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Food Packaging Technology

De
368 pages
If all possible food packaging systems are listed and related to the materials from which they are made, it becomes clear that the key packaging materials – glass, metal, plastics and paperboard – are competing heavily with each other. There is a battle over which type of container is going into which application, and it is therefore necessary to consider which materials (or combination of materials) and processes will best serve the market and enhance brand value.


This volume provides a contemporary overview of food processing/packaging technologies. It acquaints the reader with food preservation processes, shelf life and logistical considerations, and packaging materials, machines and processes necessary for a wide range of packaging presentations.

It is directed at packaging technologists, those involved in the design and development of packaging, users of packaging in food companies and those who specify or purchase packaging. The book will also be of interest to manufacturers of packaging machinery.

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Contents
Contributors Preface
1
2
Introduction RICHARD COLES
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Packaging developments – an historical perspective 1.3 Food supply and the protective role of packaging 1.4 The value of packaging to society 1.5 Definitions and basic functions of packaging 1.6 Packaging strategy 1.7 Packaging design and development 1.7.1 The packaging design and development framework 1.7.1.1 Product needs 1.7.1.2 Distribution needs and wants of packaging 1.7.1.3 Packaging materials, machinery and production processes 1.7.1.4 Consumer needs and wants of packaging 1.7.1.5 Multiple food retail market needs and wants 1.7.1.6 Environmental performance of packaging 1.7.2 Packaging specifications and standards 1.8 Conclusion Literature reviewed and sources of information
Food biodeterioration and methods of preservation GARY S. TUCKER
2.1 2.2
2.3
Introduction Agents of food biodeterioration 2.2.1 Enzymes 2.2.2 Microorganisms 2.2.2.1 Bacteria 2.2.2.2 Fungi 2.2.3 Nonenzymic biodeterioration Food preservation methods 2.3.1 High temperature 2.3.1.1 Blanching 2.3.1.2 Thermal processing 2.3.1.3 Continuous thermal processing (aseptic) 2.3.1.4 Pasteurisation 2.3.2 Low temperature 2.3.2.1 Freezing 2.3.2.2 Chilling and cooling
xv xvii
1
1 2 4 7 8 9 9 12 13 13 16 18 22 26 28 29 29
32
32 33 33 34 35 38 40 41 41 42 42 47 51 52 52 53
vi
3
4
CONTENTS
2.3.3 Drying and water activity control 2.3.4 Chemical preservation 2.3.4.1 Curing 2.3.4.2 Pickling 2.3.4.3 Smoking 2.3.5 Fermentation 2.3.6 Modifying the atmosphere 2.3.7 Other techniques and developments 2.3.7.1 High pressure processing 2.3.7.2 Ohmic heating 2.3.7.3 Irradiation 2.3.7.4 Membrane processing 2.3.7.5 Microwave processing References
Packaged product quality and shelf life HELEN BROWN and JAMES WILLIAMS
3.1 Introduction 3.2 Factors affecting product quality and shelf life 3.3 Chemical / biochemical processes 3.3.1 Oxidation 3.3.2 Enzyme activity 3.4 Microbiological processes 3.4.1 Examples where packaging is key to maintaining microbiological shelf life 3.5 Physical and physicochemical processes 3.5.1 Physical damage 3.5.2 Insect damage 3.5.3 Moisture changes 3.5.4 Barrier to odour pickup 3.5.5 Flavour scalping 3.6 Migration from packaging to foods 3.6.1 Migration from plastic packaging 3.6.2 Migration from other packaging materials 3.6.3 Factors affecting migration from food contact materials 3.6.4 Packaging selection to avoid migration and packaging taints 3.6.5 Methods for monitoring migration 3.7 Conclusion References
Logistical packaging for food marketing systems DIANA TWEDE and BRUCE HARTE
4.1 4.2
Introduction Functions of logistical packaging 4.2.1 Protection 4.2.2 Utility/productivity 4.2.3 Communication
54 56 57 58 58 59 60 61 61 62 62 62 63 63
65
65 68 69 70 73 74
75 77 77 78 78 81 81 81 83 86 88 89 89 91 91
95
95 96 97 98 99
5
CONTENTS
4.3 Logistics activityspecific and integration issues 4.3.1 Packaging issues in food processing and retailing 4.3.2 Transport issues 4.3.3 Warehousing issues 4.3.4 Retail customer service issues 4.3.5 Waste issues 4.3.6 Supply chain integration issues 4.4 Distribution performance testing 4.4.1 Shock and vibration testing 4.4.2 Compression testing 4.5 Packaging materials and systems 4.5.1 Corrugated fiberboard boxes 4.5.2 Shrink bundles 4.5.3 Reusable totes 4.5.4 Unitization 4.6 Conclusion References
Metal cans BEV PAGE, MIKE EDWARDS and NICK MAY
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7 5.8
5.9
Overview of market for metal cans Container performance requirements Container designs Raw materials for canmaking 5.4.1 Steel 5.4.2 Aluminium 5.4.3 Recycling of packaging metal Canmaking processes 5.5.1 Threepiece welded cans 5.5.2 Twopiece single drawn and multiple drawn (DRD) cans 5.5.3 Twopiece drawn and wall ironed (DWI) cans Endmaking processes 5.6.1 Plain food can ends and shells for food/drink easyopen ends 5.6.2 Conversion of end shells into easyopen ends Coatings, film laminates and inks Processing of food and drinks in metal packages 5.8.1 Can reception at the packer 5.8.2 Filling and exhausting 5.8.3 Seaming 5.8.4 Heat processing 5.8.5 Postprocess can cooling, drying and labelling 5.8.6 Container handling 5.8.7 Storage and distribution Shelf life of canned foods 5.9.1 Interactions between the can and its contents 5.9.2 The role of tin 5.9.3 The dissolution of tin from the can surface 5.9.4 Tin toxicity
vii
100 100 101 104 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 112 115 115 116 119 119
120
120 120 121 123 123 124 124 124 125 126 127 129 130 130 131 132 132 133 135 137 138 139 140 141 142 142 144 145
viii
6
CONTENTS
5.9.5 Iron 5.9.6 Lead 5.9.7 Aluminium 5.9.8 Lacquers 5.10 Internal corrosion 5.11 Stress corrosion cracking 5.12 Environmental stress cracking corrosion of aluminium alloy beverage can ends 5.13 Sulphur staining 5.14 External corrosion 5.15 Conclusion References and further reading
Packaging of food in glass containers P.J. GIRLING
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8
6.9
Introduction 6.1.1 Definition of glass 6.1.2 Brief history 6.1.3 Glass packaging 6.1.4 Glass containers market sectors for foods and drinks 6.1.5 Glass composition 6.1.5.1 White flint (clear glass) 6.1.5.2 Pale green (half white) 6.1.5.3 Dark green 6.1.5.4 Amber (brown in various colour densities) 6.1.5.5 Blue Attributes of food packaged in glass containers 6.2.1 Glass pack integrity and product compatibility 6.2.1.1 Safety 6.2.1.2 Product compatibility 6.2.2 Consumer acceptability Glass and glass container manufacture 6.3.1 Melting 6.3.2 Container forming 6.3.3 Design parameters 6.3.4 Surface treatments 6.3.4.1 Hot end treatment 6.3.4.2 Cold end treatment 6.3.4.3 Lowcost production tooling 6.3.4.4 Container inspection and quality Closure selection 6.4.1 Normal seals 6.4.2 Vacuum seals 6.4.3 Pressure seals Thermal processing of glass packaged foods Plastic sleeving and decorating possibilities Strength in theory and practice Glass pack design and specification 6.8.1 Concept and bottle design Packing – due diligence in the use of glass containers
146 147 147 147 148 148 149 149 149 150 151
152
152 152 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 154 154 154 156 156 156 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 160 161 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 167 167 169
7
CONTENTS
6.10 Environmental profile 6.10.1 Reuse 6.10.2 Recycling 6.10.3 Reduction – lightweighting 6.11 Glass as a marketing tool References Further reading
Plastics in food packaging MARK J. KIRWAN and JOHN W. STRAWBRIDGE
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Introduction 7.1.1 Definition and background 7.1.2 Use of plastics in food packaging 7.1.3 Types of plastics used in food packaging Manufacture of plastics packaging 7.2.1 Introduction to the manufacture of plastics packaging 7.2.2 Plastic film and sheet for packaging 7.2.3 Pack types based on use of plastic films, laminates etc. 7.2.4 Rigid plastic packaging Types of plastic used in packaging 7.3.1 Polyethylene 7.3.2 Polypropylene (PP) 7.3.3 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) 7.3.4 Polyethylene naphthalene dicarboxylate (PEN) 7.3.5 Polycarbonate (PC) 7.3.6 Ionomers 7.3.7 Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) 7.3.8 Polyamide (PA) 7.3.9 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 7.3.10 Polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC) 7.3.11 Polystyrene (PS) 7.3.12 Styrene butadiene (SB) 7.3.13 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 7.3.14 Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) 7.3.15 Polymethyl pentene (TPX) 7.3.16 High nitrile polymers (HNP) 7.3.17 Fluoropolymers 7.3.18 Cellulosebased materials 7.3.19 Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) Coating of plastic films – types and properties 7.4.1 Introduction to coating 7.4.2 Acrylic coatings 7.4.3 PVdC coatings 7.4.4 PVOH coatings 7.4.5 Lowtemperature sealing coatings (LTSCs) 7.4.6 Metallising with aluminium 7.4.7 SiO coatings x 7.4.8 DLC (Diamondlike coating) 7.4.9 Extrusion coating with PE
ix
171 171 171 172 172 172 173
174
174 174 175 177 178 178 179 183 186 189 189 191 194 195 196 196 197 197 198 199 200 201 201 201 202 202 203 203 204 205 205 205 206 206 206 207 207 208 208
x
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10 7.11
7.12
CONTENTS
Secondary conversion techniques 7.5.1 Film lamination by adhesive 7.5.2 Extrusion lamination 7.5.3 Thermal lamination Printing 7.6.1 Introduction to the printing of plastic films 7.6.2 Gravure printing 7.6.3 Flexographic printing 7.6.4 Digital printing Printing and labelling of rigid plastic containers 7.7.1 Inmould labelling 7.7.2 Labelling 7.7.3 Dry offset printing 7.7.4 Silk screen printing 7.7.5 Heat transfer printing Food contact and barrier properties 7.8.1 The issues 7.8.2 Migration 7.8.3 Permeation 7.8.4 Changes in flavour Sealability and closure 7.9.1 Introduction to sealability and closure 7.9.2 Heat sealing 7.9.2.1 Flat jaw sealing 7.9.2.2 Crimp jaw conditions 7.9.2.3 Impulse sealing 7.9.2.4 Hot wheel sealing 7.9.2.5 Hot air sealers 7.9.2.6 Gas flame sealers 7.9.2.7 Induction sealing 7.9.2.8 Ultrasonic sealing 7.9.3 Cold seal 7.9.4 Plastic closures for bottles, jars and tubs 7.9.5 Adhesive systems used with plastics How to choose Retort pouch 7.11.1 Packaging innovation 7.11.2 Applications 7.11.3 Advantages and disadvantages 7.11.4 Production of pouches 7.11.5 Filling and sealing 7.11.6 Processing 7.11.7 Process determination 7.11.8 Post retort handling 7.11.9 Outer packaging 7.11.10 Quality assurance 7.11.11 Shelf life Environmental and waste management issues 7.12.1 Environmental benefit 7.12.2 Sustainable development 7.12.3 Resource minimisation – lightweighting
208 208 210 211 211 211 211 212 212 212 212 213 213 213 213 214 214 214 215 216 217 217 217 218 219 220 220 221 221 221 221 221 221 222 222 224 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 233
8
CONTENTS
7.12.4 Plastics manufacturing and life cycle assessment (LCA) 7.12.5 Plastics waste management 7.12.5.1 Introduction to plastics waste management 7.12.5.2 Energy recovery 7.12.5.3 Feedstock recycling 7.12.5.4 Biodegradable plastics Appendices References Further reading Websites
Paper and paperboard packaging M.J. KIRWAN
8.1 8.2 8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
Introduction Paper and paperboard – fibre sources and fibre separation (pulping) Paper and paperboard manufacture 8.3.1 Stock preparation 8.3.2 Sheet forming 8.3.3 Pressing 8.3.4 Drying 8.3.5 Coating 8.3.6 Reelup 8.3.7 Finishing Packaging papers and paperboards 8.4.1 Wet strength paper 8.4.2 Microcreping 8.4.3 Greaseproof 8.4.4 Glassine 8.4.5 Vegetable parchment 8.4.6 Tissues 8.4.7 Paper labels 8.4.8 Bag papers 8.4.9 Sack kraft 8.4.10 Impregnated papers 8.4.11 Laminating papers 8.4.12 Solid bleached board (SBB) 8.4.13 Solid unbleached board (SUB) 8.4.14 Folding boxboard (FBB) 8.4.15 White lined chipboard (WLC) Properties of paper and paperboard 8.5.1 Appearance 8.5.2 Performance Additional functional properties of paper and paperboard 8.6.1 Treatment during manufacture 8.6.1.1 Hard sizing 8.6.1.2 Sizing with wax 8.6.1.3 Acrylic resin dispersion 8.6.1.4 Fluorocarbon dispersion 8.6.2 Lamination
xi
234 235 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 240
241
241 243 245 245 245 246 247 248 248 248 248 249 249 249 249 249 250 250 250 250 250 251 251 251 252 253 254 254 254 255 255 255 255 255 255 255
xii
9
10
CONTENTS
8.6.3 Plastic extrusion coating and laminating 8.6.4 Printing and varnishing 8.6.5 Postprinting roller varnishing/coating/laminating 8.7 Design for paper and paperboard packaging 8.8 Package types 8.8.1 Tea and coffee bags 8.8.2 Paper bags and wrapping paper 8.8.3 Sachets/pouches/overwraps 8.8.4 Multiwall paper sacks 8.8.5 Folding cartons 8.8.6 Liquid packaging cartons 8.8.7 Rigid cartons or boxes 8.8.8 Paper based tubes, tubs and composite containers 8.8.8.1 Tubes 8.8.8.2 Tubs 8.8.8.3 Composite containers 8.8.9 Fibre drums 8.8.10 Corrugated fibreboard packaging 8.8.11 Moulded pulp containers 8.8.12 Labels 8.8.13 Sealing tapes 8.8.14 Cushioning materials 8.8.15 Cap liners (wads) and diaphragms 8.9 Systems 8.10 Environmental profile Reference Further reading Websites
Active packaging BRIAN P.F. DAY
9.1 Introduction 9.2 Oxygen scavengers 9.2.1 ZERO2™ oxygen scavenging materials 9.3 Carbon dioxide scavengers/emitters 9.4 Ethylene scavengers 9.5 Ethanol emitters 9.6 Preservative releasers 9.7 Moisture absorbers 9.8 Flavour/odour adsorbers 9.9 Temperature control packaging 9.10 Food safety, consumer acceptability and regulatory issues 9.11 Conclusions References
Modified atmosphere packaging MICHAEL MULLAN and DEREK MCDOWELL
Section A MAP gases, packaging materials and equipment 10.A1 Introduction 10.A1.1 Historical development
256 257 258 258 259 259 259 260 262 263 265 267 268 268 268 268 268 269 272 273 275 276 276 277 277 281 281 281
282
282 284 288 289 290 292 293 295 296 297 298 300 300
303
303 303 304
10.A2
10.A3
10.A4
10.A5
CONTENTS
Gaseous environment 10.A2.1 Gases used in MAP 10.A2.1.1 Carbon dioxide 10.A2.1.2 Oxygen 10.A2.1.3 Nitrogen 10.A2.1.4 Carbon monoxide 10.A2.1.5 Noble gases 10.A2.2 Effect of the gaseous environment on the activity of bacteria, yeasts and moulds 10.A2.2.1 Effect of oxygen 10.A2.2.2 Effect of carbon dioxide 10.A2.2.3 Effect of nitrogen 10.A2.3 Effect of the gaseous environment on the chemical, biochemical and physical properties of foods 10.A2.3.1 Effect of oxygen 10.A2.3.2 Effects of other MAP gases 10.A2.4 Physical spoilage Packaging materials 10.A3.1 Main plastics used in MAP 10.A3.1.1 Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) 10.A3.1.2 Polyethylenes (PE) 10.A3.1.3 Polyamides (PA) 10.A3.1.4 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 10.A3.1.5 Polypropylene (PP) 10.A3.1.6 Polystyrene (PS) 10.A3.1.7 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 10.A3.1.8 Polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC) 10.A3.2 Selection of plastic packaging materials 10.A3.2.1 Food contact approval 10.A3.2.2 Gas and vapour barrier properties 10.A3.2.3 Optical properties 10.A3.2.4 Antifogging properties 10.A3.2.5 Mechanical properties 10.A3.2.6 Heat sealing properties Modified atmosphere packaging machines 10.A4.1 Chamber machines 10.A4.2 Snorkel machines 10.A4.3 Formfillseal tray machines 10.A4.3.1 Negative forming 10.A4.3.2 Negative forming with plug assistance 10.A4.3.3 Positive forming with plug assistance 10.A4.4 Preformed trays 10.A4.4.1 Preformed trays versus thermoformed trays 10.A4.5 Modification of the pack atmosphere 10.A4.5.1 Gas flushing 10.A4.5.2 Compensated vacuum gas flushing 10.A4.6 Sealing 10.A4.7 Cutting 10.A4.8 Additional operations Quality assurance of MAP 10.A5.1 Heat seal integrity 10.A5.1.1 Nondestructive pack testing equipment
xiii
304 304 304 305 305 305 306
306 306 307 308
308 309 310 311 311 312 312 312 313 313 313 314 314 314 315 315 315 318 318 318 319 319 319 319 320 320 321 321 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 326 326 328
xiv
10.A5.2
10.A5.3
CONTENTS
10.A5.1.2 Destructive pack testing equipment Measurement of transmission rate and permeability in packaging films 10.A5.2.1 Water vapour transmission rate and measurement 10.A5.2.2 Measurement of oxygen transmission rate 10.A5.2.3 Measurement of carbon dioxide transmission rate Determination of headspace gas composition 10.A5.3.1 Oxygen determination 10.A5.3.2 Carbon dioxide determination
Section B Main food types 10.B1 Raw red meat 10.B2 Raw poultry 10.B3 Cooked, cured and processed meat products 10.B4 Fish and fish products 10.B5 Fruits and vegetables 10.B6 Dairy products References
Index
328 329 329 331 331 331 331 331
331 331 332 333 334 335 338 338
340