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Marine Ornamental Shrimp

De
280 pages
Marine ornamental shrimp are amongst the most heavily traded invertebrate species in the aquarium industry. The majority of traded species are still collected from the wild, having a major effect on ocean ecosystems. An increase in the amount of culture of these species is now a major priority for those in the trade and for marine conservationists.

Marine Ornamental Shrimp provides a global overview of the biology, culture and conservation of the major families of marine ornamental shrimp. Coverage in this thorough volume includes ecological aspects, reproductive biology, major techniques used in culture systems for maturation, larviculture, and juvenile growth, and details of the main conservation issues surrounding these important species including a discussion of the negative aspects of wild specimen collection and the ongoing efforts to mitigate such impacts.

Marine Ornamental Shrimp is an important and extremely timely publication which will be an essential reference and manual for all those involved in the trade and culture of marine ornamental species, including aquaculture scientists and personnel in aquaria. Conservation biologists and invertebrate zoologists will also find much of importance within this book. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where aquaculture and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this book on their shelves.

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Contents
Foreword
Acknowledgements
1
2
3
4
Introduction 1.1 The marine ornamentals industry 1.2 What is a marine ornamental shrimp? 1.3 Recruiting new ornamental shrimp species for the marine aquarium trade 1.4 New ‘best-selling’ marine ornamental shrimps
Collected and Traded Species 2.1 Collecting sites and techniques 2.2 Marine ornamental shrimp families 2.2.1 Family Stenopodidae 2.2.2 Family Alpheidae 2.2.3 Family Gnathophyllidae 2.2.4 Family Hippolytidae 2.2.5 Family Hymenoceridae 2.2.6 Family Palaemonidae (subfamily Pontoniinae) 2.2.7 Family Palaemonidae (subfamily Palaemoninae) 2.2.8 Family Rhynchocinetidae
Ecological Aspects 3.1 Ornamental shrimp coloration 3.2 Sea anemone–shrimp associations 3.3 Fish cleaner shrimps 3.4 Goby–shrimp associations 3.5 Other remarkable associations 3.6Hymenoceraand their starfish diet
Reproductive Biology and Mating Behavior 4.1 Stenopodidean shrimps 4.2 Caridean shrimps
xi
xiii
1 1 3
5 6
9 9 10 10 14 16 16 20 20 22 22
23 23 24 25 31 33 34
37 37 39
viii
Contents
5
6
7
8
Larval Development and Metamorphosis 5.1 Larval stages and morphology 5.2 Energetic aspects of larval biology 5.3 Metamorphosis and settlement cues
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4
Broodstock Maintenance in Captivity Broodstock maturation systems Choosing broodstock and triggering maturation in captivity Broodstock nutrition 6.3.1 Lipids 6.3.2 Proteins 6.3.3 Carbohydrates 6.3.4 Vitamins 6.3.5 Minerals 6.3.6 Carotenoids Broodstock condition and larval quality 6.4.1 Biochemical criteria 6.4.2 Morphological criteria 6.4.3 Behavioral criteria 6.4.4 Productive criteria 6.4.5 Survival in stress tests
Larval Culture 7.1 Larval culture systems 7.2 Culture procedures and selection of high quality larvae 7.2.1 Larval quality and culture tank management 7.2.2 Water quality 7.2.3 Microbiological aspects 7.2.4 Importance of water temperature, larval density, and photoperiod 7.2.5 Settlement cues 7.3 Larval feeds and nutrition 7.3.1 Microalgae 7.3.2 Rotifers 7.3.3Artemia 7.3.4 Copepods and mesocosms 7.3.5 Other dietary items 7.3.6 Formulated larval diets and digestibility issues
Grow-out 8.1 Grow-out systems and culture procedures 8.2 Grow-out diets, and nutritional and energetic issues
45 45 54 56
59 59
70 72 76 78 79 79 81 81 83 84 85 86 86 86
89 89 97 97 101 102
107 109 112 113 117 119 122 124 126
129 129 139
9
10
11
12
8.3 8.4
Contents
Wild juvenile shrimps raised in captivity Packing, shipping and acclimatizing ornamental shrimps
Other Marine Ornamental Decapod Species with Culture Potential 9.1 Marine ornamental porcelain crabs 9.2 Marine ornamental hermit crabs 9.3 Marine ornamental crabs 9.4 Marine ornamental lobsters
Future Improvements in Marine Ornamental Shrimp Culture 10.1 Broodstock management and maturation 10.2 Larval culture 10.3 Grow-out 10.4 Traceability and marketability
Conservation Issues
Conclusions
Glossary
References
Index257
Colour plate section after page 146
ix
143 147
153 153 157 161 171
175 175 177 179 182
185
191
195
201