THE VEDIC RELIGION IN THE TRIAL
A SIGHT ON CURRENT HINDUISM
From the same author
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ANNALS of university of Lomé, volume XXV, 2005, letters and human sciences series, ISSN
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Sciences Humaines de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure d’Abidjan.
The educational full-time and the arrangement of the work’s time in the professional training.
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d’Arts et d’Archeologie Godo Godo N° 15, 2005.
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the divine tolerance. Review of the human sciences research institute, Libreville, RIRSCH,
Volume n° 13 JANUARY 2003-JUNE 2003.
Essay on the mechanism of the agents and the authority in the socialization theory. Kasa Bya
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Guébi Noel ADJO
THE VEDIC RELIGION IN THE TRIAL
A SIGHT ON CURRENT HINDUISM
In memory of my Father Tobia Adjo Benoit
In memory of my mother Grogba Gbouzoue Henriette
To my brothers Bedou Jean and late Adjo Drigba Hyacinthe
To my wife Kamara Dahiri Amélie and my children who have
directly or indirectly helped me ponder Hinduism by understanding the
relevance of this work.
EXPRESSION OF THANKS
Many heavenly and man-like souls have taken part in the production of
That’s why I wish to express my gratitude to the Highest Guru Sri Hans
Raj Maharajji Satyapal in Rishikesh, to the Embassy of India in Côte
d’Ivoire and in particular to Mr. Vishwajit, to Mr. Dallo Désiré, Director of
San Pedro Port Authority
I also wish to appreciate the efforts, initiatives, stimulations and
criticisms which have strengthened the motivation and developed the
discursive spirit during the production of this work
With sincerity I wish to extend my warm thanks to Professor Komenan
Aka Landry, President of the University of Bouaké and to Professor Francis
Akindès, Head of the Faculties of Sociology and Anthropology of the said
university, who have never interrupted their respective administrative duties
by facilitating my research missions in India, to Professor Foadé Denis for
being attentive to me, providing support and sharing his spiritual experience.
Last but not least, I wish to extend my thanks to my wife Kamara Dahiri
Amélie, to our children and especially to Adjo Adjo our son whose full
involvement in this work was an extraordinary thing and chiefly at the level
of keyboarding the text.
This work aims at the analysis of Hinduism’s internal movement. It has
got three important parts through which the observation and analysis of facts
are carried out. The first part which deals with the display of essential
ingredients of Hinduism retrieves and defines the place of each element
while also restoring the importance of the centennial religious heritage of
The second part, relating to the formulation of religious orthodoxy,
foundation of the civilization of India, emphasizes the agents and
occurrences committed to the construction of social conformity. It illustrates
the germs which hinder the expansion of Hinduism in the world. The instinct
of self-preservation, emergence of Gurus, poverty, appear as internal
resisting agents, disincentive as far as the development of the Hindu
religious system is concerned even if the internal corrosion of revealed
religions, favours Hinduism’s universalization. The third part explores and
indicates the necessity, the importance for Hinduism to be universalized in
as much as it is described as a religion of righteousness at its best.
Religions are where all souls meet, live, communicate and are in
communion. It is where souls from heaven and hell meet, those of creatures
which do not believe in God but identify themselves with peoples’ creatures
and live with them
God is an idea and the representation made of it by human being arises
from his weakness, incapacity faced with some situations and contingencies.
The life and death cycle imposes itself as a chain where the misunderstood
lies. Irrespective of the outstanding progress in technology, modern science,
modern medicine, or God, may it be in so-called modern religions or native
religions remains at the beginning and the end of life, while also being the
infinitude within the finitude
Some religions such as Vedic religion, especially Hinduism, grant the
first place to a creator of visible and invisible universe. Indians’ consensus
on this founding and vital principle is reflected in their daily acts of
spirituality. The permanent search for good and the elevation of souls to get
closer to God make Indians become people who are committed to practise
piety, not to say forgiveness, humility, non-violence and peace. This results
in the overall practices of mortification and chastening of passions aiming at
the liberation of the soul. Life style, thinking, enables to discard any
compromise, excess and any contrivance.
The Indians’ poverty which the West talks about remains a spiritual
wealth in which they live in harmony with others and with God. In this,
religion is linked to economy, culture, politics, and health and to social life
as a whole.
It is a very old civilization which has overcome periods of socio-political
and socio- religious crises, has built unity of India by strengthening the
cultural foundation, basement for the social and economic development of
India. The question which is raised when we take a look at the population
dynamics is as follows: why is the birth rate (22, 01/1,000) higher than the
mortality rate (8.18/1,000)? Admittedly, there are so-called meaningful
explanations above which lies an extensive and achieved successful
asceticism and religiosity which results in enduring peace with belief in God.
So, pondering the religious institution of India must be a way to tell the
world that an organized theocracy, well structured, capable of alleviating
sufferings, insecurity, civil and political wars, favours an idea according to
which revealed religions have failed to fully accomplish the objectives born
of the directions prescribed by God. In other words, over the past twenty
1centuries, Jesus idea “Love thy neighbour like you love thyself” has
experienced no real breastfeeding within capitalism where selfishness and
exploitation of man are life sustaining principles. Does not Hinduism appear
as the religion fit enough to sooth, alleviates sufferings and sublimate social
difficulties. History is dizzily accelerating and announces the globalization
era which also predicts mutations and deep changes in the cultures of
civilizations. Between the walls, Hinduism must develop now a particular
attitude. It is compelled to work for men and women who enter a world
where intelligence is the most precious raw material, sparse entities are
getting centralized, conflicts, death of cultures and extinction of
characteristics are on the agenda. This book, despite its shortcomings,
appeals to Hinduism, to its adjustment to the changing conditions of
environment and to its actual contribution so that spiritual humanism as it is,
becomes part of the world public figures.
Pr. KOMENAN AKA Landry
Past President of University of Bouaké,
Holder of a Chair in philosophy at the Academy of Sciences, Arts and
1 La sainte bible Mathieu 22 verset 39, alliance biblique universelle, 1983, P 38
Voir aussi la sainte bible marc 12, verset 31, P 73.
What is religion about and where does it stem from? To better understand
the definition and the origin of religion, it would be suitable to address
James’interactionist paradigm field. (E.O) “Irrespective of the depth of
change humanity may pretend to achieve; it remains closely dependent on
the essential needs represented by the transmission and preservation of life.
Meeting basic requirements governs man’s relationship and that of nature.
Considering what the relationship between both entities includes, and the
volume of hardships of practical order in the middle of which he struggles
every day, man feels isolated, disarmed and understandably inclined to
contemplate a universe which he directs; he argues for the origin of non
understandable elements which are the spirits of the dead and disease, the
animals and men enemies as well. He also, closely associates the religious
oath to human beings’ actions which would be seen as the acknowledgement
of an order of sacred things, beyond temporal standards and operating in the
universe by going behind phenomenon and human beings’ actions.
Concerns and needs for religious expression have generated certain
solidarity, common intention which grant them more strength than those of
the hardships; it seems that there has always been the theory on the
transcendental order of things, an order outside human being and society,
associated with facts above the understanding, the undefined, the
inexplicable and the mysterious which are, however, part of the universe of
social consciousness. This is the definition which applies to the essence of
religion. It is pertinent to the existence of a power superior to humanity.
Establishing appropriate rites, securing efficient means to touch the
source of life and power, means that ensure welfare and affluence to the life
of humanity, enable human beings to overcome the fear for death by
discarding evils the mortal flesh shared; these means may even help social
groups through symbols, rites, dances and nurture the energy of human
nature, which will henceforth become self-confident, assured to face all the
hardships by integrating a force, provider of power, a force to sooth pains
2and concerns and to renew aspirations and expectation”
thThe 20 century religious institutions B.C, endlessly created
controversies. Tremendous works on Hinduism have been carried out. Vedic
institutions appear and disappear as they meet with the Aryans and melt into
the protohistory of the Persian ancient society.
This is the period of history during which an exceptional religious destiny
clothed with Brahmaism, Vishnuism and Shivaism prevails and make the
holy hinduistic trinity.
2 James. E.O, la religion préhistorique-paléolithique-mésolithique-néolithique, Paris, Payot,
1959, P 7
Nowadays, the incorrectly or not, ignored hinduistic religion is
considered a religion of nature, polytheistic due to its local and geographic
trait, that is to say, mainly established in the only Indian and Asian sphere in
the face of later Christianity and Islam whose spreading rate has reached or
extended beyond the primary framework of birth, engulfing continents. Here
lies the meaning of the terminology “Trial» hinted at by criticisms,
comments and judgements against or for Hinduism. These criticisms mostly
emanate from revealed religions, followers of these religions who think that
nobody will go to creator God unless he or she believes in Jesus,
Mohammad or Moses. Hinduism suffers aspersions, persecutions, and
razzings through ill-timed and sharp criticisms denying the essence of
Dharma, stifling the humanistic virtues of this religion.
This attitude can be explained by the wild complex of superiority of those
who believed that they had the first and best civilizations, courtesies, with
their instinct of domination and enslavement of other peoples seen as raw
and non civilized people. Nevertheless, nobody wondered as far as the
history of Hinduism is concerned and the saving virtues of Vedas as well.
Research in this area would enable, laymen, religion followers who refuse to
face the facts because of the theologies of exploitation, colonialist
establishment, the theologies of seduction and fast money making, to
understand and discover the religious reality through the spiritual and divine
dimensions of Hinduism. That’s why the trial should take place in the city of
This work aims to take part in the dynamics which puts forward the
social, political and cultural achievements of the “Om” of Hinduism.
If capitalism prevailed over these past centuries by dominating the
economy, promoting the universalization of behaviors, dominating the
international economic sphere with multinationals, the supremacy of
industrialized countries and with concentration of riches in the hands of
minorities, Christianity should have prospered accordingly while Islam got
involved in the expansionist wars.
The decline of the monopolistic capitalism is the result of each nation’s
awareness to maintain its sovereignty, social and economic maturity,
symbols of its capacity to manage its own affairs; the fall of Berlin Wall and
the phenomenon called democratization caused the rollback of
socioeconomic, sociopolitical dependence and the nations ‘will for self-
determination. This modifies the way the structures linked to the
monopolistic capitalism operate. For instance, Church, representative of the
ideological structure of capitalism has experienced a fragmentation in its
organization and its operations as well. The European clergy established in
Africa or Asia has been decreasing dramatically even replaced, due to
constraints and conditions of local environment, by a local one. For
economic and political reasons, there is a blossoming of churches for Christ.
The fragmentation of Christian faith results in the search for ways to meet
the budgetary needs. There is no more only one Christ God but a
multiplicity, that is to say, prophets, priests and pastors have stood in; Christ
God is much more idealized. In the course of its socioeconomic
development, Christianity has reached a level which is likely to solve
socioeconomic problems and control disruption from among its members
caused by the plethora of pastors and priests graduates from theological or
Over and above natural calamities and liberation wars, Asian countries
live in a comparative harmony, in cohesion. Nevertheless, these are countries
exposed to the evil effects of capitalism.
So, should we have to base the stability or equilibrium of these social
systems upon the Ethos of democracy, history, culture or religion, basis of
their development? India and China with respective estimated populations of
one billion ninety five million (1 095 000 000) inhabitants and one billion
two hundred million (1 200 000 000) inhabitants are still economic powers
with a special weight in the community of the world.
Is not religion (Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism) the controlling element of
the social system, the driver of development and sociopolitical stability?
Hinduism imposes itself as a supreme civilization, a spiritual civilization
embodied in the majority of Indians. It is the starting point of any reform,
any development, of acceptance and compliance with the Vedic law, to be
more precise, a socialization process, that is to say, where conformism and
ancestral conservatism are legitimized.
Hinduism creates, endows individuals (Indians) with capacities drawn
from the Vedic heritage and necessary elements which help find appropriate
answers to daily questions in line with human life.
The dual spiritual and material dimension of Hinduism favors unity
between the individual and national community. The coexistence of the
spiritual and temporal dimension is interesting to the extent that it is the
basis of ideals towards moral and spiritual values upon which the practical
answers to need issues are based.
Hinduism should develop all over the world in order to eradicate evils,
wars, sociopolitical crises created by capitalism and its religious ideological
structures which have failed to establish peace, security and human
The religious institution, i.e. Hinduism through which we expect to apply
the theory on internationalization or universalism helps to establish axes for
analysis. The Indian religious institution is different from other institutions
such as Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Taoism, in the way that it:
Shows a multi-traditional framework where honor and compliance with
Vedic traditions are more maintained and experienced; implements,
supported by socializing agents and actors, common schemes, sustainable
provisions integrated to the structure of various persona lities, an osmosis
If the first step consists in indicating few variables of the religious
system, it is important to get also elements, materials which permit to base
upon facts empirically observed, the clues around three main axes.
1. The background data favors understanding the structure and working
of Hinduism. They show an accurate profile consistent with the experienced
and the observed.
2. The data from the empirical survey which uses an adequate sample
as observation and research area, that to say, different visited temples, useful
and necessary, must permit to inform about the reality of facts related to
Hinduism, to that of individuals included in the daily production report of
the religious, the social and the environment. The data are the results of a
survey we carried out on the field in 2007 and 2008. The following localities
are our favorite survey sites: Jammu, New Delhi, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Agra,
Mathura, Vridavan, Varanasi, Vijaywada, Tirupati, Hampi, Mumbaî and
Khajaraho. The religious specificity of these localities governed our choice
as far as the survey is concerned. These places are sacred and very spiritual,
built as well as with Vedic temples, i.e. for Hinduism (Sikhs, Jains, Buddhist
temples …) mosques and Christian ’parishes. A panel has been established
and it represents a sample, specific to each town, taking into account criteria
based on age, gender, education, occupation and caste of origin. In Jammu
and Kashmir state, forty five (45) persons were identified; eighty five (85) in
Haryana, seventy five (75) in Uttar Pradesh, in Andra Pradesh, forty five
(45) persons, in Karnataka, fifty five (55), in Maharashtra sixty (60) persons,
in Madhyat Pradesh state thirty five (35) persons. The total sample from the
sum of specific panels include four hundred (400) identified persons aged
between 20 and 60 years old accepted to answer our questions.
The representativeness of our comprehensive panel took into
consideration the different representative panels, each at its level. Subjects
with various professional duties or activities make the classification classic,
made up with higher categories, average, socioprofessional categories rank
Putting the four hundred (400) interviewed subjects together enabled to
set up groups or clusters according to duties and activities of these subjects.
The importance of this distribution lies in relation to the need for assessment
of adjustment, identification and perception phenomena.
In the process of inculcating religious culture, the issue is to place
emphasis on adjustment, motivation and identification phenomena, that is to
say, the feeling that clergy, faithful and unfaithful have about religion.
3. Should we go in for a second hand analysis? No way, because for
the relevance of this work, it is useful to gradually restore the behaviors
logic registered in the ratio of actors- environment-organizational system.
This approach deals with the totality represented by the Hinduist religious
institution forming one piece with the sub-systems. The following base
pattern imposes itself according to the intermingling of hinduist system with
the political system, the conduct system, the pattern of conduct of the actors
and social bystanders.
To what extent does the production of individuals involved in the
structure made up with dispositions, representations, symbols and
identification develop? In other words, what are the mechanisms and content
of this institution considered as a “structuring structure”? If Hinduism
develops as a full and cumulative structure, are Indians able to make it an
“arbitrary” of the imposed cultural arbitrary or to deny it by staying outside
this cultural arbitrary. The legitimization system of social positions and roles
sets up as a therapy agent to heal social evils, to favor social harmony,
cohesion building, and national unity development.
a) The hinduist religious institution must be universalized for it ensures
that, to help the whole world which permanently suffers wars, insecurity,
poverty, diseases, etc. the underdevelopment of some nations trapped in so-
called monopolistic imperialism or capitalism, Hinduism can help suppress
syndromes which are weakening our existence. Hinduism appears to be a
true asset for human development or to be more precise, for social and
b) These worked out clues must provide a better understanding and
orientation of the analysis in line with Hinduism and its universalization-
globalization. But why?
Giving careful consideration to Vedic religion in the trial of
universalization does not mean to innovate but in a way or other, take part in
searching for solutions to problems of social unbalance, socio-political
instability, and development of nations trapped in the cog of capitalism. The
interest of this work is to point out what type of religion Hinduism is in the
political system where sociopolitical crises, the exponential increase in
population, asceticism have contributed to the economic development of the
Indian nation. Another interest is to show how the Indian political system in
tight connection with Hinduism have achieved the integration of a
diversified population, made up with castes living together and working on
interaction basis which is nimbated by a comparatively unique religious
devotion. The impact of the Hinduist religious institution looks very
sensitive and would be considered as a process to retain not only religious
people but also civil population that lives according to principles of divine
integration, traditional spiritualized standards. This, under no circumstances,
3isn’t Indians’ acceptance of fatalism for, 900 000 000 Indians are followers
of Hinduism, 195 000 000individuals are followers of other religions or
none. This statement makes us hint at some basic aspects related to Vedic
religion, to its history, philosophy and system. Moreover the noun “trial”
alludes to negative criticism, judgments calling out to Hinduism,
legitimizing and perpetuating the supremacy of the revealed religions.
A part will deal with the study in line with the organization and working
of Hinduist Temples, constraints mechanisms, conformism basis and another
part will emphasize Guruism which participates and plays a role, contributes
to the’ development of an overpopulated society. A final part will recall the
reasons for which universalization of the hinduist system, given the virtues
which make the institution a humanist and humanizing religion, that is to say
a religion overwhelmed by the ahimsa system.
3Radhakishnan, P. Religion under Globalisation , March 27th , 2004 pages 1-8.
PRESENTATION OF THE INDIAN
PRESENTATION OF THE INDIAN
Section 1: THE COMPONENTS OF THE SOCIOPOLITICAL
The sociopolitical factors are the components of the area study. They are
geographic, cultural, social, political, economic and religious variables. Each
variable is in interaction with the others, it plays a prominent role, fulfills an
assignment in view of maintaining the balance of the sociopolitical system.
Thus, the perception of Indian reality originating in the fear for the
hinduist religious institution appears to be important in terms of
understanding the religious dynamics.
§-1- GEOGRAPHIC VARIABLES
The Indian territory, bordered by Indus and Tadjikistan in the north, Sri
Lanka in the south, Pakistan in the West, Bangladesh and Myanmar in the
East, China, Nepal and Bouthan the north-east, the Bangladeshi gulf and
Indonesia in the south-east, Maldives Islands and the Arabia sea in the south-
west and Afghanistan in the north-west, is about 3 268 000 km sq, that is 2.4
% of the world territory.
India is the world largest country after Canada: 9 975 000 km sq, China:
9 600 000 km sq and the USA: 9 364 000 km sq.
Thus, according to March 2001 census, the population which was about
1 027 015 247 inhabitants, and increased after the July 2006 census to
1 095 351 995, helps to see the difference and increase in this population.
Geographic data physical limit of India
North South West East North- South- South- Nort
east east west h-est
Indus Sri Pakist Bangla- Hina Banglad Maldives Afgha
Tajikis- Lanka an desh Nepal gulf Islands nistan
tan - Myan- Bhutan Arabia
Area population and languages
Area Population GNP 22 official
3 287 590 1 095 351 995 692 m (2004) - TAMUL
km inhabit $ 600 per - ENGLISH
NB: The two charts are the pictures of 2008 current India
The Indian population is a double facet one for the same reasons as all the
populations of countries in the world. There is rural population estimated at
742 617 747 inhabitants and urban population amounting to 300 000 000
4inhabitants at least.
Therefore, there is an index or a significant and expressive variable
relating to the development of the population of India.
The discrepancy between the birth rate: 22.01% and mortality rate: 8.18%
informs more about India and has an impact on the working of the political
system as well as the efficiency and accomplishment of roles and duties
assigned to each sub-system. India is the second most populated country
Having due regard to this population, how doers India manage to meet
their needs? How does India proceed? Does India control this population in
harmony and union framework? The population variable is of interest. What
about the sociocultural variables?
4The first report on religion: census of India 2001. The word factbook, CIA, ONU, FAO In
documents de l’Ambassade de Côte d’Ivoire à New Delhi (Rép. Inde).
§-2- SOCIO-CULTURAL VARIABLES
They are data in line with language, caste and common history.
India hosts an important linguistic diversity. At the present time, thanks
to Indianization, only two languages come to the fore. Hindi and English. In
the north, Urdu, Hindi, Kashmiri, and others are used; in the south, Tamsi,
Telugu, Kanada, Nalyali, Panduly, Bâti, in the west, Rajasthani, Gujarati,
Marathi, Narvari, etc. and in the East, Assami, Bengali, Bikari, Manypuri,
Namipuri, Nepali, Neithali, Purabi, Takhemwi, Bhapali, Avadhi, Uddia ….
This linguistic diversity originates in the variety of population
concentration, which, in the course of history, results in a centre of
diversified and various civilisations whose peoples arrived from everywhere,
composed of Dravidians, Indo-Arabs, Maryoles, Kushans, Turks etc. this
population and these particular multiplicities of civilisations are illustrative
of the ethnic and linguistic diversity. Does not the Indian society
segmentation arise from or originate in this differentiated variety of
civilisation, cultures, which underpin the creation of India? Does not India
segmentation hide caste system the internal cohesion and harmony of which
illustrate the balance and stability of India in its diversity?
A caste is a hereditary and endogamic social group composed of
individuals who share the same social status and usually carry out common
professional activity. In India, there is a multiplicity of castes with more
apparent four ones made up with social sub-groups or sub-castes. The 1881
census enumerated 1929 castes: Brahimins, Kunbis and Chamars were
10 000 000 people in each caste, with 1432 groups (74 %) geographically
located. Each caste or tribe is a specific, unique and particular entity. But
some castes such as Brahimins are present all over India and represent one of
the minority groups. In 1931, Brahimins represented 4.32 % of the
population whereas the number of Muslims which grew in quantity
increased from 20 % to 25 % of the population.
3. Common history
The history of India evolves mainly around the Aryans who probably
came from the Caspian area and are composed of an aggregate of tribes. The
development of this civilisation entity has caused the birth of a common
language, a civilisation, a single way of thinking and a common religion, no
matters the internal differentiation upon which the Sikh, Jain and Buddhist
religions are based… this Indian common history supports and explains not
only the indianization process but also the hinduinization one.
Superficie population et langues
5§ -3- SOCIO-ECONOMIC VARIABLES
The socio-economic variables look like components which can take
different shapes within the socioeconomic system as a whole. These are also
aspects or agents who create, express the abilities to produce or create
wealth, to manage them in order to stabilise the whole social system through
meeting of population’s major needs.
1. Population distribution
If the concept of population can be defined as an aggregate of inhabitants
of a country, it is, according to economists, distributed in two major groups
including the unoccupied population, that is to say the one with no
possibility, no physical, and no intellectual and social means, a population
that cannot integrate the production circuit and the economically active
population which holds means, production mode and industrial input. This on includes socio professional categories and its analysis takes into
account socio professional entities which qualify, in their arrangement, as
well as their structure, employees, workers from agricultural, trade and
The economically active population of 699 000 000 is distributed as
follows: the Indian domestic population amounts to 14 000 000, that of
employees to 480 000 000. The agricultural sector employs directly or
indirectly 65 % of 100 per cent sample and amounts to about ¼ of the GDP
with, however, a decreasing trend of more than 28 % in 1995-1996, the share
5 Information extract from “Nouvelle de l’Inde ≠ 389 Page 33 of the Indian embassy issued in
March-April, May-June, show emergence of India and its magnitude in the community of the
world. The primary industry rebounds in February: mineral coal, energy and cement
strengthened growth to 8.7 % in February 2008; last year, at the same period, it was 7.6 %.
Exports might amount to nearly $ 5 bn in 5 years. Chiefly based on textile, jewellery, leather,
and engineering, Indian exports mazy reach $ 500 billion in 20013, according to the
Confederation of Indian Industry; the income out of server markets is $ 270 billion. The
server market income increased by 24 % to reach $ 727 m, freight increased by 19 % in2007,
according to IDC (International Data Corporation) currency reserves estimated at $ 309.7
billion are the third in the world; among the emerging economic markets, India brought into a
record amount of $ 309 billion of exchange reserves end of March 2008 against $ 110.5
billion end of March 2007. India the third biggest exchange reserve in the emerging economic
markets. The proposal by non-bank financial society, Goldman Sachs, chosen among 13 FDI
proposals. Government approved 13 FDI proposals amounting to $ 167.46 m among which
that of Goldman Sachs (Mauritius) to invest $ 49.86 m in the activities of non-bank financial
societies (EFNB); the new mineral policy targets FDI of $ 2.5 billion. The new national
mineral policy aiming at providing mineral leasing with permanent right plans to carry out a
FDI amounting to $ 2.5 bn each year. The Chinese billionaires’ Club might be, according to
Forbes, the biggest in the world. Within ten years, the biggest number of billionaires will
come from India, according to a survey published in the American magazine “Forbes”. The
private bank sector should experience a growth of 15 %. Nearly 2/3 of Asian private banks
are expecting an increase in revenues of more than 15 % per annum from India, according to a
study carried out by Barclays Capital.
of agriculture increasing by 6.5 % per annum; in 1992-1996 period, this
increase fell by 3 % per annum, by 2 % in 1996-2001 and only by 1.1 % in
62005 . This decrease in population justifies the sluggishness in productivity
earnings. However, the 2005-2006 period records a rate of 2.5 %.
2. The agricultural sector
As the fact indicates, the farm operation structures sluggishly get
modernized because of the cultivated average area of 1.2 hectares per farm,
which includes irrigated area and represents 55 000 000 hectares over usable
farm area of 181 000 000 hectares. The decrease in public investments in
line with irrigation and non agricultural requirements arising from the
population worsens and results in water shortage, deeply affects the
development of the agricultural sector.
3. The other economic sectors
In order to boost the development of the other economic sectors, India
chiefly emphasises liberalization of activities of the other sectors and
encourages investments in national private and foreign sectors.
United Nations report that 1.80 % of the population live under poverty
line, which equals $ 2 per day in terms of buying power. The UNDP 2004
report considers that about 80 % of the population of India are under this
7line . Moreover, given that calories are the poverty line indicator, India
affirms that the line can change depending on whether the targets are rural or
urban populations since the indicator is about 2400 calories per day in urban
However, for religious reasons, India adopted a type of feeding which
takes into account Vedic principles more or less different from those of the
rest of the world. Defining Indian poverty on dollar basis ($ 2 a day) does
not correspond to the reality. In other words, this blocks it and channels it
towards so-called internationally established bases. India does not belong to
this comprehensivist vision due to its irrepressible specificity of spiritual
power and coherence. Compared with the economic rationality, if India is
materially poor, the Indian population is spiritually wealthy, which helps to
better understand why the margin between the mortality rate, 8.1 % and birth
rate , 22.5 % is low, significant, and expressive. This is improperly perceived
in the said rich countries where poverty line would be highly above that of
India. Besides, the foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, rose from $ 4.7
billion in 2004 to $ 5.5 billion in 2005. It is important to attract, in the first
6 UNDP 2004 report, in Rapport d’informations N° 146 (2006-2007) of 01/10/2007.
7 These above statistics are extract from the report, India, A giant in training, Rapport
d’information N°146 (2006-2007) by Messrs. Jean Paul EMORME, Bernard PIRAS, Michel
BECOT, Gerard DELFAU, Mrs Michelle DEMESSINE, Mr. Philippe DOMINATI, Mess.
Adeline GOUSSEAU, LAMURE, Jackie, Raoul, Solange , 01/10/2007.
place, investments from Diaspora Indians. Mauritius is the first investor in
India with 37 % of total investment while 25 % are shared between
European Union and USA. The inflation rate is stable with 5 % even if the
public deficit is estimated in 2005, 2006 at 7.7 % of Gross Domestic Product
and the national debt at 85 % of GDP. In the area of telecommunication,
major efforts are made and they grant at the national level as well as the
international level, a real and certain predominance to Indian economy. Data
relating to socio-economic aspects and sparsely scattered, channel the
analysis while outlining the framework. The socio-cultural aspect provides
the framework with placed side by side or interlinked other elements.
Despite disproportions and social inequalities, India has become a real
economic power. Statistics in the charts hereunder, enable us to have a clear
sight of India’s politico-economic magnitude.
GNP GNP Wo GD Worl Pove Une External Inflat
(2005) Per rld P d rty mplo debt ion
capit Ra Rank rate ymen (2005) rate
a nk t rate
th$793 $ $78 4 25 % 10 % $95 4.2
thbillion 720 10 5.5 billion %
Since independence, “India has made a tremendous progress, the Indian
8total GDP amounts to $785.5 billion ”. This indicates that the government of
India made the mission of his own to alleviate poverty while boosting,
accelerating the economic development by reducing or lightening social
security taxes by means of legislation and socio-professional strategies. Does
Hinduism contribute to socio-economic development? Aren’t socialism and the actual basics of the stability of Indian political system?
§-4- SOCIO-RELIGIOUS VARIABLES
There several, diversified socio-cultural variables in line with history,
philosophy and the various social structures.
1. Historical development of the Vedic religion
The aim here is not to write the historical development of the Hinduist
religion, but to briefly point out some facts that can favour highlighting the
birth of Hinduism.
The Indus civilisation experiences a hegemonic period and shortly after
that comes its decline. This positive homogenization and social integration
8 Br. Ar. Upanishad., III, 9, 1.
state turns into a static state and then gradually scleroses to result in an
internal breakdown which also, while experiencing an internal
differentiation, ends up in complete extinction of the civilisation with the
advent of Hinduism. This established fact is caused by invaders who came
from north-west and were called Aryans, a group of tribes, coming from the
Caspian zone with their language representing again a branchlet of the same
indo-European strain, who destroyed famous places (Pur) of the Indus
civilisation as they entered Punjab, symbol of the Aryans’ conquest and their
Being of quite different civilisation compared to the Indus, Aryans are
nomads. In addition to their warrior and polemologic status, they major in
cattle breeding and occasionally carry out farming activities. They gradually
impact their language and religion on Dravidian and mundas populations of
the northern India.
Aryans automatically influenced by the new environment and more
precisely by aristocracy governing the social system, agree and integrate the
subdivided and inflexible social system. Later, the doctrine of castes prevails
and establishes social categories, socio-professional entities, different in
their history, from one another; that is to say, the priests (Brahmana),
warriors (Kchatriya), storekeepers and farmers (Vaicya and servants). Only
the first three castes enjoy social and religious rights.
This is the conservation attitude which requires knowledge of outside
elements and the will to control them. Despite this, the Vedic civilisation,
originally alien to the Indian land is gradually shaped by the environment
and even the spirit, the moral, religious and economic content of this
Hindusian civilisation are altered.
Although the rites and social structure have not changed, the Aryan
society accepts and approves the gradual adjustment, assimilation process to
a new action sphere. Aryans, little by little, come round to the Dravidians
and mundas’psychology and life style.
During the conquest of Punjab, different Aryan tribes of shepherds and
soldiers scope out, produce and formulate various sacred poems, which, in
the second millennium before Christ will be written down in the four Vedic
The Vedas preserved and revealed truth theoretically remains the
blueprint of Indian religion and it is passed on through generations who
strictly comply with the sound and form requirements in especially oral
At the same time, this history is in large measure, the basis of Hinduism
and the civilisation.
Even though the Aryan power is limited to Punjab, the Rig-Vedic
civilisation entity stretches over the coastlines of the Sarasvati River. The
Aryan’s expansion is making progress towards the east to Bengale and
reaches the south towards Vindhya Mountains.
The Aryan society becomes different and causes the emergence of small
rival monarchic and aristocratic states.
The semi-historical basis of the far-reaching poem called Mahâbhârata
lies in the conflict between Kuruva and Panadava. Thanks to King Janame
Jaya, this considerable dynasty, progeny of King Parickchit exercises its
Punjab is abandoned in the Aryans’ rearguard, whereas large kingdoms
develop further in the East. This movement ends up and stabilises in the
central part of Bihar and becomes the heartland of the empire of Aryan
thIn the 6 century, a balance of power arises between the sixteen
Mahâjanapada. Apart from them, different States are controlled by
assemblies of governors, led by a king, which reflects forms of aristocratic
Towards 500 AD, the Maghada kingdom in the central Bihar plays a lead
role. At the same period, Cyrus II and Darius I squeeze Punjab and a portion
of Sind out of Persia. They become satrapies of Gandhara and India. These
relations typify the history of the region known today as Pakistan.
The Dravidian ideas prevail and cause a change in the old Aryans’
spiritual life: the metempsychosis, karma theory, sanctity of cows, etc.
gradually modify religious values. New divinities appear and the Vedic
religion stealthily becomes Brahmanism. Monistic speculations of Upanisads
enter the life cycle among Brahmanic groups. Jainism and Buddhism break
THaway from them and expand by the 5 century B.C, and radically oppose
caste system. Eventually, Buddhism achieves an overexpansion inside and
outside India. Brahmanism which develops with a multiplicity of Gods is
seen as a religion of nature, a polytheist religion.
2. Emergence of Hinduism
thThe Rig-Veda written around the 10 century AD, framework of oral
literature, is not inspired by God and falls within Dravidians and mundas’
A gradual culture change and a way to look at various divinities full of
wisdom and religiosity occur with a new conception and vision of the world.
Towards 650 AD, thanks to Brahmans’ opening teachings (priests of India),
these people now deny violence, teach and train on new ethics of Gods full
of tolerance, protection and saving attitudes. The teaching, associated with
Brahmans ‘new behaviours, induces and develops new behaviours visibly
nimbated with a new order of tranquillity, peace, conciliation and specially
search for perfection of the soul and body.
The faith in spiritual revival has its main pivot point in the doctrine of life
cycles of souls, subject to cycles of rebirth on earth, until they are deemed fit
for Heaven so as to not but get immortal.
This spiritual elevation causes the birth of Hinduism, basis of Buddhism
and Jainism which stay on the fringe of Vedic cult but remain connected to
some of its practices. The bloody animal and human being sacrifices offered
to Vedic gods change. Offerings of cereals, oil and plants are now presents
accepted by God. Ways to peace and harmony are accessible to man and
reach divinities with completeness and assertiveness.
Like Egyptians and Assyrians, the Indian archaic society essentially
worships the Sun and the Moon, female divinity which is both domestic
partner of the Sun and Grandmother of life and universe. This very old
conception of the female cult quickly disappears under Aryans’ influence. In
the same period, these latters impose on India political practices of which the
patriarchal directiveness better match with the invaders’ households and
different from practices of former Dravidian farmers who control the field of
activity of women whose assignments are related to the defence of the
village community and the family.
The carried out transformation process results in the birth of Hinduism.
The ensuing marriages create new behaviours which recognize former
worships: Earth-worship and desire for flesh symbolized by Shiva.
3. Process of internal differentiation
Defined as Sanatâ Dharma, Hinduism gradually becomes an institution
backed by Veda whose texts are written in Sanskrit and do not favour a
realist interpretation of things. Also, the complex Vedic writing causes
comprehension and translation difficulties. Many attempts in this regard
have not but met customized visions, visions of unitary feature. Given the
new environment, doubling up other religions structured by specific
theologies, conceptions specific to their universe, they bring in and stealthily
create religious shock and motivation for adjustment process in line with the
new social and spiritual requirements. Thus, reformist movements emerge
within Hinduism; Brahmo-Samaj, Adi Brahmo-Samaj, Bharatvarshiya
Brahmo-Samaj and Sadharan Brahmo-Samaj. Among these innovating
visions, two seem to come into focus in the sense that they are the letter and
spirit of reforms developed in the form of principles.
The Arva-Samaj principles
“God is the first cause of any true knowledge and of all this knowledge
reveals to us “
God is truth, perfect knowledge and beatitude. Intangible, omnipotent,
just, merciful, inserted, infinity, unchanging, without commencement,
incomparable, the support and Lord of all, pervasive, omniscient,
imperishable, immortal, non misgiving, eternal and holy, he is the cause of
universe. He is the only one deemed to be worshipped.
1) VEDAS are books of true knowledge, it is any ÂRYA’s duty to read
or listen to them, to teach them and read them to others.
2) An ÂRYA should always be ready to accept truth and deny
3) All our actions should be in compliance with virtue, that is to say,
we must take action after discriminating between true and false.
4) The main objective of a SAMAJ is to be useful to the whole world,
by improving physical, spiritual and social conditions of humanity.
5) Everybody must be dealt with, with love, justice and their merits
should be taken into consideration.
6) It is essential to fight ignorance and spread knowledge.
7) No one should stubbornly search for his own happiness; each one
should know that his happiness is tightly linked to other people’s happiness
8) As far as our social welfare is concerned, no one is entitled to
adversely affect everybody’s welfare, but concerning fully personal
businesses, each one can freely take an action.
The Nine Commandments of Sadharan Brahmo-Samaj
There is only one creator God, protector, saviour of this world. He is
spirit, infinity in power, in wisdom, in love, in justice and holiness He is
omnipresent, eternal and blessed.
Human soul is undying and likely to improve for infinity; it is
accountable for its deeds to God.
God must be worshipped spiritually and truly. Worshipping God is
required for blissfulness, true happiness, and for the good of the soul here
and in the next world.
Love God and fulfil his whish in all, is the actual worshipping spirit
Prayer, obeying God and a continuous recognition of his presence are
means to achieve spiritual development.
Divine paternity, brotherhood, and kindness to everybody are the essence
No created thing should be worshipped as God. No man, no book should
be considered as sure-fire or as the only way to salvation. But truth should be
hosted with reverence in all scriptures and all men’s teachings, irrespective
of religion and country
God awards virtue and punishes corruption. His punishments are curative
and not everlasting.