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Oils and Fats Authentication

De
224 pages
Quality assessment and the need for authentication are important features of the food and personal care products industries. This volume provides an overview of the methods relevant to analysis and authentication of oils and fats. All the major oils and fats are included. Chapter authors are drawn from the academic and industrial sectors.

The volume is directed at chemists and technologists working in the food industry, the pharmaceutical industry and in oils and fats processing. It will also be of interest to analytical chemists and quality assurance personnel.

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Contents
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Adulteration and authentication of oils and fats: an overview MICHAEL JEE
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Early adulteration and its detection 1.3 Introduction of more systematic methods of detecting adulteration 1.4 Range of methods used today 1.5 Adulteration of vegetable bulk oils 1.6 Adulteration of specialist oils 1.7 Oils derived from genetically modiWed plants 1.8 Organic and nonreWned oils 1.9 Authentication in the future References
Authentication of olive oil GIORGIO BIANCHI
2.1 Introduction 2.2 From olives to olive oil  2.2.1 Extraction methods  2.2.2 Exhaustive extraction of olive oil: oliveresidue oil 2.3 Olive oil composition: major compound classes 2.4 Olive oil categories 2.5 Contextual meaning of words used 2.6 OfWcial analysis methods 2.7 Quality parameters 2.8 Chemical and chemicophysical analysis 2.9 Oxidation  2.9.1 Lipid hydroperoxides  2.9.2 Autoxidation  2.9.3 Photoxidation  2.9.4 Lipoxygenase oxidation  2.9.5 Transformation of hydroperoxides  2.9.6 Ultraviolet absorption to detect oxidation and reWning  2.9.7 Ultraviolet absorptionK232,K270andK 2.9.8 Doublebond migration to give conjugated polyenes  2.9.9 Peroxide value, anisidine value and thiobarbituric acid test 2.10 Free fatty acids 2.11 Fatty acid composition  2.11.1 Detecting seed oils  2.11.2Transfatty acids in reWned and deodorized oils 2.12 High performance liquid chromatography criteria for detecting sophistication  with seed oils
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1 2 2 5 7 11 12 14 16 19
25
25 25 26 27 27 28 32 33 33 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 43 43 48 48 50 51 51 52
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x
3
4
CONTENTS
2.13 Analysis of sterols, sterenes, erythrodiol and uvaol  2.13.1 Sterols  2.13.2 Sterenes  2.13.3 Erythrodiol and uvaol 2.14 Chlorinated solvents and aromatic hydrocarbons 2.15 Fatty acids at the glycerol 2position by lipase method 2.16 Waxes and oliveresidue oil 2.17 Panel test for organoleptic analysis Acknowledgements References
Authentication of cocoa butter COLIN CREWS
3.1 Introduction 3.2 Authenticity issues  3.2.1 Cocoa butter quality  3.2.2 Geographical origin 3.3 Cocoa butter alternatives 3.4 Composition and analysis for authenticity  3.4.1 Acylglycerols  3.4.2 Fatty acids  3.4.3 Sterols  3.4.4 Sterol esters  3.4.5 Sterol degradation products  3.4.6 Tocopherols  3.4.7 Pyrolysis products  3.4.8 Volatile components  3.4.9 Trace elements  3.4.10 Stable isotope ratios  3.4.11 Physical methods  3.4.12 Statistical methods  Future issues References
Authentication of evening primrose, borage andWsh oils N. A. MICHAEL ESKIN
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
Introduction Fatty acid composition 4.2.1Linolenic acid 4.2.2 Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids High GLA oils 4.3.1 Evening primrose oil 4.3.2 Borage oil 4.3.3 Triacylglycerol structure of EPO and BO 4.3.4 UnsaponiWable fraction of EPO and BO  4.3.4.1 Tocopherols  4.3.4.2 Phytosterols Fish oils 4.4.1 Sardine oil
54 55 56 56 57 57 60 60 64 64
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66 68 68 69 69 72 73 77 78 81 82 83 84 84 85 85 86 87 88 89
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95 95 96 97 98 98 101 103 105 105 106 107 107
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6
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CONTENTS
 4.4.2 Menhaden oil  4.4.3 EncapsulatedWsh oils  4.4.4 Triacylglycerol analysis ofWsh oils References
Milk fat and other animal fats MICHAEL JEE
5.1 Introduction 5.2 Checking for the absence of animal fats  5.2.1 Requirements  5.2.2 Determining the absence of any animal (including marine) fats  5.2.3 Interpretation of the results of cholesterol determinations  5.2.4 Absence of animal fats in oleochemicals  5.2.5 Absence of pork fat in oil 5.3 Authentication of milk fats  5.3.1 Bovine milk fat  5.3.2 Milk fat from other animal sources 5.4 Carcass fats  5.4.1 Beef tallow  5.4.2 Pork fat  5.4.3 Authentication of fats from other sources 5.5 Conclusions References
Analysis of minor components as an aid to authentication MICHAEL H. GORDON
6.1 Introduction 6.2 Sterols and related compounds  6.2.1 Sterols  6.2.2 Effect of reWning on the sterol content of oil  6.2.3 Analysis of sterols  6.2.4 Detection of adulteration of pressed oil by addition of reWned oil  based on steradiene analysis  6.2.5 Formation of disteryl ethers 6.3 Tocopherols and tocotrienols 6.4 Fatty alcohols 6.5 Phenols, lignans, secoiridoids andXavonoids 6.6 Hydrocarbons 6.7 Other components 6.8 Conclusion References
Chemometrics as an aid in authentication RAMÓN APARICIO and RAMÓN APARICIORUIZ
7.1 Introduction 7.2 Chemometric procedures in food authentication
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108 109 110 111
115
115 115 115 116 117 118 120 122 122 131 133 133 133 135 135 135
143
143 143 143 147 147
148 150 150 151 152 152 153 153 153
156
156 156
xii
8
CONTENTS
 7.2.1 Pretreatment of data 7.3 Multivariate procedures  7.3.1 Cluster analysis  7.3.2 Factor analysis  7.3.3 Multidimensional scaling  7.3.4 Discriminant analysis  7.3.5 Regression procedures 7.4 ArtiWcial intelligence methods in food authentication  7.4.1 Expert systems  7.4.2 Neural networks  7.4.3 Fuzzy logic References
Authenticity of edible oils and fats: the legal position CATRIONA STEWART
8.1 Introduction 8.2 UK and European legislation  8.2.1 Trades Description Act 1968  8.2.2 Food Safety Act 1990 and Food Labelling Regulations 1996  8.2.3 Marketing standards for olive oil  8.2.4 Origin labelling of olive oils  8.2.5 Review of olive oil classiWcation and labelling 8.3 International standards –Codex Alimentarius 8.3.1Codex AlimentariusCommission  8.3.2 Codex general labelling requirements  8.3.3 Codex standards for fats and oils 8.4 Enforcement and monitoring of labelling legislation  8.4.1 The FSA food authenticity research and development programme  8.4.2 The FSA food authenticity surveillance programme 8.5 Conclusions References
Index
157 159 160 161 165 165 169 173 173 175 177 178
181
181 182 182 182 184 186 187 190 190 193 193 199 199 200 202 202
206