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Rapeseed and Canola Oil

De
240 pages
Rapeseed is now the second largest oilseed crop after soybean, and the third largest vegetable oil after soybean oil and palm oil, and it is therefore an important contributor to the annual supply of vegetable oils required to meet an increasing demand.


This volume provides comprehensive coverage of rapeseed oil and its close relative, canola oil, from production (agronomic) aspects, through extraction to refining and processing. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties, food and non-food uses are considered in detail, and a chapter is included on future prospects, including oils available by means of genetic manipulation.


This is a book for oils and fats chemists and technologists in the food and oleochemical industries, chemical engineers in the processing industry, nutritionists and seed technologists.

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Contents
Contributors Preface
1
2
Rapeseeds and rapeseed oil: agronomy, production, and trade E.J. BOOTH and F.D. GUNSTONE
1.1 Oilseed rape in context 1.2 Major developments in variety types 1.3 Crop establishment 1.4 Fertiliser requirement 1.5 Crop protection 1.5.1 Crop protection – weeds 1.5.2 Crop protection – pests 1.5.3 Crop protection – diseases 1.6 Maturity and harvesting 1.7 Production and trade for oilseeds and oil 1.8 Rapeseed 1.9 Rapeseed oil References
Extraction and refining E.J. BOOTH
2.1 2.2
2.3
Introduction Oil extraction steps 2.2.1 Pretreatment 2.2.1.1 Seed cleaning 2.2.1.2 Tempering 2.2.1.3 Dehulling 2.2.1.4 Flaking 2.2.1.5 Conditioning 2.2.2 Mechanical extraction 2.2.2.1 Oil extraction based solely on mechanical methods 2.2.2.2 Oil settling and filtering 2.2.3 Solvent extraction 2.2.3.1 Solvent recovery 2.2.3.2 Desolventising – toasting 2.2.3.3 Alternative solvents for oil extraction 2.2.4 Composition of crude oil Refining 2.3.1 Degumming 2.3.2 Physical refining 2.3.3 Alkali refining
x xi
1
1 2 3 6 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 15 15
17
17 17 17 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 26 26 27 28 29 29
vi
3
4
CONTENTS
2.3.4 Bleaching 2.3.5 Winterisation 2.3.6 Deodourisation 2.4 Biorefining – an alternative oilseed processing method References
Chemical composition of canola and rapeseed oils W.M.N. RATNAYAKE and J.K. DAUN
3.1 Brief history of the development of rapeseed oils 3.2 Development of specialty types of rapeseed oils 3.3 Minor fatty acids 3.4 Triacylglycerols of rapeseed and canola oils 3.5 Minor lipid components 3.5.1 Sterols 3.5.2 Tocopherols 3.5.3 Carotenoids 3.5.4 Waxes 3.5.5 Polar lipids 3.6 Chlorophyll 3.7 Sulfur and sulfurcontaining compounds 3.8 Minerals 3.9 Conclusions References
Chemical and physical properties of canola and rapeseed oil DÉRICK ROUSSEAU
4.1 4.2
4.3
Introduction Chemical properties 4.2.1 Saponification value 4.2.2 Iodine value 4.2.3 Oxidative stability 4.2.3.1 Mechanism 4.2.3.2 Susceptibility to oxidation 4.2.3.3 Peroxide value 4.2.3.4 Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test 4.2.3.5pAnisidine 4.2.3.6 Conjugated dienes 4.2.3.7 Chromatography 4.2.3.8 Electronspin resonance 4.2.3.9 Sensory analysis Physical properties 4.3.1 Relative density 4.3.2 Viscosity 4.3.3 Surface and interfacial tension 4.3.4 Refractive index 4.3.5 Specific heat: heat of fusion or crystallisation 4.3.6 Heat of combustion 4.3.7 Smoke, flash and fire point 4.3.8 Solubility
30 31 31 32 35
37
37 41 44 48 59 59 63 66 66 67 68 70 71 72 73
79
79 79 80 80 81 81 84 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 91 92
5
6
CONTENTS
4.3.9 Cold test 4.3.10 Spectroscopic properties 4.3.11 Melting behaviour, polymorphism and crystal structure 4.3.11.1 Unsaturation level 4.3.11.2 Acyl chain length 4.3.11.3 Fatty acid isomers 4.3.11.4 Positional distribution 4.4 Modification strategies 4.4.1 Hydrogenation 4.4.2 Interesterification References
High erucic oil: its production and uses C. TEMPLEHEALD
5.1 Introduction 5.2 Crucifer oilseeds 5.2.1Brassica napus(HERO) 5.2.1.1 HEAR agronomy 5.2.2 Crambe abyssinica 5.2.2.1 Crambe agronomy 5.2.3 Mustard rapeseed 5.3 Processing of HEAR oils 5.3.1 Batch processes 5.3.2 Continuous splitting processes 5.3.3 Other splitting processes 5.4 Downstream processing of the split HEAR fatty acids 5.4.1 Fractional distillation 5.4.2 Dry or melt crystallisation 5.5 Quality problems associated with processing HEAR oils 5.5.1 Downstream processing problems 5.6 Meal quality 5.7 Users and producers of erucic acid 5.8 Uses of erucic acid 5.9 Genetic modification of HEAR crops 5.10 Ideal crop for industrial users References
Food uses and nutritional properties BRUCE E. MCDONALD
6.1 6.2
6.3 6.4 6.5
Introduction Food uses 6.2.1 Salad oils, salad dressings and mayonnaise 6.2.2 Margarine 6.2.3 Other uses Nutritional properties Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease Effect of canola oil on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins 6.5.1 Studies with normolipidemic subjects 6.5.2 Studies with hyperlipidemic subjects
vii
92 92 93 93 94 94 94 97 97 101 105
111
111 111 111 113 115 115 116 117 118 118 119 120 120 121 121 122 122 124 126 128 129 129
131
131 132 132 132 133 134 134 135 135 137
viii
7
8
CONTENTS
6.5.3 Potential effect of phytosterols in canola oil on plasma cholesterol levels 6.5.4 Effect of canola oil intake on lipid peroxidation 6.5.5 Canola oil and thrombogenesis 6.5.6 Effect of canola oil on fatty acid composition of plasma and platelet phospholipids 6.5.7 Effect of canola oil on clotting time and factors involved in clot formation 6.5.8 Canola oil and cardiac arrhythmia 6.6 The Lyon Diet Heart Study: the canola oil connection 6.7 Summary References
Nonfood uses KERR WALKER
7.1 Introduction 7.2 Biodiesel 7.2.1 Biodiesel feedstocks 7.2.2 Production of biodiesel 7.2.3 Fuel characteristics 7.2.4 Emissions 7.2.5 Economics of biodiesel production 7.2.6 Biodiesel market opportunities 7.2.7 Biodiesel production in Europe 7.3 Lubricants 7.3.1 Hydraulic fluids 7.3.2 Future market potential 7.3.3 Greases 7.3.4 Mould release agents 7.3.5 Motor and gear oils 7.3.6 Metal working fluids 7.3.7 Chainsaw oil 7.4 Surfactants 7.5 Paints and inks 7.6 Polymers References
Potential and future prospects for rapeseed oil CHRISTIAN MÖLLERS
8.1 8.2 8.3
8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8
Introduction Oil content and triacylglycerol structure Modification of the C fatty acid composition 18 8.3.1 Development of rapeseed with modified linolenic acid (18:3) content 8.3.2 Development of rapeseed with an increased oleic acid (18:1) content 8.3.3 Development of high oleic acid/low linolenic acid oilseed rape 8.3.4 Development of high stearic acid (18:0) oilseed rape Low saturated fatty acids Medium and short chain fatty acids Gamma linolenic acid Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids High erucic acid
140 140 142
143 146 147 147 149 149
154
154 154 155 158 160 160 163 166 166 167 169 171 171 172 173 174 176 177 179 181 182
186
186 188 189 189 191 192 193 193 194 196 197 198
8.9 Miscellaneous unusual fatty acids 8.10 Minor bioactive constituents 8.10.1 Polar lipids 8.10.2 Tocopherols 8.10.3 Sterols 8.10.4 Carotenoids 8.10.5 Chlorophyll 8.11 Conclusions and outlook References
List of acronyms Index
CONTENTS
ix
200 202 202 203 206 208 210 211 212
218 220