *
The assistance and support I have had from friends and colleagues in the preparation of this edition has been invaluable.
I first worked on the Three Maries controversy at the Warburg Institute in London many years ago under the late Dr. D. P. Walker, with help from the late Margaret Mann Philipps and from Professor Mich ael Screech, to ail of whom I remain much indebted. Several colleagues in Edinburgh have offered their welcome support more recently, especially Dr. Peter Sharratt, Profe ssor James Laidlaw and Professor Philip Bennett. Dr. Margaret Williams has generously shared her expertise in Greek. Encouragement and practical help have come from Dr. Anne Cobby in Cambridge and Professor Ann Moss in D urham, and I have benefitted from the resources and expertise of seve ral libraries, especially the library of the Warburg Institute, the British Library, the National Library of Scotland and Edinburgh University Library. Thanks a re also due to the University of Auckland in New Zealand for the generous hospitality received during my Honorary Research Fellowship there in 2004-5, when I undertook much of the preparation for this edition. I have benefitted too from the guidance of M. Max E ngammare at Droz, who has prevented several slips and made many constructive suggestions. The imperfections which remain are mine alone. Finally I owe a great debt to my family, my childre n and especially my husband Robert, who has been an unfailing source of patient support and encouragement while so much of my time was devoted to Lefèvre.8
9TABLE OF CONTENTS
Note on the texts11
Note on titles, short titles and abbreviations13
Abbreviations for major collections and works of reference, etc.15
Introduction I. Lefèvre d’Etaples Career, debates and polemics 1512-1517 17
II. The De Maria Magdalena The Magdalen tradition, François du Moulin de Rochefort, earlier discussion, Lefèvre ’s first pamphlet33
III The De Triduo Lefèvre’s pamphlet, Paul of Middelburg, the exchange with Erasmus51
IV. The De Vna ex Tribus The Secunda Emissio, the St. Anne tradition, the trinubium, John of Freiburg’s Defens orium, Egranus’ Apologia, Lefèvre’s pamphlet62
V. The Disceptatio Secunda Marc de Grandval, Clicht ove’s Defensio, Lefèvre’s pamphlet85
VI. The wider debate On the Magdalen : John Fisher’ s three works, Beda’s Scholastica Declaratio On St. Anne : Cornelius Agrippa, Konrad Wimpina, Rochefort, Beda’s Apologia104
VII. The Aftermath Later Theology, final comments127
contributions,
the
Faculty
of
T h e De Maria Magdalena.. Disceptatio, Latin text an d translation 155
The De Triduo Christi..., Latin text and translation255
10The De Una ex Tribus Maria, Latin text and translation315 The Disceptatio Secunda, Latin text and translation395
Bibliography
A. Works by Lefèvre on the Three Maries491
B. Works by other authors in the Three Maries debate491
C. Other works by Lefèvre cited in this edition494
D. Primary sources – works originating before 1601, including modern editions of these works495
E. Secondary sources501
F. Collections and works of reference512
Index of proper names516
Index of Lefèvre’s publications mentioned in this edition519
11NOTE ON THE TEXTS
The texts transcribed here are, firstly, those of t he second Estienne edition (1518), which contained the second edition of the De Maria Magdalena (DMM II) and of the De Triduo (DT II), an d the first (and only) edition of the De Vna ex Tribus (DUET). Reference i s made to the first (1517) edition of the first two texts to indicate v ariants. Secondly, the only edition (Estienne, 1519), of the Disceptatio Secunda (see below, p. 13, Note on titles..., for more details).
The original marginal references are given in italic in the notes to the Latin texts, and in the case of Bible references these ar e followed by the verse numbers, which are not in the original text, in Roman type. The notes to the Latin text also include the variants between different editions. The notes to the English translations give ail other references and explanations. The Greek quotations have been transcribed according to modern conventions. Any editorial insertions are enclosed within square brackets.
In both Latin and English texts the paragraphing an d punctuation have been brought more closely into line with modern pra ctice. I have followed sixteenth century practice in using v for initial u/v and u for medial u/v in the Latin text. For consistency I have extended this practice to ail the Latin cited. I have sought to make these texts accessible to rea ders without Latin, and any Latin quoted in the Introduction has been trans lated in the notes. However for reasons of space it has not been possib le to include the translation of ail Latin quotations contained in the notes themselves.
Bible quotations in the English texts have been given from the Authorised Version (King James Bible), with a note of explanat ion where necessary when details of the Greek or Latin text are discuss ed. Although clearly this version is far from contemporary with Lefèvre, it s eems to have something of the same resonance for a modern reader as the Vulgate would have had for an educated reader of Lefèvre’s time, in that i t is familiar, clear and authoritative. The nature of these texts, unique in Lefèvre’s output, is such that they are relevant not just to theologians or historians of the Reformation, but also to anyone interested in the wider cultural history of the period, and my principal aim in this edition has been to make them more wide ly known and better understood.12
13NOTE ON TITLES, SHORT TITLES AND ABBREVIATIONS
(For full titles, etc., see below, Bibliography, Section A, p. 491)
Lefèvre’s first publication on the Three Maries aff air, which appeared in late 1517, contained only the De Maria Magdalena and the De Triduo Christi and was entitled De Maria Magdalena & triduo CHRIST I disceptatio.... The second publication, which appeared in summer 1518, as well as revised versions of these two tracts, also contained Clichtove’s prefatory epistle and a new third section on the daughters of St. Anne. I t was entitled De Maria Magdalena, Triduo Christi,
Et ex tribus vna Maria, disceptatio Secunda Emissio. The first three texts in the current edition are those of this Secunda Emissio.
When referring here to the whole of the first edition, I shall use the short title De Maria Magdalena. When referring to the whole of the second edition, I shall use the short title Secunda Emissio. Howeve r for references to individual tracts and comparisons between the editions, etc., the following abbreviations will be used. DMM I (De Maria Magdalena, first edition) = the tract on the Magdalen in the first (1517) edition. DMM II (De Maria Magdalena, second edition) = the t ract on the Magdalen in the second (1518) edition, including Cl ichtove’s prefatory epistle. DT I (De Triduo, first edition) = the tract on the triduum in the first (1517) edition. DT II (De Triduo, second edition) = the tract on the triduum in the second (1518) edition. DUET = De Vna ex Tribus, the tract on the daughters of St. Anne, which first appeared in the second (1518) edition. (The title page of the Secunda Emissio has "... ex tribus vna Maria.." but the hea ding to the text itself (fo. 62v) has "De Vna ex Tribus Maria"). H = the 1518 Hagenau edition, which reprinted the first (1517) edition. T = Estienne’s Tertia Emissio (1519) which reprinte d the Secunda Emissio.
Lefèvre’s final publication in the debate, entitled De Tribus et Vnica Magdalena Disceptatio Secunda, which appeared in ea rly summer, 1519, was a new text14discussing only the Magdalen question. This is referred to by the short title Disceptatio Secunda. For the short titles used to refer to works in the debate by other authors, please see below, Bibliography, Section B, p. 491.
15ABBREVIATIONS FOR MAJOR COLLECTIONS AND WORKS OF REFERENCE
Allen : Erasmus, Desiderius, Opus Epistolarum, ed. P. S. Allen, etc., 12 vols., Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906-1958.
ASD : Erasmus, Desiderius, Opera Omnia Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami, Amsterdam, etc., Elsevier, 1969 – (in progress). CCCM : Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis , Turnhout, Brepols, 1967 etc. CCSA : Corpus Christianorum Series Apocryphorum, Tu rnhout, Brepols, 1983 etc.
CCSG : Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca, Turnhout , Brepols, 1977 etc. CCSL : Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, Turnhout , Brepols, 1954, etc. CSEL : Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum , Vienna, Akademie Verlag, 1866-1967.
CWE : Collected Works of Erasmus, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1967 – (in progress) [Erasmus in English translation]. GCS : Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte , Leipzig and Berlin : Berliner Akademie, etc., 1897 etc. LB : Erasmus, Desiderius, Opera Omnia, Hildesheim, 1961-2 (photo-offset of edition of Leiden, 1703-6), 10 vols. PG : Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeco-Latina, Paris, 1857-1887. PL : Migne, Patrologia Latina, Paris, see individual references for volume dates. Reeve : Erasmus’ Annotations on the New Testament, ed. Anne Reeve, 3 vols., vol. 1, London : Duckworth, vols. 2 and 3, Leiden, etc. : Brill, 1986-93.
(Facsimile of the final Latin text (1535) with ail earlier variants – 1516, 1519, 1522, 1527). WA : D. Martin Luthers Werke. Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Weimar, 1883, etc. Including the Briefwechsel, Weimar, 1930, etc.16
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