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UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT Geneva REVIEW OF MARITIME TRANSPORT 2007 Report by the UNCTAD secretariat UNITED NATIONS New York and Geneva, 2007 ii Review of Maritime Transport, 2007 NOTE The Review of Maritime Transport is a recurrent publication prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat since 1968 with the aim of fostering the transparency of maritime markets and analysing relevant developments. Any factual or editorial corrections that may prove necessary, based on comments made by Governments, will be reflected in a corrigendum to be issued subsequently. * * * Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Use of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document. * * * The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. * * * Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested, with reference to the document number (see below). A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to the UNCTAD secretariat at the following address: Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. UNCTAD/RMT/2007 UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION Sales No. E.07.II.D.14 ISBN 978-92-1-112725-6 ISSN 0566-7682 Contents, Introduction and Summary iii CONTENTS Page List of tables, figures and boxes........................................................................................................... v Abbreviations and explanatory notes ................................................................................................... viii Summary of main developments .......................................................................................................... x Vessel groupings used in the Review of Maritime Transport .............................................................. xiii Chapter Page 1. Development of international seaborne trade ......................................................................... 1 A. World economic background .......................................................................................... 1 B. World seaborne trade ...................................................................................................... 4 C. Sectors of world seaborne trade ...................................................................................... 7 2. Structure, ownership and registration of the world fleet....................................................... 23 A. Structure of the world fleet ............................................................................................. 23 B. Ownership of the 31 C. Registration of ships ....................................................................................................... 35 D. Shipbuilding and the second-hand market ..................................................................... 42 3. Productivity of the world fleet and supply and demand in world shipping ........................ 49 A. Operational productivity ................................................................................................. 49 B. Supply and demand in world shipping ........................................................................... 52 C. Comparison of cargo turnover and fleet ownership ....................................................... 54 4. Trade and freight markets......................................................................................................... 57 A. Crude oil and petroleum products seaborne freight market ........................................... 57 B. Dry bulk shipping market ............................................................................................... 64 C. The liner shipping market 68 D. Estimates of total freight costs in world trade ................................................................ 78 E. Container production ...................................................................................................... 78 iv Review of Maritime Transport, 2007 5. Port and multimodal transport developments ........................................................................ 85 A. Container port traffic ...................................................................................................... 85 B. Improvements in port performance ................................................................................ 89 C. Institutional change and port development .................................................................... 90 D. Inland transport developments........................................................................................ 95 E. Other developments ........................................................................................................ 99 6. Legal issues and regulatory developments ............................................................................. 101 A. Negotiations on trade facilitation at the WTO .............................................................. 101 B. Legal issues affecting transportation 102 C. Status of conventions ..................................................................................................... 111 7. Review of regional developments: Asia .................................................................................. 115 A. Economic background ................................................................................................... 115 B. Containerization............................................................................................................. 117 C. Asian fleet development ................................................................................................ 124 D. Country focus................................................................................................................. 131 E. Other developments ....................................................................................................... 131 Annexes I. Classification of countries and territories ..................................................................... 137 II. World seaborne trade by country groups, 2006 ............................................................. 141 III(a). Merchant fleets of the world by flags of registration, groups of countries and types of ship, as of 1 January 2007 (in thousand GT)................................................ 143 III(b). types of ship, as of 1 January 2007 (in thousand dwt) ............................................... 149 Contents, Introduction and Summary v LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES AND BOXES Table Page 1. World economic growth, 2003–2006 ...................................................................................... 3 2. Growth in the volume of merchandise trade, by geographical region, 2004–2006................ 3 3. Development of international seaborne trade, selected years................................................. 4 4. World seaborne trade in 2006, by type of cargo and country group....................................... 6 5. World seaborne trade in ton-miles, selected years .................................................................. 8 6. Oil and natural gas: major producers and traders, and distribution of world refineries’ capacities in 2006 ................................................................................................................ 9 7. Major bulks: major producers, consumers and traders in 2006............................................. 15 8. World fleet size by principal types of vessel, 2005–2007 ...................................................... 25 9. Long-term trends in the cellular containership fleet ............................................................... 26 10. Distribution of the world fleet and dwt capacity of containerships, by country group, in 2007 26 11. Age distribution of the world merchant fleet, by type of vessel, as of 1 January 2007 ......... 27 12. Long-term trends in average age, by vessel type .................................................................... 28 13. Deliveries of newbuildings, selected years ............................................................................. 29 14. Tonnage reported sold for breaking, by types of vessel, 2000–2006 ..................................... 30 15. Average age of broken-up ships, by type, from 2000 to 2006 ................................................ 31 16. The 35 countries and territories with the largest controlled fleets, as of 1 January 2007 ...... 32 17. Control of world fleet, main country groups, as of 1 January 2007 ....................................... 34 18. The 35 flags of registration with the largest registered deadweight tonnage as of 1 January 2007 .................................................................................................................... 36 19. True nationality of major open-registry fleets, as of 1 January 2007 ..................................... 38 20. Flags of registration, main country groups, 2007 .......................................... 43 21. World tonnage on order, 2000–2006 ....................................................................................... 44 22. Representative newbuilding prices in selected years.............................................................. 46 23. Second-hand prices for five-year-old vessels, 2000–2006 ..................................................... 47 24. Cargo carried and ton-miles performed per deadweight ton of the total world fleet, selected years ..................................................................................................................... 50 25. Estimated productivity of tankers, bulk carriers, combined carriers and the residual fleet, selected years (tons carried per dwt)................................................................................... 51 26. selected years (thousands of ton-miles performed per dwt) .............................................. 51 vi Review of Maritime Transport, 2007 27. Tonnage oversupply in the world merchant fleet, selected years ........................................... 52 28. Analysis of tonnage surplus by main type of vessel, selected years ...................................... 53 29. Growth of supply and demand in container shipping, 2000–2007 ......................................... 54 30. Maritime engagement of 25 major trading nations ................................................................. 55 31. Tanker freight indices, 2005–2007 ......................................................................................... 58 32. Tanker market summary: clean and dirty spot rates, 2006–2007 .......................................... 59 33. Dry cargo freight indices, 2004–2007..................................................................................... 65 34. Growth of the world cellular container fleet........................................................................... 69 35. Leading 20 service operators of containerships at the end of 2006 ....................................... 70 36. Containership time charter rates .............................................................................................71 37. Freight rates (market averages) per TEU on the three major liner trade routes ..................... 73 38. Estimated cargo flows along major trade routes ..................................................................... 74 39. Europe–Far East trade: percentage slot capacity share by line/grouping .............................. 75 40. Liner freight indices, 2004–2006 77 41. Ratio of liner freight rates to prices of selected commodities ................................................ 77 42. Estimates of total freight costs for world imports, by country group ..................................... 79 43. World container fleet ............................................................................................................... 81 44. World container production .................................................................................................... 81 45. Container port traffic of 62 developing countries and territories, 2004, 2005 and 2006 ....... 86 46. Top 20 container terminals and their throughput for 2004, 2005 and 2006 ........................... 88 47. Global terminal operators’ percentage share of world container throughput ......................... 91 48. Road transport markets: country comparisons ....................................................................... 95 49. Transport of full-load containers between China and Europe: modal split ........................... 98 50. Global freight forwarding market size and growth rate, 2003–2006 ..................................... 99 51. Real GDP growth rates of selected Asian economies, 1994–2006 ......................................... 116 52. Current account balances of selected Asian economies, 1995–2006 118 53. Asian growth rates for merchandise trade .............................................................................. 119 54. Container port traffic for the leading 50 Asian ports, 2004, 2005 and 2006 .......................... 121 55. Container port traffic for 25 Asian countries, 2004, 2005 and 2006 ...................................... 123 56. Asian merchant fleet, by flag of registration and type of ship ............................................... 125 57. Merchant fleet, by flag of registration, for 37 selected Asian countries/territories ............... 126 58. Age distribution of the merchant fleet for 34 selected Asian countries ................................. 127 Contents, Introduction and Summary vii Figure Page 1. Indices for world economic growth (GDP), OECD industrial production, world merchandise exports (volume) and seaborne trade (volume), 1994–2006 .............................................. 2 2. International seaborne trade for selected years ....................................................................... 5 3. World seaborne trade, by country groups ............................................................................... 6 4. International containerized trade growth, 1986–2006 ............................................................ 20 5. World fleet by principal vessel types, selected years ............................................................. 24 6. Share of foreign-flagged deadweight tonnage, 1989–2007 .................................................... 35 7. World tonnage on order, 2000–2006 ....................................................................................... 46 8. Ton-miles performed per deadweight ton of total world fleet, 1984–2006 ............................ 50 9. Trends in surplus capacity by main vessel types, selected years ............................................ 53 10. Freight costs as a percentage of value of imports: long-term trend (1980–2005) ................. 80 11. Estimates of total freight costs as a percentage of value of imports in world trade, by country group ................................................................................................................. 80 12. Evolution of prices of new containers .................................................................................... 82 13. Evolution of leasing rates ........................................................................................................ 82 14. Regional breakdown of container throughput for 2005 .......................................................... 89 15. Total freight forwarding market: market share ...................................................................... 98 16. Freight rates to and from Asia, 2004-2007 ............................................................................. 120 Box Page 1. Contracting States parties to selected conventions on maritime transport, as of 30 September 2007 .....................................................................................................112 2. Country focus: Viet Nam’s port development programme .................................................... 132 viii Review of Maritime Transport, 2007 ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPLANATORY NOTES Abbreviations ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations BAF bunkering adjustment factor bcm billion cubic metres CAF currency adjustment factor c.i.f. cost, insurance and freight CSF The Special Register of Ships and Shipping Companies of the Canary Islands DIS Danish International Register of Shipping dwt deadweight tons ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific EU European Union FDI foreign direct investment FEU 40-foot equivalent unit f.o.b. free on board GDP gross domestic product GT gross tons IMF International Monetary Fund IMO International Maritime Organization ISO International Organization for Standardization ISPS Code International Ship and Port Facility Security Code LNG liquefied natural gas LPG liquefied petroleum gas mbpd million barrels per day n.a. not available NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement n.e.s. not elsewhere specified OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries TEU 20-foot equivalent unit THC Terminal Handling Charges ULCC ultra-large crude carrier UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development VLCC very lar WS Worldscale WCO World Customs Organization WTO World Trade Or Contents, Introduction and Summary ix Explanatory notes • All references to dollars ($) are to United States dollars, unless otherwise stated. • “Tons” refers to metric tons, unless otherwise stated. • Because of rounding, details and percentages presented in tables do not necessarily add up to the totals. • Two dots (..) indicate that data are not available or are not separately reported. • A hyphen (-) signifies that the amount is nil or less than half the unit used. • In the tables and the text, the term countries refers to countries, territories or areas. • Τhe presentation of countries in this edition of the Review of Maritime Transport is different from that in previous editions. The new classification is that used by the Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), of the United Nations, as well as by UNCTAD in the Handbook of Statistics. For the purpose of statistical analysis, countries and territories are grouped by economic criteria into three categories which are further divided into geographical regions. The main categories are developed countries, developing countries and economies in transition. See annex I for a detailed breakdown of the new groupings. Any comparison with data in previous editions of the Review should therefore be handled with care
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