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Cleaning-in-Place

De
272 pages
This is the third edition of the Society of Dairy Technology's highly successful volume on Cleaning-in-Place (CIP). Already a well-established practice in dairy technology, CIP has become increasingly relevant in the processed food industry during the last 10-15 years, and the beverage industry has seen increased demands from customers regarding CIP verification and validation to provide improvements in plant hygiene and related efficiency.


The book addresses the principles of cleaning operations, water supply issues and the science of detergents and disinfectants. Aspects of equipment design relevant to ease of cleaning are covered in a special chapter, as is the assessment of cleaning efficiency and the management of cleaning operations. This third edition features for the first time a chapter on membrane cleaning - a relatively new area requiring very specialised cleaning products and procedures. Useful data on fluid flow dynamics and laboratory test methods are also included in separate chapters.


Authors have been selected from within industry, allied suppliers and academia to provide a balanced, leading edge assessment of the subject matter. Cleaning-in-Place is directed at dairy scientists and technologists in industry and academia, general food scientists and food technologists, food microbiologists and equipment manufacturers.

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Contents
Preface to Technical SeriesPreface to Third EditionPreface to Second EditionPreface to First EditionContributors
1
Principles of Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) M. WALTON 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Cleaning-in-place (CIP): denition 1.3 CIP systems: hardware 1.4 The processes of cleaning 1.4.1 Removal of gross debris (product recovery) 1.4.2 Pre-rinse 1.4.3 Detergent circulation 1.4.4 Intermediate rinse 1.4.5 Second detergent circulation (optional) 1.4.6 Second intermediate rinse 1.4.7 Disinfection 1.4.8 Final rinse 1.5 Planning a cleaning project 1.5.1 What is the physical nature of the plant or equipment to be cleaned? 1.5.2 What standards of cleaning are required? 1.5.3 What is the nature of the soil to be removed? 1.5.4 When is the cleaning to be undertaken? 1.5.5 The selection of detergents The attributes of detergents The mechanisms of soil removal 1.6 Conclusions References
2 Fluid Flow Dynamics M.J. LEWIS 2.1 Introduction
xvi xvii xviii xix xx
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1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5
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0
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vi Contents
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2.2 Some background principles 2.3 Some background information 2.3.1 Temperature 2.3.2 Volumetricowrate 2.3.3 Density 2.3.4 Specic gravity 2.3.5 Viscosity (η)and rheology 2.3.6 Continuity equations and energy balances 2.4 Streamline and turbulentow 2.5 Calculation of frictional loss in a straight pipe 2.6 Pump characteristics 2.7 Tank cleaning heads and fallinglms 2.8 Some concluding remarks 2.9 Appendix: denitions and equations 2.9.1 Pressure 2.9.2 Volume and volumetricowrate 2.9.3 Temperature conversions 2.9.4 Temperature difference 2.9.5 Fixed points 2.9.6 Energy units 2.9.7 Some conversion factors 2.9.8 Specic heat 2.9.9 Density of milk 2.9.10 Viscosity References Further reading
Water Supplies in the Food Industry S.I. WALKER 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Sources of water 3.2.1 Natural water and rainwater 3.2.2 Authority-provided water 3.2.3 Water from products 3.2.4 Water from recycling 3.3 Improving water quality 3.4 Equipment for improving water quality (coarse removal) 3.4.1 Screens and strainers 3.4.2 Bag and cartridgelters 3.4.3 Sand-typelters 3.4.4 Separators 3.5 Equipment for improving water quality (ne removal) 3.5.1 Softeners
10 11 13 13 13 14 14 15 17 19 23 25 26 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31
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32 32 33 35 36 36 37 37 39 40 40 40 41 41
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3.5.2 Reverse osmosis 3.5.3 Electro deionisation (EDI) 3.6 Applications of water in the dairy 3.6.1 Water as an ingredient 3.6.2 Water as a cooling agent 3.6.3 Water in heating applications Water for boilers Water as condensate return 3.6.4 Water for general use 3.6.5 Water for cleaning purposes 3.7 Water leaving the dairy 3.7.1 Minimum treatment 3.7.2 Buffering of wastewater 3.7.3 Efuent treatment Initial screen Balancing tanks Phase separator 3.7.4 Wastewater treatment Discharge from site Recycle to the factory Recycle as ‘grey water’ to efuent plant Further treatment 3.7.5 Problems associated with biological treatment plants Micro-organisms Microbial nutrient deciency Low organic loading Low oxygen level References
Contentsvii
Chemistry of Detergents and Disinfectants W.J. WATKINSON 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Why do we clean? 4.2.1 Appearance 4.2.2 Micro-organism contamination 4.2.3 Plant efciency 4.2.4 Safety 4.3 Soil to be removed 4.4 Chemistry of water 4.5 Water attributes important to dairy and beverage cleaning and disinfection 4.6 Basic detergency: how does a detergent work? 4.6.1 Chemical reaction 4.6.2 Solvent cleaning
41 41 41 41 42 43 43 45 45 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 51 51 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 54
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56 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 59 60 60
viii Contents
4.6.3 Abrasive cleaning 4.6.4 Dispersion–suspension cleaning 4.7 What materials make up a detergent? 4.7.1 Surfactants: synthetic surface-active agents 4.7.2 Inorganic components of detergents, or builders Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) Soda ash (sodium carbonate) Silicates Phosphates 4.7.3 Sequestrants 4.7.4 Acids 4.8 Factors affecting detergent performance 4.9 Methods of application 4.9.1 Manual cleaning 4.9.2 Circulation cleaning (CIP, spray cleaning) 4.9.3 Soak-cleaning 4.9.4 Spray-washing 4.9.5 Long-contact vertical surface cleaning using foams or gels 4.10 The science of disinfection 4.10.1 Background 4.10.2 Objectives of effective disinfection 4.10.3 Factors affecting the performance of disinfectants Time Temperature Concentration Surface tension pH Number and location of organisms Organic matter Metal ions Type of organisms 4.10.4 Choosing the most appropriate disinfectant Heat Oxidising disinfectants Non-oxidising surfactant-based disinfectants 4.11 Construction materials and their corrosion: inuence on choice of detergents and disinfectants 4.11.1 Aluminium and its alloys 4.11.2 Mild steel 4.11.3 Stainless steel 4.11.4 Copper 4.11.5 Galvanising 4.12 Conclusions Bibliography
60 60 62 62 63 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 74
77 77 79 79 79 79 79 80
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Contentsix
Designing for CleanabilityA.P.M. HASTING 5.1 Background 5.2 Equipment design and installation 5.2.1 European Union (EU) regulatory requirements 5.2.2 The European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group (EHEDG) 5.3 Hygienic design principles 5.4 Hygienic design requirements 5.4.1 Materials of construction Stainless steel Plastics Elastomers 5.4.2 Surfacenish 5.4.3 Joints 5.4.4 Other constructional features Fasteners Drainage Internal angles, corners and dead spaces Bearings and shaft seals Instrumentation 5.5 Cleaning process equipment 5.5.1 Effect ofuidow on cleaning 5.5.2 Pipelines 5.5.3 Pumps 5.5.4 Valves 5.5.5 Heat exchangers Plate heat exchangers (PHE) Tubular heat exchangers (THE) Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHE) 5.5.6 Tanks 5.6 Conclusions References
Perspectives in Tank Cleaning: Hygiene Requirements, Device Selection, Risk Evaluation and Management Responsibility R. PACKMAN, B. KNUDSEN AND I. HANSEN 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Background 6.2.1 More than just equipment 6.2.2 Many aspects of tank cleaning 6.2.3 Ways to tackle tank hygiene Cleaning-out-of-place (COP) Cleaning-in-place (CIP) 6.3 Two basic approaches to tank cleaning
8
1
81 82 82 82 83 85 85 85 86 86 87 88 90 90 91 92 93 93 94 94 96 97 98 100 100 101 103 103 105 106
108
108 108 108 109 109 109 109 110
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6.4
6.5
6.3.1 6.3.2
6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.4.7
High volume/low pressure Low volume/high pressure Key parameters in determining tank-cleaning effectiveness The Sinner circle Mechanical forces: hydraulic energy and coverage System parameters Operating parameters Distribution device parameters affecting cleaning performance Nozzle design Difference in mechanical energy applied by static spray balls and rotary jet heads Tank-cleaning technologies Static spray balls Description How they work Mounting Applications Advantages Disadvantages Rotary spray heads Description How they work Mounting Applications Advantages Disadvantages Rotary jet heads Description How they work Mounting Applications Advantages Disadvantages Cleaning tanks that include internalttings and other equipment Selection and sizing of tank-cleaning equipment Flowrate Effective cleaning distance Simulation software Upgrading tank-cleaning systems: total cost of ownership (TCO) and risk assessment approach Risk assessment example Residue type Tank design Methodology Monitorability
6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.5.6 6.5.7
110 111 112 112 113 114 114 116 116
117 117 118 118 119 119 119 121 121 121 121 123 123 123 123 123 125 125 126 126 126 127 129 129 130 130 131 136
136 137 137 137 138 138
7
Repeatability Cleaning materials Testing 6.5.8 Perspectives associated with CIP tank cleaning 6.5.9 Tank-cleaning devices 6.5.10 Cleaning validation 6.5.11 Case study 6.6 Conclusions References
Design and Control of CIP Systems D. LLOYD 7.1 Introduction 7.1.1 Full recovery system: three tanks CIP 7.1.2 How much CIP? 7.1.3 Size of the CIP equipment 7.1.4 Hot or cold pre-rinse? 7.1.5 Choice of scavenge pump 7.1.6 Choice of spray head 7.1.7 Control units 7.1.8 Supermarkets 7.2 Principles of chemical cleaning 7.2.1 Soil removal 7.2.2 Soil removal parameters 7.2.3 Chemical soil removal and disinfectants 7.3 Application of CIP 7.3.1 Pipeline cleaning 7.3.2 Vessel cleaning CIP application CIP return or scavenge 7.4 Types of CIP system 7.4.1 Single-use system 7.4.2 Partial recovery system 7.4.3 Full recovery system with heated rinse tank (optional) 7.5 Verication 7.6 Control systems 7.6.1 Schematic illustration 7.6.2 Instrumentation 7.6.3 Mechanical components 7.7 Design information 7.7.1 Pipeline capacities 7.7.2 Detergent tank capacities 7.7.3 Cleaning velocity 7.7.4 Pressure drop Bibliography
Contentsxi
138 138 139 139 140 142 143 144 145
146
146 146 147 147 147 147 149 149 150 150 150 150 150 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 157 157 157 158 159 163
xii Contents
8
9
Assessment of Cleaning Efciency K. ASTERIADOU AND P. FRYER 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Validation 8.2.1 Preliminary examination 8.2.2 Visual examination 8.2.3 Action following an unsatisfactory preliminary examination 8.3 Verication 8.3.1 Surfaces 8.3.2 Flush/rinse material 8.3.3 Water quality 8.3.4 In-process material 8.4 Frequency of assessment/sampling 8.4.1 Equipment/surfaces 8.4.2 Product Method of sampling Heat-treated product Packed product Swabbing and rinsing methods 8.5 Monitoring 8.5.1 Results from system monitoring 8.5.2 Interpreting results and taking action 8.6 The commercial benets of assessment 8.7 Conclusions References
Management of CIP Operations K.J. BURGESS 9.1 Background to cleaning-in-place (CIP) 9.2 Some CIP operation basics 9.2.1 CIP parameters 9.2.2 People involved 9.2.3 Key steps in CIP implementation 9.2.4 A typical CIP sequence 9.2.5 Cleaning the CIP system 9.3 Chemicals and chemical suppliers 9.4 Troubleshooting CIP 9.4.1 Positive factors 9.4.2 Negative factors 9.5 CIP and operational goals 9.6 CIP management and quality 9.6.1 Quality management system issues 9.6.2 CIP and due diligence 9.6.3 CIP and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system
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164 164 166 166 168 168 168 169 169 169 170 170 171 171 171 171 172 172 173 174 176 176 176
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178 179 179 179 179 180 181 181 182 182 182 183 183 183 183 184
9.6.4 Some aspects of good practice 9.7 CIP management and safety 9.7.1 Health and safety issues with CIP Exposure to cleaning chemicals Slips and trips Falls Machinery Handling Transport 9.7.2 Safe CIP 9.8 CIP management and productivity 9.8.1 CIP cost inputs 9.8.2 Product recovery Product reclaim Product purging Product scheduling 9.9 CIP management review and improvement 9.9.1 CIP review CIP change review CIP verication 9.9.2 CIP improvement 9.10 Conclusions References
10 Membrane Filtration C.E. ASKEW, S. te POELE AND F. SKOU 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Membraneltration processes 10.3 Membrane process design 10.3.1 Membrane material 10.3.2 Membrane module design 10.3.3 Methods of operation 10.4Membraneltration in dairies 10.4.1 Microltration (MF) 10.4.2 Ultraltration (UF) 10.4.3 Dialtration (DF) 10.4.4 Nanoltration (NF) 10.4.5 Reverse osmosis (RO) 10.5 Damage that can occur to membranes 10.6 How do membranes become fouled or soiled? 10.6.1 Concentration polarisation and membrane fouling 10.6.2 Membrane fouling in dairy processing 10.6.3 Fouling control 10.7 Cleaning membraneltration installations
Contentsxiii
185 185 185 186 187 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 190 190 191 191 191 191 192 192 193 193 194
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xiv Contents
10.7.1 Background 10.7.2 Cleaning fouled membranes Product processed and soil type Membrane installation and type Level of membrane fouling pH and temperature sensitivity Chlorine sensitivity Equipment and membrane manufacturer’s endorsements Customer preferences Local legislation Environmental issues 10.7.3 Cleaning agents 10.7.4 Cleaning regime 10.8 Monitoring and recording 10.9 Recent developments 10.9.1 Ultrasonic cleaning 10.9.2 Microsieves 10.9.3 High tolerant membranes 10.10 Conclusions References
11 Laboratory Test Methods W.J. WATKINSON 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Test methods for in-use solutions 11.2.1 Alkalinity 11.2.2 Acidity 11.2.3 Ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) 11.2.4 Total EDTA 11.2.5 Total water hardness 11.2.6 Disinfectants Available chlorine Available iodine Available oxygen Peracetic acid content Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) Miscellaneous tests 11.3 Qualitative test methods for neat detergents 11.3.1 Alkalinity Silicates Phosphates Carbonates 11.3.2 Acids Nitric acid
209 210 211 211 213 213 214 214 215 215 215 216 217 218 219 219 220 220 220 221
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