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Seafood Ecolabelling

De
472 pages
SEAFOOD Ecolabelling Principles and Practice

Edited by Trevor Ward and Bruce Phillips

In recent years there have been some major developments and a greatly increased recognition of the importance of more sustainable and environmentally-friendly fishing and fish-farming methods. Various types of seafood eco-endorsements have been introduced, and these initiatives have now blossomed into an extensive range of types of product endorsement labels and systems.

This volume comprehensively reviews the current eco-endorsement systems for seafood products, described in four main sections with contributions by leading experts from around the globe:

• A full description of the background and history of ecolabels, ratings, guides and choice systems
• Seafood evaluation and certification, including issues of quality, costs and benefits
• Highly significant case studies in the use of ecolabels, including details of programs undertaken with species such as Pollock, Baja Red Spiny Lobster, and Patagonian Toothfish
• The future of sustainable seafood

Seafood Ecolabelling is an essential purchase for all those involved in fisheries and aquaculture management and product certification and ecolabelling throughout the world. Professionals including fishery scientists and managers, fish farm managers, marine biologists, environmental biologists, conservation biologists, ecologists, natural resource managers, civil society and sustainability governance practitioners, and resource and environmental economists will find this book to be extremely valuable. Professionals involved in the seafood trade, including those in production, packaging, reselling and seafood product labelling, will find a great deal of commercial interest within this book. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences, food science and fisheries are studied and taught should have copies of this important book on their shelves.

Also available from Wiley-Blackwell
Eco-labelling in Fisheries
Edited by B. Phillips et al.
9780632064229

Environmental Best Practices for Aquaculture
Edited by C. Tucker & J. Hargreaves
9780813820279

Advances in Fisheries Science
Edited by A. Payne et al.
9781405170833

Fisheries Management and Ecology
Journal published bi-monthly
Print 0969-997X, Online 1385-2400

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Contents
Colour Plates Foreword John Beddington Notes on Contributors
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Ecolabelling of Seafood: The Basic Concepts Trevor J. Ward and Bruce Phillips 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Ecolabelling programmes 1.3 How ecolabelling works 1.4 Types of ecolabels 1.5 Ecolabelling governance 1.6 Sustainability standards 1.7 Ecolabelling in the marketplace 1.7.1 The Blue Angel 1.7.2 Uptake by business 1.7.3 Seafood ecolabelling in Asia 1.7.4 A chefs story References
The Economics of Ecolabelling Cathy A. Roheim 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The economics of consumer demand for ecolabelled products 2.2.1 The theoretical foundation: economics of information 2.2.2 Demand for attributes 2.2.3 Empirical analysis of consumer demand for ecolabelled seafood 2.2.4 Consumer demand for dolphinsafe tuna 2.3 The economics of the market 2.4 The economics of certification of fisheries 2.5 Conclusions and need for future research References
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Contents
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
FAO Guidelines for Ecolabelling in WildCapture Fisheries Rolf Willmann, Kevern Cochrane & William Emerson 3.1 The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and capture fisheries 3.2 The origins of the ecolabelling debate in FAO 3.3 The development of the FAO ecolabelling guidelines 3.3.1 Scope 3.3.2 Principles 3.3.3 General considerations 3.3.4 Terms and definitions 3.3.5 Minimum substantive requirements and criteria for ecolabels 3.3.6 Procedural and institutional aspects 3.4 Conclusions References
The Marine Stewardship Council Programme Rupert Howes 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The MSC background and history 4.3 How the MSC programme works 4.3.1 The concepts 4.3.2 Implementing the programme 4.4 The MSC vision and mission 4.5 Progress to date 4.5.1 Europe 4.5.2 North America 4.5.3 Central and South America 4.5.4 AsiaPacific region 4.5.5 Africa 4.6 The ecological case 4.7 Proof of concept 4.7.1 Retailers 4.7.2 Restaurants and foodservice 4.7.3 Consumer awareness 4.8 Strengthening the fishery assessment process 4.9 Traceability and assurance in the supply chain 4.10 Developing world programme 4.10.1 The GASSDD project 4.11 System of governance 4.12 The MSCs future References
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Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Aquaculture Certification Daniel Lee 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Sustainable aquaculture 5.3 Environmental pressure 5.4 Economic pressure 5.5 Aquaculture certification schemes 5.6 Unintended consequences 5.7 The alliance 5.8 The GAA principles 5.9 The GAA vision 5.10 Codes of practice 5.11 Standards 5.12 The Aquaculture Certification Council, Inc. 5.13 GAA perspectives 5.13.1 Mangroves 5.13.2 Fishmeal 5.13.3 Antibiotic residues 5.13.4 Trade issues 5.14 Conclusions References
Contents
GLOBALGAP  Building Consumer Confidence in Aquaculture Sustainability Aldin Hilbrands 6.1 Background 6.2 About GLOBALGAP 6.2.1 Governance 6.2.2 Process of standard development 6.2.3 Training and implementation 6.2.4 Auditing and certification 6.2.5 Accreditation of certification bodies 6.2.6 Benchmarking and approval of equivalent certification standards 6.3 The integrated aquaculture assurance standard References
Advancing the Global Marketplace for Sustainable Seafood: The Seafood Choices Alliance Michael Boots 7.1 Introduction 7.1.1 Conditioning the climate for sustainable seafood
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Contents
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
7.1.2 The power of social marketing 7.1.3 Filling a unique niche 7.1.4 Shifting perceptions and attitudes 7.2 Building the Seafood Choices Movement 7.2.1 The early days of the movement 7.2.2 Structure of the movement: Five pillars of seafood choices 7.3 Seafood Choices Alliance: An international association for sustainable seafood 7.3.1 Philosophy and approach 7.3.2 The work of the alliance 7.4 Looking forward: The evolution of a more diverse and global alliance 7.5 Conclusions References
Developing an International Standard for the Trade in Live Reef Food Fish Geoffrey Muldoon & Peter Scott 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The live reef food fish trade in AsiaPacific 8.3 Certification within the LRFFT 8.4 Developing the international standard 8.4.1 Background 8.4.2 Collaborative management models 8.4.3 Determining key elements for inclusion in the LRFFT standard 8.4.4 The scope of the LRFFT standard 8.4.5 Defining a preliminary standard structure 8.4.6 Development, review and revision of the standard 8.5 Bestpractice guidance and implementation 8.6 Implementing the standard 8.6.1 Compliance 8.6.2 Implementation frameworks 8.6.3 Assessing the feasibility of certification 8.7 Conclusions References
MarketBased Mechanisms  Improving Fisheries Management? Duncan Leadbitter 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Trends in seafood trade 9.3 Impacts of trade on fish and fisheries
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Chapter 10
Chapter 11
9.4 Illegal fishing  a compelling issue 9.5 The private sector and demand control 9.5.1 Catch tracking and identification 9.5.2 Marketplace identification and the role of consumers 9.6 Issues associated with seafood ecolabelling 9.7 Sourcing policies  retailers and the food trade 9.8 Species bans and advisory cards 9.9 Threats and opportunities 9.10 Summary and conclusions References
Contents
Measuring the Success of Seafood Ecolabelling Trevor J. Ward 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Producing seafood sustainably 10.2.1 The issues of concern 10.3 Assessing ecological sustainability 10.4 The nature of success 10.4.1 The sustainability standard 10.4.2 Clear and unequivocal standard 10.4.3 Scope and focus 10.4.4 Outcomes and processes 10.4.5 A balanced standard 10.4.6 Technical clarity 10.4.7 Achievable 10.4.8 Fixed versus flexible standard? 10.4.9 Normative standard 10.5 Verification 10.5.1 Verification cost versus quality 10.5.2 Grading of performance 10.6 Determining success 10.6.1 What to measure? 10.6.2 The decision basis for determining success 10.6.3 Dealing with uncertainty and gaps in knowledge 10.6.4 Timescales for improvement 10.7 Conclusions References
Case Study 1: Toothfish  An MSCCertified Fishery David Agnew 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Substantive issues
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Contents
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
11.3 The objection 11.4 Chain of custody 11.5 Current status of certification 11.6 Conclusions References
Case Study 2: The Baja California, Mexico, Lobster Fishery Bruce Phillips, Luis Bourillón & Mario Ramade 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Management system 12.3 Status of the stock 12.4 Why MSC certification was sought 12.5 The MSC assessment 12.6 The fishery and the market for products since certification 12.7 Benefits to the community and the environment 12.8 Some reflections on the certification References
Case Study 3: MSC Certification of the Alaska Pollock Fishery Jim Gilmore 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The Atsea Processors Association 13.3 The Alaska pollock fishery 13.4 The MSC assessment process  January 2001 to February 2005 13.5 Issues encountered by APA in the assessment process 13.5.1 A 4year long assessment process 13.5.2 Subjectivity in scoring 13.5.3 Retroactive application of new rules 13.6 Alaska pollock and the sustainable seafood marketplace 13.7 The MSC reform agenda 13.7.1 Private foundations and NGO attitudes 13.7.2 Clarifying, interpreting or changing the MSC sustainability standard 13.7.3 The environmental benefits project 13.7.4 Continuous improvement of participating fisheries 13.7.5 Improving the assessment process for participating fisheries 13.8 Conclusions References
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Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Contents
The Marine Stewardship Council and Developing Countries Stefano Ponte 14.1 Introduction 14.2 The Marine Stewardship Council initiative 14.2.1 General features 14.2.2 Early criticism of MSC 14.2.3 New challenges 14.3 MSC and the South African hake industry 14.3.1 Main features of the South African hake industry 14.3.2 Motivations for the adoption of MSC certification 14.3.3 The certification process 14.3.4 Verification after certification 14.4 An evaluation of MSC certification in South Africa 14.5 Conclusions References
Benefits of Certification for Smallscale Fisheries Meredith Lopuch 15.1 Introduction 15.2 The certification dilemmas 15.3 Benefits of the certification process 15.3.1 Filling knowledge gaps 15.3.2 Filling knowledge gaps in practice 15.3.3 Lobbying power 15.3.4 Creating lobbying power 15.3.5 Creating insurance 15.3.6 Using the process as insurance 15.3.7 Community organisation and empowerment 15.3.8 Creating community organisation and empowerment 15.3.9 Social and political benefits 15.3.10 Creating social and political benefits 15.4 Conclusions References
New England Aquarium: Supporting Environmentally Responsible Seafood Choices Heather Tausig, Michael Tlusty, Lydia Bergen, Gregory Stone & Kathleen Szleper 16.1 The New England Aquarium
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Contents
Chapter 17
16.2 The Aquariums programme 16.3 Encouraging increased fishery performance 16.4 The Aquariums decisionranking tool 16.4.1 Wild fisheries decisionranking tool 16.4.2 Aquaculture decisionranking tool 16.5 Applying the decisionranking tool to business recommendations 16.6 Expectations for outcomes 16.6.1 Industryrelated outcomes 16.6.2 Consumerrelated outcomes 16.7 New directions 16.7.1 Increased focus on aquaculture 16.7.2 New corporate partners 16.7.3 Working with suppliers 16.7.4 Increased involvement in collaborative efforts Acknowledgements References
® Monterey Bay Aquariums Seafood Watch Programme Jennifer Dianto Kemmerly 17.1 Introduction ® 17.2 History of the Monterey Bay Aquarium and the Seafood Watch programme 17.3 Target audiences of the Seafood Watch programme 17.4 Partnerships: Moving from awareness to action 17.4.1 Reaching consumers through partnerships 17.4.2 Reaching consumers through the internet 17.4.3 Reaching restaurateurs 17.4.4 Sustainable seafood for big businesses 17.5 Distribution of seafood purchasing recommendations 17.6 Developing regional seafood recommendations 17.7 Seafood Watch methodology for evaluating seafood 17.7.1 Seafood Watch principles of sustainability and evaluation criteria 17.7.2 Other information accompanying our seafood recommendations 17.8 Seafood Watchs role in the seafood movement 17.8.1 Salience through contextsetting activities 17.8.2 Increasing demand by bringing major buyers to the table
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Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Contents
17.8.3 Creating a viable supply of sustainable seafood to support the demand 17.9 What does success look like? 17.9.1 Seafood Watch evaluation 17.9.2 Implications for the future of Seafood Watch 17.10 Conclusions References
The New Zealand Best Fish Guide Barry Weeber & Cath Wallace 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Description of the programme 18.3 Information sources, procedures and methodologies 18.3.1 Information sources 18.3.2 Precautionary management 18.3.3 Criteria 18.3.4 Weighting 18.3.5 Individual fish species 18.4 Expectations for outcomes 18.5 Influencing consumer choices 18.6 Programme marketing 18.7 Effectiveness in the marketplace 18.8 New directions 18.9 Conclusions References
Guiding Australian Consumers to Sustainable Seafood Choices Craig Bohm 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Description of the Guide 19.2.1 Funding 19.2.2 Information sources 19.2.3 Target audiences 19.2.4 Measuring sticks 19.3 Species Assessments 19.3.1 Criteria  wild fisheries 19.3.2 Criteria  aquaculture 19.4 Guide impact 19.5 The challenges 19.5.1 Paucity of information 19.5.2 Resolving the complex nature of fishing 19.5.3 Inadequate seafood labelling
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xiv
Contents
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Index
19.6 New directions References
Towards Sustainable Seafood: The Evolution of a Conservation Movement Michael Sutton & Laura Wimpee 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Early campaigns 20.3 From stick to carrot: The Marine Stewardship Council 20.4 Sustainable seafood goes mainstream 20.5 The future of sustainable seafood 20.6 The blue revolution References
Anecdotes and Lessons of a Decade Trevor J. Ward & Bruce Phillips 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Design of ecolabelling programmes 21.3 The motivations for certification 21.3.1 Voluntary assessment systems 21.3.2 Government assessment systems 21.4 Quality of the standard 21.5 The business of certification 21.5.1 Business models 21.5.2 The price 21.5.3 Lobbying 21.5.4 Funding base 21.5.5 Future business models 21.6 The costs and benefits of preassessment 21.7 Assessment and certification  the processes 21.7.1 Stakeholder engagement 21.7.2 Technical inputs 21.8 Environmental monitoring 21.9 Product recommendations and buying guides 21.10 The evolutionary path 21.11 Certification and ecolabelling systems of the future Acknowledgements References
Colour Plates appear between pages 138 and 139 and pages 282 and 283.
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