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Design and Installation of Marine Pipelines

De
384 pages
This comprehensive handbook on submarine pipeline systems covers a broad spectrum of topics from planning and site investigations, procurement and design, to installation and commissioning. It considers guidelines for the choice of design parameters, calculation methods and construction procedures. It is based on limit state design with partial safety coefficients.
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Contents
Preface About the authors Glossary and notation
Chapter 1
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6
Introduction
Chapter 2 Bases for design Introduction Basic requirements 2.2.1 Functional requirements 2.2.2 Authorities’ requirements 2.2.3 Environmental impact Flow calculations 2.3.1 General 2.3.2 Operational parameters 2.3.3 Pipeline size determination 2.3.4 Flow simulations Site investigations 2.4.1 General 2.4.2 Geophysical survey 2.4.3 Geotechnical survey 2.4.4 Soil sampling and in situ testing 2.4.5 Laboratory testing Meteo-marine data 2.5.1 General 2.5.2 Wind, waves and current 2.5.3 Collection of wave data 2.5.4 Design parameters Route selection 2.6.1 General 2.6.2 Alignment sheets
xii xiv xvi
1
5 5 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 13 13 14 15 16 17 17 17 18 19 20 21 21 23
iii
iv
Contents
Chapter 3 Materials 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Soil materials 3.2.1 General 3.2.2 Seabed soil classification 3.2.3 Backfill materials 3.3 Linepipe materials 3.3.1 General 3.3.2 Strength, toughness and weldability 3.3.3 Sour service resistance 3.3.4 Steel microstructure and corrosion resistance 3.4 Sacrificial anodes 3.4.1 General 3.4.2 Zinc alloy 3.4.3 Aluminium alloy 3.5 Pipeline component materials 3.5.1 General 3.5.2 Component materials for sour service 3.6 Coating and insulation materials 3.6.1 General 3.6.2 Material properties
Chapter 4 Loads 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Functional loads 4.2.1 General 4.2.2 Internal pressure 4.2.3 Pressure control systems 4.2.4 Temperature 4.3 Environmental loads 4.3.1 General 4.3.2 Hydrodynamic forces 4.3.3 Hydrodynamic force coefficients 4.4 Accidental loads 4.4.1 General 4.4.2 Dropped object loads 4.4.3 Trawl loads 4.5 Installation loads
Chapter 5 Risk and safety 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Safety policy and philosophy 5.3 Risk management
24 24 25 25 25 27 27 27 29 32 34 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39
40 40 40 40 41 41 45 45 45 45 49 52 52 52 53 55
56 56 57 58
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4
5.3.1 General 5.3.2 Hazard identification Risk acceptance criteria 5.4.1 General 5.4.2 Cost benefit analysis Risk assessment 5.5.1 General 5.5.2 Risk reducing measures 5.5.3 Example: Risk of anchor damage Special risk aspects 5.6.1 Subsea isolation valves 5.6.2 Welded or flanged connections 5.6.3 Corrosion in HP/HT pipelines Statistical data
Contents
Chapter 6 Design Design conditions 6.1.1 Codes and standards 6.1.2 Serviceability limit states (SLS) 6.1.3 Ultimate limit states (ULS) 6.1.4 Partial safety coefficients Wall thickness determination 6.2.1 General 6.2.2 Design methods 6.2.3 Location class definition 6.2.4 Wall thickness according to DNV OS-F101 6.2.5 Code comparison and national wall thickness regulations 6.2.6 Trawling and hydrostatic pressure 6.2.7 Wall thickness design example Hydrodynamic stability 6.3.1 General 6.3.2 Design activities 6.3.3 Design conditions and requirements 6.3.4 Static stability design format 6.3.5 Dynamic stability design format 6.3.6 Pipe –soil interaction Free span evaluation 6.4.1 General 6.4.2 Free span classification 6.4.3 Pipeline and free span data 6.4.4 Static analysis 6.4.5 Dynamic analysis 6.4.6 Fatigue analysis
v
58 60 61 61 63 64 64 65 65 70 70 71 71 72
73 73 73 74 75 75 76 76 77 78 79 82 86 91 92 92 94 100 102 103 103 110 110 111 112 113 116 117
vi
Contents
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
Expansion and global buckling 6.5.1 General 6.5.2 Pipeline expansion 6.5.3 Pipeline buckling 6.5.4 Upheaval buckling Corrosion prevention and insulation 6.6.1 General 6.6.2 Corrosion of steel in seawater 6.6.3 Internal corrosion prevention 6.6.4 External barrier coating 6.6.5 Thermal insulation Cathodic protection 6.7.1 General 6.7.2 Protective potential and current requirements 6.7.3 Hydrogen embrittlement 6.7.4 Sacrificial anode design 6.7.5 Impressed current 6.7.6 Electrical isolation 6.7.7 Stray current interference Bends, components and structures 6.8.1 General 6.8.2 Fittings 6.8.3 Valves and other components 6.8.4 Structures
Chapter 7 Fabrication 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Linepipe production 7.2.1 General 7.2.2 Standardisation 7.2.3 Seamless pipe 7.2.4 Welded pipes 7.2.5 Specified properties of linepipe steels 7.2.6 Hot formed bends 7.2.7 Cladding, lining and weld-overlaying 7.2.8 Testing during pipe manufacture 7.3 Internal coating 7.3.1 General 7.3.2 Surface preparation 7.3.3 Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) 7.3.4 Epoxy paint 7.3.5 Inspection and testing of epoxy paint
120 120 121 125 126 132 132 133 134 137 138 140 140 141 142 143 150 152 152 153 153 153 154 155
156 156 157 157 158 159 160 164 167 168 169 171 171 172 173 173 173
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
External anti-corrosion coating 7.4.1 General 7.4.2 Surface preparation 7.4.3 Asphalt enamel 7.4.4 Three-layer polyolefin coatings (PE/ PU/ PP) 7.4.5 Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) 7.4.6 Elastomer coating (Neoprene) 7.4.7 Thermal insulation 7.4.8 Inspection and testing 7.4.9 Other coating systems Anode manufacture 7.5.1 General 7.5.2 Reinforcement insert 7.5.3 Alloy materials 7.5.4 Casting 7.5.5 Anode defects 7.5.6 Electrical connections 7.5.7 Painting and marking 7.5.8 Inspection and testing Anode installation 7.6.1 General 7.6.2 Anode mounting 7.6.3 Electrical connection 7.6.4 Finishing Concrete coating 7.7.1 General 7.7.2 Concrete mix design 7.7.3 Reinforcement 7.7.4 Impingement 7.7.5 Extrusion 7.7.6 Slipforming 7.7.7 Concrete curing 7.7.8 Inspection and testing 7.7.9 Anode joints Marking, handling and repair 7.8.1 General 7.8.2 Marking 7.8.3 Handling, transport and storage 7.8.4 Repair Components and fittings 7.9.1 General 7.9.2 Component manufacture
Contents
vii
174 174 175 176 178 179 180 181 182 184 186 186 187 188 188 189 191 192 192 193 193 193 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 198 198 198 199 202 203 203 203 204 205 205 205 206
viii
Contents
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7
7.9.3 7.9.4 7.9.5
Risers and expansion offsets Tees and valve assemblies Pig launchers and receivers
Chapter 8 Installation Introduction Seabed intervention 8.2.1 General 8.2.2 Pre-trenching 8.2.3 Pipeline supports 8.2.4 Crossings Pipe assembly 8.3.1 General 8.3.2 Girth welding 8.3.3 Engineering criticality assessment (ECA) 8.3.4 Field joint coating 8.3.5 Mechanical connections Pipelaying 8.4.1 General 8.4.2 S-lay 8.4.3 J-lay 8.4.4 Reeling 8.4.5 Piggy-back installation 8.4.6 In-line components 8.4.7 Abandonment and recovery Towing, pulling and directional drilling 8.5.1 General 8.5.2 On-bottom towing and pulling 8.5.3 Off-bottom, surface and controlled depth towing 8.5.4 Pipeline bundles 8.5.5 Directional drilling Risers, shore approaches and tie-ins 8.6.1 General 8.6.2 Riser installation 8.6.3 Shore approach construction 8.6.4 Tie-in 8.6.5 Branch line connection Trenching and backfilling 8.7.1 General 8.7.2 Jetting and cutting 8.7.3 Ploughing 8.7.4 Artificial backfilling 8.7.5 Protective covers
206 208 209
210 210 211 211 211 212 212 213 213 214 218 224 228 228 228 229 231 231 232 233 233 235 235 236 237 237 238 240 240 240 241 244 246 246 246 247 248 249 250
8.8
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6
Pre-commissioning 8.8.1 General 8.8.2 Flooding and hydrotesting 8.8.3 Gauging 8.8.4 Cleaning 8.8.5 De-watering 8.8.6 Drying 8.8.7 Nitrogen purging
Chapter 9 Control and documentation Introduction General requirements 9.2.1 General 9.2.2 Quality management 9.2.3 Document formats 9.2.4 Communication 9.2.5 Document register 9.2.6 Document review and acceptance 9.2.7 Nonconforming items Design 9.3.1 Design basis 9.3.2 Design documentation 9.3.3 Design drawings Supply and fabrication 9.4.1 General 9.4.2 Pipe production 9.4.3 Anode manufacture 9.4.4 Pipe coating 9.4.5 Other supplies Installation 9.5.1 General 9.5.2 Installation manuals 9.5.3 Contractor’s engineering and management 9.5.4 Installation procedures 9.5.5 Construction reporting As-built documentation 9.6.1 General 9.6.2 Pipeline management systems
Chapter 10 Flexible pipes 10.1 Introduction 10.1.1 General 10.1.2 The world’s first subsea flexible pipes 10.1.3 Unbonded flexible pipe specification
Contents
ix
250 250 251 253 254 256 257 258
259 259 259 259 260 260 260 261 261 262 262 262 263 263 264 264 264 266 268 269 270 270 270 270 271 274 276 276 276
278 278 278 280 280
x
Contents
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
Flexible pipe structure 10.2.1 General 10.2.2 Internal carcass 10.2.3 Inner liner 10.2.4 Pressure armour 10.2.5 Tensile armour 10.2.6 Holding bandage 10.2.7 Outer sheath 10.2.8 Additional layers Flexible pipe design 10.3.1 General 10.3.2 Load conditions 10.3.3 Cross-sectional design 10.3.4 End fitting 10.3.5 System design 10.3.6 Service life analysis Material qualification 10.4.1 General 10.4.2 Metallic materials 10.4.3 Polymeric materials 10.4.4 Epoxy resin 10.4.5 Fibre-reinforced polymers Fabrication 10.5.1 General 10.5.2 Pipe 10.5.3 End fitting 10.5.4 Factory acceptance test 10.5.5 Packing and load out Installation and pipe qualification 10.6.1 Installation 10.6.2 Flexible pipe qualification 10.6.3 Prototype testing
Chapter 11 Operation 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Flow assurance 11.2.1 General 11.2.2 Mitigation of flow blockage 11.3 Operation, maintenance and abandonment 11.3.1 General 11.3.2 Commissioning and operation 11.3.3 Maintenance 11.3.4 Changes to the design condition
282 282 283 283 284 285 286 286 287 287 287 289 291 293 294 298 303 303 304 305 305 305 306 306 306 307 307 308 309 309 311 311
316 316 317 317 317 318 318 318 320 320
11.4
11.5
11.3.5 Decommissioning and abandonment 11.3.6 Pipeline pigging In-service inspection 11.4.1 General 11.4.2 Start-up inspection 11.4.3 Periodical inspection Repair assessment 11.5.1 General 11.5.2 Pipe defects
Bibliography and references Introduction Guidance documents Books and papers
Author index
Subject index
Contents
xi
321 321 322 322 322 323 325 325 325
327 327 327 331
335
337