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Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production

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320 pages
Anaerobic biotechnology is a cost-effective and sustainable means of treating waste and wastewaters that couples treatment processes with the reclamation of useful by-products and renewable biofuels. This means of treating municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastes allows waste products to be converted to value-added products such as biofuels, biofertilizers, and other chemicals. Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production: Principles and Applications provides the reader with basic principles of anaerobic processes alongside practical uses of anaerobic biotechnology options. This book will be a valuable reference to any professional currently considering or working with anaerobic biotechnology options.
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Contents
CONTRIBUTORS, xi PREFACE, xiii
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OVERVIEW OF ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY, 1 Samir Kumar Khanal 1.1 Anaerobic Biotechnology and Bioenergy Recovery, 1 1.2 Historical Development, 3 1.3 Importance of Anaerobic Biotechnology in Overall Waste Treatment, 5 1.4 Definition and Principle of Anaerobic Processes, 6 1.5 Important Considerations in Anaerobic Biotechnology, 8 1.6 Merits of Anaerobic Biotechnology, 15 1.7 Limitations of Anaerobic Process, 22 References, 25
MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY, 29 Samir Kumar Khanal 2.1 Background, 29 2.2 Organics Conversion in Anaerobic Systems, 29 2.3 Process Microbiology, 32 References, 41
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, 43 Samir Kumar Khanal 3.1 Background, 43 3.2 Temperature, 43 3.3 Operating pH and Alkalinity, 47 3.4 Nutrients, 55
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3.5 Toxic Materials, 56 3.6 Redox Potential or OxidationReduction Potential, 59 References, 61
KINETICS AND MODELING IN ANAEROBIC PROCESSES, 65 Keshab Raj Sharma 4.1 Background, 65 4.2 Basic Elements, 66 4.3 Stepwise Approach to Modeling, 69 4.4 Modeling of pH Change, 79 4.5 Modeling of Energy Generation, 87 References, 92
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ANAEROBIC REACTOR CONFIGURATIONS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION, 93 Samir Kumar Khanal 5.1 Background, 93 5.2 Strategies for Decoupling HRT and SRT, 93 5.3 Classification of Anaerobic Bioreactors, 94 5.4 Membrane Technology for Syngas Fermentation to Ethanol, 112 References, 114
MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES IN ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATION IN BIOENERGY GENERATION, 115 Srisuda Dhamwichukorn 6.1 Background, 115 6.2 Molecular Techniques in Anaerobic Biotechnology, 115 6.3 Fundamentals of Molecular Techniques, 116 6.4 Phylogenetic Analysis, 117 6.5 Molecular Techniques for Microbial Community Structure Analysis: DNA Fingerprinting, Clone Library, and Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization, 118 6.6 Molecular Techniques for Functional Analysis, 121 6.7 Nucleic Acid Extraction of Anaerobic Cells/Isolates and Sludge, 123 6.8 Molecular Techniques for Structure and Function Analysis, 123 6.9 Postgenomic Approaches for Bioenergy Research, 128 References, 130
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BIOENERGY RECOVERY FROM SULFATERICH WASTE STREAMS AND STRATEGIES FOR SULFIDE REMOVAL, 133 Samir Kumar Khanal 7.1 Background, 133 7.2 SulfateReducing Bacteria, 133 7.3 HighStrength SulfateRich Wastewater, 135 7.4 Methane Recovery from HighStrength SulfateLaden Wastewater, 135 7.5 Important Considerations in Treatment and Methane Recovery from HighStrength SulfateLaden Wastewater, 137 7.6 Interactions between MPB and SRB, 143 7.7 Sulfide Removal, 149 References, 157
BIOENERGY GENERATION FROM RESIDUES OF BIOFUEL INDUSTRIES, 161 Samir Kumar Khanal 8.1 Background, 161 8.2 Bioethanol Feedstocks, 162 8.3 Biodiesel Feedstocks, 163 8.4 Ethanol Production, 163 8.5 Thin Stillage Characterization, 171 8.6 CassavaBased Ethanol Production, 183 8.7 CelluloseBased Ethanol Production, 185 8.8 Bioenergy Recovery from Crude Glycerin, 186 References, 187
BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION: FUNDAMENTALS, CHALLENGES, AND OPERATION STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCED YIELD, 189 Samir Kumar Khanal 9.1 Background, 189 9.2 Biological Hydrogen Production, 190 9.3 Microbiology of Dark Fermentation, 191 9.4 Hydrogen Production Pathway through Dark Fermentation, 192 9.5 Suppression of Hydrogen Consumers, 196 9.6 Hydrogen Yield, 199
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9.7 Important Considerations in Biohydrogen Production, 200 9.8 Limitations of Dark Fermentation and Potential Remedial Options, 210 9.9 Technoeconomic Analysis of Hydrogen Fermentation, 213 References, 215
MICROBIAL FUEL CELL: NOVEL ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR ENERGY GENERATION FROM WASTEWATER, 221 Hong Liu 10.1 Background, 221 10.2 How Does a Microbial Fuel Cell Work?, 222 10.3 Stoichiometry and Energetics, 223 10.4 Electrochemically Active Microbes and Electron Transfer Mechanisms, 225 10.5 Evaluation of MFC Performance, 228 10.6 MFC Designs and Electrode Materials, 231 10.7 Operational Factors Affecting MFC Performance, 239 10.8 Opportunities and Challenges for MFCs in Wastewater Treatment, 242 References, 243
PRETREATMENT OF HIGHSOLIDS WASTES/RESIDUES TO ENHANCE BIOENERGY RECOVERY, 247 Santha Harikishan 11.1 Background, 247 11.2 Efficiency of Sludge Pretreatment, 248 11.3 Ultrasound Pretreatment, 250 11.4 Chemical and Physical Pretreatment, 257 11.5 Thermal Hydrolysis, 261 11.6 Impact of Improved Digestibility on Overall Process Economics, 264 References, 264
BIOGAS PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION AS AN ENERGY SOURCE, 267 Santha Harikishan 12.1 Background, 267 12.2 Biogas Production, 267
Contents
12.3 Factors Affecting Digester Gas Production, 269 12.4 Biogas Composition, 270 12.5 Biogas Impurities, 272 12.6 Biogas Cleaning for Effective Utilization, 274 12.7 Biogas Utilization, 279 12.8 Future of Biogas as a Renewable Resource, 290 References, 291
INDEX, 293
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