CS 100W Section 3
Ideas Worth Spreading
December 14, 2009 Volume 1, Issue 1
TED Delivers Innovation to the Masses What is TED? It’s mission statement is clear: “TED is devoted to giving millions of knowledge-seekers around the globe direct access to the world's greatest thinkers and teachers. “And the “ideas worth spreading” are drawn from the fields ofTechnology,Entertainment orDesign .
How do they spread the ideas?
TED has two methods for spreading the knowledge: real world conferences and videoed lectures via www.ted.com. The main event is a real-world annual conference held in the Long Beach, California. Other similar conferences, such as TECGlobal, TEDIndia, and TEDActive, are held in various cities across the world. Each of the conferences provides an intense four-day set of rapid fire, and often riveting, presentations. Attendance is by invitation only, although, you can submit an application to be considered as an invitee. Some of the conferences are also simulcast. Membership fees range from $6,000 to a specially discounted $2,000 (cont. page 2)
Inside this issue
Johnny Lee Hacks Wii Remote .... 3
Plugs Smart Power Outlets ......... 4
Ted Med ..................................... 5
Arboreal Acrobatics in Geckos ... 6
Silicon Retina .............................. 7
A Plea for Bees............................ 8
A Vending Machine for Crows .... 9
Special points of interest
"Little Brains" created at Stanford Geckos' Tails Make Them Acrobats Smart Power Outlets Keep You Safe Crows Hunt Your Spare Change
About Tu Hoang
Tu was born in Vietnam and came to
the United States in
1994. He is currently
majoring in computer
science at San Jose
State University. Ever
since middle school,
he has been fascinated by computers
and the amazing things they can do.
It has motivated him to learn as
much about computer as he can. His focus is on hardware programming and artificial intelligence. He dreams of building robots that can help make life easier.
TED Delivers Innovation cont.
Only a few thousand people get to see the live performances.
The main knowledge dispersion route is via the videos onwww.ted.com
Reportedly over 50 million people have vis-ited the site.
Numbers on how many actually watch the videos are impossible to find. Certainly the web opens up the audience
Who Owns TED?
TED is based in New York and is run by the Sapling Foundation, a private non-profit or-ganization (TED 4). The two primary sources of revenue are derived from sponsorships and profits from the real-world conferences.
By the way they are looking to fill two full-time positions with full benefits: An Interac-tion Designer and a Lead Product Developer for ted.com (http://www.ted.com/pages/ view/id/194)
What kinds of people visit TED.com?
The demographic data fromwww.alexa.comsuggests that ted.com has about the same reach as HBO.com (which isn’t bad). See fig-ure 1
"The combined IQ of the attendees is incredible." -Bill Gates
About Chris Douglass
Currently enrolled at San Jose State
University, Chris is
completing a B.S. in
started long ago at
U.C. Davis. His inter-
est in Computer Sci-
ence began when he stumbled across
a magazine article discussing the use
of an array of machines and a genetic
algorithm to generate complicated
circuit board designs. He expects to
graduate in Spring of 2011. He is an experienced developer for mobile platforms. Chris’ weapon of choice is Apple’s iPhone, but he is currently working on cross-platform software for Android and Blackberry devices as well. When not doing homework, Chris mixes Hip-hop; he has played at a few local venues. He also performs as a volunteer mascot.
Figure 1. A typical visitor is usually a male college-educated American (39%) between 18 to 44 years of age and more often than not they reach ted.com via Google .
About Steve Terpe
Steve is in his second semester at San Jose State. He is a former Air Force Staff Sergeant and is working on a B.S. in Computer Science. In addition to English he also speaks Chinese-Mandarin, Serbian, and Croatian all more or less fluently. He doesn't always drink beer but when he does he prefers to drink Jamai-can Red Stripe. His interests include program-ming and writing science fiction. He currently lives in San Jose with his fiancée
Of all of the TED presentations he reviewed, he liked the one about the gentleman who had trained crows to fly around collecting spare change in exchange for peanuts the most. He was amazed by the intelligence of these animals.
Johnny Lee Hacks Wii Remote
There are many new technologies in this world technology that Lee had discovered can help that are wonderful and helpful. Johnny Lee benefit people of the world. He demonstrated decided to take a present technology, the Wii his ability to use a present technology to create remote, and create new inventions and discov-new technologies that benefit people’s life. Lee eries with it. Lee’s main interest was with thestated that the game industry was very fond of Nintendo Wii’s remote controller. Each remotehis discovery and will use it in new games com-has a very high performance infrared camera in ing soon. Lee used Youtube, a website where them. Lee took this high performance infrared people can upload their own videos, to show controller and used it to create an interactive his discoveries and announce that his software whiteboard. He stated that this could save is free to download. This spread his ideas to the schools thousands of dollars, since his software world, helping those who want to use his re-is free and required materials that are inexpen- search and discoveries for their own benefits. sive. For the interactive whiteboard, the infra-red pens are also required, which can be made with the cost of five dollars. All that is required is the Wii remote pointing at the screen and an infrared LED to write on the board or projector screen. From that he discovered that it could detect multiple points on the screen. Since it could detect multiples dots, he was able to produce a multi-touch interactive whiteboard. Lee also discovered other possibilities by point-ing the Wii remote to the users. From that idea, he revealed that he could create objects, on a television screen, 3D and interact with the person. The Wii remote points towards the person while they wear any infrared LED and Inside the Wii Remotethe objects pop out of the screen. This new
About Trevor Griffiths
Trev has extensive business experience and over 20 years of leading Web-based initiatives in the social media domain. As VP of Engi-neering at LiveWorld he manages the
creation of key products from con-
ception to market, including involve-
ment in all phases of specification,
design, development, testing, and
deployment. Products include Live-
Bar, Community Center 3.0, Ask &
Answer, Idea Power and various
(www.liveworld.com). Trev’s past
track record of launching new prod-
ucts includes pioneering the develop-
ment of AppleLink (the first graphical
online system), AppleLink Personal Edition (the first online consumer support system, which later became AOL), and eWorld (online community for Apple users). In addition to his 13-year career at Apple, during which he championed all of the company’s online services, Trev also led the development and launch of a highly
scalable web-based, registered, kids
community for Nickelodeon. Trev is
currently working on a B. Sc. in Com-
puter Science at San Jose State Uni-
versity and has an AA degree from
Foothill College. He also has diplomas
in Software Design, Software Engi-neering, Software Architecture, Computer & Servo Technology, Elec-tronics, and Advanced Electronic Technology.
About Brian Yen
Bryan spent his first 15 years growing
up in Taiwan. He went to an interna-tional school in Taipei, But now he resides in Sunnyvale, CA. His interest of computer programming developed, ever since he saw the movie Anti-trust. The movie made programmer's life look glorious, luxurious and full of surprises, which he later on discovered to be Hollywood fantasy. But other then the
disappointment of the glorious life, he
enjoys programming at night in the dark and cold. When Bryan is not pro-gramming, he enjoys playing the violin in his free time and likes to help out the community!
About Craig Long
Craig is a 23 year old student in the Computer Science department at San Jose State. When not pursuing his B.S.C.S. Craig enjoys design-ing and playing board, card, and war games; he also astounds friends and foes alike with his near encyclopedic knowledge of history and hockey. As the future King of TED Craig would have us all watch James Lovell speak on his experiences in space, Jeremy Clarkson of BBC2 on the entertainment value of fast cars, and Matthieu Ricard’s talk on the habits of happiness - the latter of which inspired him think about his own life and habits. Finally, Craig would have everyone know the final words on a grave in England:
"One of the highlights of my entire life." -Billy Graham
About Eric Christopher
Eric is certainly not your typical stu-
dent. Back in
1997, he was
working on his
degree when he
decided to take
what he describes
as an "8 year
spring break". He started work at Red
Hat, but in 2005 decided to come
back. He is currently not only working
on an undergraduate Computer
Science degree at SJSU, he is also a
Senior Engineer working on program-ming language design and implemen-tation at Apple, Inc. Eric enjoys the classical stylings of Yo Yo Ma, the comedy of Mel Brooks, and the life of the Dalai Lama. In his personal life, Eric has been married for 4 years now and can be found around the Internet.
To follow you I’ll not consent
Until I know which way you went
The lede, of course, left to the reader to find.
John La Grou: Plugs Smart Power Outlets
Every year, thousands of people died and many more injured due to electrical acci-dents. Smoke alarms are built to detect elec-trical fires, but they cannot prevent them. Circuit breakers were invented in 1879 in order to prevent this kind of accident. How-ever, this device is still not good enough be-cause over 80% of all electrical fires occur below the threshold of circuit breakers.
John La Grou is an electronic inventor and an entrepreneur. He is the engineer for the new electrical fault circuit interrupter called the Safeplug. The Safeplug is a combination of
both power outlets and plugs. The power outlet contains a microprocessor that can communicate with any plug that is embedded
with an RFID tag. This allows the outlet and the plug to communicate with one another other in order to detect electrical overload at the outlet. Unlike a circuit breaker, the smart electrical outlet can detect problems at the source and therefore is much quicker in re-sponding to electrical fault. Another benefit of this device is that the intelligent receptacles in the outlet are always off unless a data-coded plug is plugged in. This mechanism can pre-vent shock and burn injury to children, who tend to play with electrical outlets around the house. In addition to safety, the smart power outlet can also be remotely controlled and automated to reduce energy consumption.
This invention can make a huge difference in our world. Not only can it save thousands of lives and eliminate billions of dollars in property damage each year, but it can also help battle global warming by signifi-cantly reducing the need for energy. With this invention, we are one step closer to making this world a safer place to live in.
The ideas and philosophy behind the TED Conferences is expanding into other fields as well. Recently held, TEDMED 2009 was a conference launched by Marc Hodosh and Richard Wurman to “demonstrate the inter-section and connections between all things medical and healthcare related: from per-sonal health to public health, devices to de-sign and Hollywood to the hospital.” Hodosh, who recently led the Archon X PRIZE for Ge-nomics, has a history of both investment in technology and biology and Wurman is the Founder and Emeritus Director of the TED conferences.
Sponsored primarily by Johnson & Johnson along with technology companies Qualcomm, Intel, and Philips, as well as medical/ pharmaceutical companies like CVS and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation they lined up an impressive list of speakers. From the medical research field they had such luminar-ies as Craig Venter, the first person to se-quence the human genome; and Kary Mullis, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in developing the polymerase chain reaction. The goal in bringing all of these
About Ahmed Farooki
Ahmed Farooki is a Computer Science major at San Jose state University. He originally
transferred from De Anza College. His interest in Computer Science was piqued by the
ability to create something out of nothing. Having a keen interest in art at a very early age, Ahmed found computer programming as a form of self expression.
Ahmed also has vast experience in web development, having worked with PHP for over 10 years. He is the lead developer for a web based food startup (currently in stealth mode), which plans to launch in Spring 2010. After graduating, he plans to continue working on web applications.
Whenever he's away from the computer,
inspirational people together with those in the arts and finance to help set policy, direc-tion and hopefully a little necessary revolu-tion in a field which already encompasses more than twenty percent of the U.S. gross national product.
Ahmed can be found in the kitchen behind the stove. He considers himself a foodie and loves to cook and eat. He also loves listening to music and has recently started to learn playing the guitar.
About Clare Lanam
Clare Lanam is a former biology
major who decided
to abandon a po-
tential mad science
career in genetics
to support the
robot revolution. She holds a B.A. in Molecular Biology and is slated graduate in Computer Science San Jose State University in May 2011.
Although she feels that some of the
talks, such as the WiiMote-into-white
-board talk, are truly informative, she
is a little discouraged that some of
the others seem to be only thinly veiled applications for funds. She thinks TED does cover an interesting range of subjects, however, with still room to go more mainstream.
Out of the TED presentations
watched, the crows was her favorite.
“I'm a sucker for cute animals." To
her, the main message of TED is:
Science, too, can be packaged for
casual web-surfing. :)
About Andrew Nguyen
Andrew Nguyen is a Computer Science major who is still experimenting with two very
tral life goals. One goal is to work
hard in the starting phase of his
career and then travel across the
world and enjoy life to its fullest after
achieving financial independence and
stability. The other goal is to live a life
on the run and in the moment; to
work at a moderate level and to
travel occasionally to refresh the
mind and body; to not be weighed
down by the continuous stress and
pressures of the rat race. He recog-nizes that enjoyment is important in life, but to be able to achieve this, hard work and determination must also fit into the picture somehow.
The virtual conferences on TED both
surprised and amazed Andrew. He
has always been interested in tech-
nological innovation and scientific
development but never knew of a
good single-source to keep up to date
and find out more. TED is exactly the
kind of information distribution type
that he likes: the virtual conferences
are short and very informative and
one can view a number of confer-
ences on a number of topics in a
single hour. Andrew would recom-mend that anyone interested in technology check out the TED web-site and indulge, as he calls it, in the mind-stimulating experience.
Active Tails Enhance Arboreal Acrobatics in Geckos
This article explores recent research by Robert J. Full and associates into how active tails en-hance acrobatics in geckos and what this might mean for robotics in the future. In particular, researchers investigated the role the tail plays
About Tho Truong
Tho Truong is currently married and has two beautiful girls, the oldest girl is six and second one is two. He returned to SJSU after 8 years out of school to complete his Bachelors of Science in Computer Science. He is currently holding a Configuration Data Management (CDM) Specialist position at BAE Systems in Santa Clara. Beside school and work, he loves to take his kids to the park and show them how crazy he flies the remote control (RC) helicopter. He crashes his RC helicopter once every three times flying it into the sky. Tho also loves to play games. Starcraft and Call of Duty 4 are Tho’s favorite, but he only gets to play his games when he is able make an excuse not to join his wife and kids at the shopping mall.
in air-righting, vertical climbing and gliding. They discovered that the active tail of the gecko acts as both a fifth foot and a sort of safety kickstand in precarious vertical ascents that involve a loss of footing. They also learned that the tail is instrumen-tal in the gecko's ability to air-right itself, in lieu of a hip-spine twist and how the gecko can even use it’s powerful tail to direct it’s momentum and direction in arboreal glide situations. The article also explores how these findings might later be applied to other engi-neering fields.
About Pedro Beltran
Pedro is an open-minded person with high goals. He loves traveling and has been to New York, Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona and New Mexico. He hopes to get out to other places in the United States and one day travel to other countries. Pedro is a highly active person and in his free time he enjoys jogging, going to the gym, Jujitsu, biking, swimming, and most physical activities. Pedro has set high goals for his future and he believes that education is the key to success. Courses like Object-Oriented De-sign and Information Security have inspired
him to find employment in a high-tech field. He seeks to pursue a career in Software Engi-neering after college and, ultimately, to work for a Fortune 500 company. His interest in pursuing a career with a high-powered com-pany isn't just for the money, but because he believes a job with a Fortune 500 company will be more professionally fulfilling. As far as TED, Pedro has found it to be a source of great technological innovation. He thinks TED helps promotes creativity and considers TED a more reliable source of information than YouTube since TED presenters are reputable authorities within their field. Pedro believes that TED is already having a positive effect on society and will continue to do so.
"It was incredible." -Malcolm Gladwell
Kwabena Boahen, who is a bioengineer from Stanford Silicon Lab, is embarking on a mis-sion to build a computer that works like the brain. The human brain is the most powerful computer and most energy efficient one as well. It is as fast as the supercomputer called Blue Gene according to Boahen. The human brain like Blue Gene processes about 1016 bits per second. All the sensory organs in a human being are constantly sending data back to the brain, so the brain needs tremen-dous power to get a three dimensional pic-ture of the world in real time. Most impor-tantly, the human brain can do a great job at recognizing objects and voices whereas as a computer fails. Moreover, the human brain works in parallel networks that transmit data in electrical pulses through a vast network of neurons, which have many interconnec-tions. Boahen and his team have created a silicon retina, which works like a little brain. Boa-
hen’s team has worked closely with neural biologists who according to Boahen have reversed engineered how the retina works. This was the beginning stage to develop a silicon retina that behaves exactly like a real human retina. From here, Boahen’s team designed a silicon chip where nodes in the chip represent the neurons, and very small transistors represent the interconnections in the brain. The architecture of this chip mimics the brain where it has many interconnections instead of bottlenecks like conventional com-puters throughout the network. The silicon retina gets the image of the outside world and processes it by four different inputs. The output in the retina is being sent to a monitor. Dark contrast and light contrast will appear red and green on the screen, respectively. Furthermore, two other colors appear that show movement from dark contrast to light contrast and visa-versa. Boahen’s team built the silicon retina by mimicking exactly how the retina works and what types of signal outputs and inputs it needs in order to be in accord with the optical nerve and eyeball. I hope that the silicon retina will eventually be used in human beings for those who are blind.
About Mikael Bjorkstam
Having grown up in Sweden, Mikael Bjorkstam moved to the San Francisco bay area in 2006 to come closer to the core of the computer industry as well as to pursue a degree in Computer Science. Mikael is cur-rently a junior at San José State University majoring in Computer Science. Mikael sees TED as a great source of inspiration and believes that TED makes it easier to keep up with the pace of technological ad-
vances. During his free time, Mikael enjoys travelling around the world to experience different cultures. Mikael also enjoys a wide variety of sports, especially snowboarding.
About Tho Nguyen
Tho Nguyen is one of the most easy
going people in San Jose State Uni-
versity. Originally, Tho was born and
raised in Stockton California but
relocated to San Jose about six years
ago to pursue an education. Majoring
in Computer Science, he likes to think
outside the box and envisions himself
starting a startup company in the
near future. Now, Tho has knowledge
of several web-programming lan-
guages such as HTML, PHP, SQL,
and web programming courses have
motivated and inspired Tho to even-
tually design and implement a mon-
eymaking website as soon as he gets
his computer science degree. I hope
his vision about a moneymaking
website becomes reality and be-
comes successful. Tho believes that
Ted helps people expose ideas and
feasible solutions to the public. Fur-
thermore, Ted is a tool that can be
used by him in the future in order to
spread whatever idea he believes in.
Moreover, Tho believes that Ted is a
great source of information that is
decentralized and innovative com-
pared to the mainstream media. Besides academics, Tho enjoys snow-boarding during peak season in the winter and likes spending free time with his friends and family.
Dennis VanEngelsdorp: A Plea for Bees
Year by year bee keepers have brought colo-nies of bees to pollinate orchards. Bees are essential in keeping healthily orchards. They provide a natural pollination source for or-chards as they gather nectar. One in three bites of what humans consume are directly or indirectly pollinated by bees. As well, bees produce a natural sources of sweeteners in their honeys, but in recent years bees are dying at a alarming rate. To keep the health of orchards and the population of bees, we must continue researching on bees and provide a enhanced way to help them.
Dennis VanEngelsdorp is a acting State Apia-rist for Pennsylvania's Department of Agricul-
ture, studying colony collapse disorder. He has raised the issue of NDD (Nature Deficit disorder). VenEngelsdorp articulate NDD as a disorder in which people are less connected to nature and through everyday lifestyle they are killing nature along with bees indirectly. He consider everyday lifestyle of mowing a lawn and having a lawn as a contribute to bee's dying. More and more installments of lawns and dying meadows has VenEndelsdorp suggesting approaches in help NDD to stop and help dying bees. VenEndelsdorp insist that meadows should replace lawns because they provide a source of life for insect like bees. With meadows we can attract more insects and re-establish a healthier population of bees, his awareness of dying and approach in saving them has educated the public and therefore has help not only the bees but also society.
About Chris WardChris Ward has spent his career in the IT field specializing in lowering Total Cost of Ownership while maintaining or improving customer satisfaction. Over the last 13 years he has worked for Lockheed Martin designing, imple-menting and managing the corporate IT infrastructure. He returned to SJSU to complete his degree in spring 2006 after a 10 year break and intends on graduating with a BS in Computer Science in Spring 2011. Chris spends most of his free time surfing in Santa Cruz, CA and enjoying life with his wife of 11 years.
A Vending Machine for Crows
Joshua Klein points out that, unlike most species, crows have actually thrived under the changes that humans have wrought upon the globe. He claims that the intelligence and adaptability of wild crows can be harnessed in ways that would benefit both of our species.
Although other species tend to decline when humans build cities, crows actually fare better and can survive at a far greater population density. In addition to that, they're extremely clever and have been shown to be able to pick up new skills. Upon learning these things, Klein decided to build a crow-operated, peanut-dispensing vending ma-chine. A coin-operated vending machine can bring in money for humans without forcing domestication upon the crows. Naturally, the crows would need money to buy their pea-nuts. Klein found that every year there is over two-hundred million dollars in spare change that is estimated as lost in the U.S. With peanuts costing him less than half-a-penny each, he thought he could eventually turn a profit off of the crows if he wished to do so.
"A mind-opening experience." -Amy Tan
He planned to train the crows in multiple stages. At the beginning, the peanut-dispenser would be set on trigger-happy, and any crow that investigated the machine received both peanuts and coins. This would acclimatize the crows to the sounds made by the vending machine. Later, only coins would be offered, but any coins that fell into the machine caused peanuts to be dispensed. Finally, the machine would be set to full-vending mode: the birds would have to fetch coins and push them into the machine to continue receiving peanuts.
As of May 2007, when the article was written, the vending machine was still sched-uled for testing at four different locations on the east coast. As of May 2008, when Klein went on TED to discuss crows, the machine had already been launched successfully. He thinks that his findings can be applied in the future toward useful social functions like garbage cleanup and search-and-rescue.
About Tung Bui
Tung "Tony" Bui is currently a stu-
dent at San Jose State University,
trying to obtain
degree in Com-
He was born
and raised in
San Jose, Cali-
fornia. He spends most of his days
playing basketball, biking, and going
to school. He’s been at SJSU for four
years, and is not in a rush to finish
this year. He figures it is better to
take his time than rush to start his
life. Currently, Tony would like to
obtain a Software Engineering intern-
ship, which would not only help him
gain experience, but would also give
him an understanding of the inter-
view and hiring process. After that,
getting a job in Software Develop-
ment would be a dream come true.
Tony tries to be a good role model
and mentor to his younger brother
and also wishes to repay his parents
by supporting them in the near fu-
ture. Tony is presently working very hard to support himself through college and is currently looking for any type of job, paid or not, to gain industry experience.
About Kyle Mathias
Kyle Mathias is a 24 year old student
a degree in com-
puter science at
San Jose State
2008 from Ohlone
College in Fre-
mont with the original intent of
completing his college career with a
degree in Photography. He is a junior
at San Jose State and is intended to
graduate in 2010. When Kyle Gradu-
ates he is looking for any job that will
pay him relating to computer pro-
graming. His Dream Job would be to
work for Blizzard Entertainment.
Along with attending school as a full
time student he is working full time
at a local GameStop in San Jose. He is
the assistant manager of his GameS-
top and has worked with the com-
pany for around 3 years. Alongside
with selling games at his work, he
enjoys playing them too. Some of the
games he enjoys are Uncharted, Call
of Duty and New Super Mario Bros. Wii. In his free time aside from play-ing video games, he spends most of his time with his girlfriend Brooke or hanging with his friends.
CS100W Section 3, Fall 2009
Executive Editor Debra Caires
Senior EditorsKyle Mathias
Associate Senior EditorsChris Douglass Trev Griffiths Ahmed Farooki
Copy EditorsEric Christopher Craig Long
Graphics EditorsChris Ward Tho Truong Bryan Yen Mikael Bjorkstam
Layout EditorsTung Bui Tu Hoang
Pre-Production Editors Pedro Bethran Tho Nguyen Andrew Nguyen
Post-production Editors Clare Lanam Steve Terpe
Lee, J. (2008). Johnny Lee demos Wii Remote hacks. Retrieved December 5, 2009 from http://www.ted.com/talks/johnny_lee_demos_wii_remote_hacks.html
La Grou, J. (2009). John La Grou plugs smart power outlets. Retrieved December 5, 2009 from http://www.ted.com/talks/john_la_grou_plugs_smart_power_outlets_1.html
Hodosh, M. (2009). TED MED 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009 from http://www.tedmed.com/what
Ardian Jusufi, Daniel I.Goldman, Shal Revzen, & Robert J. Full (2008). Active tails enhance arbo-real acrobatics in geckos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 4215-4219.
Boahen , K. (2008). Kwabena Boahen on a computer that works like the brain. Retrieved Decem-ber 5, 2009 from http://www.ted.com/talks/john_la_grou_plugs_smart_power_outlets_1.html
vanEngelsdorp, D. (2008). Dennis vanEngelsdorp: a plea for bees. Retrieved December 5, 2009 from http://www.ted.com/talks/dennis_vanengelsdorp_a_plea_for_bees.html
Klein, J. (2007). A Vending Machine for Crows. Retrieved December 5, 2009 from http://www.josh.is/projects/crows/crows_JoshKlein.pdf
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