ETUDE D'IMPACT SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE, SANITAIRE ET ENVIRONNEMENTAL DE L ...

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ETUDE D'IMPACT SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE, SANITAIRE ET ENVIRONNEMENTAL DE L ...

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Projet Internaitnolap uo rllEinimioatden POs ( sPPEPIbeW)etisww.iworgpen.
PAN TOGO PESTICIDE ACTION NETWORK TOGO Angle, Avenue de la Victoire, Rue N°10, Immeuble 66 BP : 30.676, Lomé-Togo Tél : +228-225-05-09; Mobile : +228-908-07-42 Fax : +228-225-05-09/++28-222-29-91 Email :@oocporepnat-got/ation.ne .noitenpooctareebeh@Togo Septembre 2005
Pesticides périmés stockés au Magasin D.A./PV (Davié), Togo Photo PAN TOGO, 2005
 Projet International pour l Elimination des POPs Promouvoir la participation active et efficace de la Société Civile dans la mise en œuvre de la Convention de Stockholm 
ETUDE D IMPACT SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE, SANITAIRE ET ENVIRONNEMENTAL DE L UTILISATION DES POLLUANTS ORGANIQUES PERSISTANTS (POPs) A DAVIE AU NORD DE LOME (REGION MARITIME) TOGO  
 
A propos du Projet International pour l’Elimination des POPs (IPEP) Le 1ermai, 2004, le Réseau international pour lélimination des POPs (IPEN http://www.ipen.org) a débuté un projet international des ONG appelé projet international pour lélimination des POPs (IPEP) en partenariat avec lOrganisation des Nations Unies pour le Développement Industriel (ONUDI) et le Programme des Nations Unies pour lEnvironnement (PNUE). Le Fonds pour lEnvironnement Mondial (FEM) a fourni le financement de base du projet. LIPEP a trois principaux objectifs : Encourager et permettre aux ONG dans 40 pays en voie de développement et en transition de sengager dans des activités qui apportent des contributions concrètes et immédiates aux efforts du pays dans la préparation de la mise en uvre de la Convention de Stockholm. Améliorer les compétences et connaissances des ONG pour leur permettre de renforcer leurs capacités en tant quintervenants efficaces dans le processus de mise en uvre de la Convention de Stockholm ; Aider à la mise en place de mécanismes de coordination et au renforcement des capacités régionales et nationales des ONG dans toutes les parties du monde en faveur dinitiatives durables en vue dobtenir la sécurité chimique LIPEP soutient la préparation des rapports sur la situation du pays, les zones contaminées, les zones sensibles, lélaboration de stratégies et politiques et les activités régionales. Trois principaux types dactivités seront soutenus par lIPEP : la participation au programme national de mise en uvre, aux ateliers de formation et de sensibilisation, à linformation et aux campagnes de sensibilisation du public. Pour de plus amples informations, veuillez consulterp:tthpi.www//gro.neLIPEN exprime toute sa reconnaissance au Fonds pour lEnvironnement Mondial (FEM), à lAgence Suisse pour le Développement et la Coopération, à lAgence Suisse pour le Paysage et les Forêts de lEnvironnement, au Fonds Canadien sur les POPs, au Ministère de lHabitat, de lAménagement Spatial et de lEnvironnement du Royaume des Pays-Bas (VROM), à la Fondation Mitchell Kapor, au Sigrid Rausing Trust, au New York Community Trust et autres pour leur soutien financier. Les idées émises dans ce rapport sont celles des auteurs et pas nécessairement les idées des institutions qui en assurent la gestion et/ou le soutien financier. Ce rapport est disponible dans les langues suivantes : Résumé en anglais et le rapport intégral en français.
Projet International pour l Elimination des POPs (IPEP) Website www.ipen.org
                  TABLE DES MATIÈRES  LISTE DES TABLEAUX........................................................................................................................................ 1LISTE DES FIGURES............................................................................................................................................ 1SIGLES ET ACRONYMES.................................................................................................................................... 3REMERCIEMENTS................................................................................................................................................. 4SUMMARY................................................................................................................................................................ 5RESUME................................................................................................................................................................... 9I. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................ 14I.1.DESCRIPTION DE LA ZONE DU PROJET............................................................................................................ 14I.2.BUT ETOBJECTIFS DU PROJET........................................................................................................................ 15I.3.DONNÉES GÉNÉRALES SUR LETOGO.............................................................................................................. 16I.3.1. Géographie et population................................................................................................................. 16I.3.2. Données socio-économiques.......................................................................................................... 17I.3.3. Cadre institutionnel............................................................................................................................ 171.3.4. Cadre législatif et réglementaire relatif aux pesticides.............................................................. 17I.4.PRODUCTION,UTILISATION,IMPORTATION ET EXPORTATION DES PESTICIDES AUTOGO.............................. 18II. ANALYSES DES PROBLEMES LIES AUX POPS RECENSES DANS LE MILIEU....................... 22II.1.LES PROBLÈMES LIÉS À LUTILISATION DES PESTICIDES............................................................................... 22II.1.1. Aperçu général sur l’utilisation des pesticides à Davié.............................................................. 22II.1.2.CATÉGORISATION DES PRODUITS UTILISÉS................................................................................................ 24III. POSITION DES POPULATIONS PAR RAPPORT À L UTILISATION DES PESTICIDES.............. 25IV. LES CONSÉQUENCES DE L UTILISATION ABUSIVE DES PESTICIDES À DAVIÉ.................... 25IV.1.CONCENTRATIONS DES COMPOSÉS ORGANOCHLORÉS EXTRAITS DES GRAINES SÉCHÉES ÀDAVIÉ............ 26IV.1.1. Méthodologie de prélèvements.................................................................................................... 26IV.1.2. Les étapes après l’échantillonnage et le pré-traitement.......................................................... 26IV.1.3. Bref commentaire des résultats de l’analyse............................................................................. 29IV.1.4. Risques sur la santé et sur l’environnement des populations................................................. 30IV.2.LES CAS DINTOXICATION LIÉS AUX PESTICIDES......................................................................................... 33IV.3. La contamination du sol.................................................................................................................... 33V. LES GROUPES DE POPULATIONS EXPOSÉS AUX PESTICIDES POPS....................................... 34VI. APPROCHES DE SOLUTION...................................................................................................................... 35VII. RECOMMANDATIONS................................................................................................................................. 36VIII. CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................... 37IX. REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES....................................................................................................... 38ANNEXES............................................................................................................................................................... 39ANNEXEI.TABLEAU DES PESTICIDES OBSOLÈTES RECENSÉS ÀDAVIÉ(MAGASIN 39D.A/PV) ..............................QUANTITÉ............................................................................................................................................................. 39ANNEXEII.PHOTOS:PESTICIDESOBSOLÈTES ÀDAVIÉ..................................................................................... 40                            
Projet International pour l Elimination des POPs (IPEP) Website www.ipen.org
Liste des tableaux  TABLEAU1 : PESTICIDES ACTUELLEMENT UTILISÉS SELON LES RÉSULTATS DE LENQUÊTE24 ORGANOCHLORÉS................................................................................................................... 24 TABLEAU2. CONCENTRATIONS DES COMPOSÉS ORGANOCHLORÉS EXTRAITS DES GRAINES SÉCHÉES........................................................................................................................... 28 TABLEAU3 : TOXICITÉ DES PESTICIDES EN FONCTION DU MODE DABSORPTION ET DE LÉTAT DE SANTÉ DE LHOMME..................................................................................................... 31  Liste des figures FIGURE1 : EVOLUTION PONDÉRALE(EN KG)DES IMPORTATIONS DES INSECTICIDES NON-AÉROSOLS.................................................................................................................... 21 FIGURE2 :USAGE DE PESTICIDES:CONSÉQUENCES ET RELATIONS ENTRECROISÉES DE CAUSES À EFFET........................................................................................................... 32
Projet International pour l Elimination des POPs (IPEP) Website www.ipen.org
SIGLES ET ACRONYMES CEET Compagnie Energétique et Electrique du Togo D.A Direction de lAgriculture DAEP Direction de lAgriculture, de lElevage et de la Pêche DGSCN Direction Générale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilité  Nationale EDST Enquête Démographique et de santé du Togo FEM Fonds pour lEnvironnement Mondial HCB Hexachlorobenzène IOMC Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals IPEP International POPs Elimination Project IPEN International POPs Elimination Network MERF Ministère de lEnvironnement et des Ressources Forestières ODEF Office du Développement et dExploitation des Forêts ONUDI Organisation des Nations Unies pour le Développement Industriel PAN AFRICA Pesticide Action Network AFRICA PAN TOGO Pesticide Action Network TOGO PCB Polychlorobiphényles PCDD Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines PCDF Polychlorodibenzo-furanes PMA Pays les Moins Avancés PNAE Programme National dAction pour lEnvironnement PNUD Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement PNUE Programme des Nations Unies pour lEnvironnement POPs Polluants Organiques Persistants SAICM Approche Stratégique de gestion internationale des produits chimiques SOTED Société Togolaise dEtudes et de Développement SOTOCO Société Togolaise de Coton TDE Togolaise Des Eaux TEQ Toxique Equivalent UNITAR Institut des Nations Unies pour la Formation et la Recherche  
REMERCIEMENTS 1. PAN TOGO et tous ses membres affiliés, organisations partenaires et amis, remercient vivement le FEM, lONUDI et lUNEP, respectivement bailleur de fonds et agence dexécution de ce projet. Sans ce concours financier et cette assistance technique, le présent projet naurait pu être initié et exécuté. 2. Nous remercions également très vivement PAN AFRICA et son équipe pour leur partenariat et appui et surtout pour la confiance exprimée en notre organisation en nous associant à ce projet. 3. Merci à vous aussi, Mesdames et Messieurs de lIPEN pour avoir négocié et initié le projet IPEP. 4. Nous disons aussi un sincère merci aux autorités togolaises, en particulier au Coordinateur National du Projet POP Togo pour sa fructueuse collaboration. 5. Grand merci enfin aux autorités locales de Davié et à toute sa population pour leur fructueuse collaboration.
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Summary During the preliminary inventory of obsolete pesticides made by the Togolese Environmental Directorate in 2003 and led within the framework of the Stockholm Convention implementation activities on POPs, obsolete pesticides have been found in Davie, namely in the Agriculture Directorate store located in this village. Obsolete pesticides are spread on the soil, inside and in the surroundings of the store. As it is presented in the report, this environment seems to be contaminated by pesticides, namely POPs. However, investigation has neither been carried out among small-scale farmers nor samples taken on cereals. The present project aims at better understanding impacts of pesticide use, namely POPs on human health and on the environment, people opinion regarding pesticides, viewpoint regarding other POPs present in the environment, etc in order to provide PAN TOGO with reliable advocacy/lobbying data in favour of the ratification of the Stockholm Convention on POPs. Methodology   Generalities The methodology below has been used for the present field study: 1)Setting-up of three working groups: Sociologic and Anthropologic Investigation Team, Legal review Team, Health and Environmental Impact Study Team. 2)Visits and interviews Systematic visits in stores and sites stocking and distributing phytosanitary products and belonging to public- national, para-public and private institutions in Davie. Interviews with phytosanitary regulators on secondment in the terrestrial frontiers, people in charge of phytosanitary control, storekeepers and pesticide users in the locality Visits in health structures: Onchocercose, cleaning up and hygiene Services Visits in CEET and TDE thermal centrals Visits in waste incineration tips Interviews with people of the different localities. 3)Preparing sectoral reports within each team. 4)Internal debriefing sessions and reports validation 5)Sending of the temporary document to an external committee, including to certain experts involved in the POPs project in Togo. 6)Limited validation session of the study report with the committee Hypotheses  Many hypotheses have been made before the study started. Abusive use and ignorance of pesticide hazards among populations Possibilities to use POPs in the private sector Davie is a POPs-contaminated locality.
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Study results The verification of hypotheses led to the following conclusive results: Regarding the hypothesis 1: abusive use of pesticides and lack of awareness of pesticide-related hazards among populations The investigation revealed that the use of pesticides is virtually indispensable for cash crops such as maize and market-gardening according to populations.  Producers in their whole have admitted that they can not have a good campaign without pesticides. The non-use of pesticides might lead to low harvests, according to them. Yields might decrease at the rate of more than a half (60%) or even 100%. This might lead to significant losses both for farmers and countries. that they can have good yields without using88% of the bean producers admit pesticides because attacks are not permanent. 20% of people interviewed use herbicides in rice irrigated production and field preparation. Fungicides are found in market-gardening where 90% of people interviewed said that they systematically use them in the farming of cabbage, tomato and certain vegetables. Without this product, they wont be able to harvest, mainly with cabbages where the yields can drop up to 35%. Only a slight percentage (11%) of people interviewed have a small idea on organic agriculture but dont adopt it for lack of thorough and appropriate training. 95% of farmers want to minimize their use in pesticides because of health problems and in order to increase their profitability currently compromised by high pesticide prices. 97% of farmers dont even know about the existence of the different pesticide families 56% can distinguish insecticides (to combat insects) from fungicides (to combat diseases caused by microscopic funguses) 72% can make the differences between insecticides and herbicides Poisoning cases due to pesticides There are no data on pesticide-related poisonings in Togo and particularly in the health district of Davie. However, nurses have detected some acute poisonings that might be caused by pesticides. We dont have accurate evidence about the origin of these poisonings but have based our findings on declarations made by patients or their families in health districts. Regarding hypothesis 2: Possibility to use POPs in the private sector The investigation didnt allow us to discover the recourse to POPs as specified within the Stockholm Convention for farmers. However, it has revealed that pesticides are used for other purposes. Indeed, pesticides such as endosulfan, massively used in cotton production in Togo have been found among many market-gardeners. Besides, many pesticides used could not be identified for being put in non-labeled containers. Even market-gardeners interviewed could not inform us about the nature of these pesticides. They limited themselves to saying that they bough the products from other market-gardeners who have themselves acquired them from hawkers coming from Ghana.
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Regarding hypothesis 3: Davie is a POPs-contaminated locality Presence of POPs residues in certain cereals: indeed, samples taken on cereal products (VignaUnguiculata(L.), Walp (niebe), Zea Mays L. (maize),, Pennisetum americanum(L.), leeke (millet),Sorghum bicolour(L.), Moench (sorghum) have revealed a high presence of pesticide residues, among which POPs higher than standards. (See table, p.24) Soils contamination: many sites in Davie seem to be contaminated by pesticides, namely POPs. It is about the immediate environment of the DAPV store and the chemical stockpiling site. In these two localities, pesticides are found in the soils and have highly reddened the grass and created reddish vegetation. Dioxin and furan releases:Regarding substances included in the annex C of the Stockholm Convention on POPs, it is mentioned some dioxin and furan releases in the air and residues stemming from bushfires and inappropriate burnings of household wastes among which are found biomedical wastes classified in category of hazardous wastes by the Basel Convention on cross-border movements of hazardous and other wastes. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that it is more likely to find POPs in high concentrations in breast milk among women living in this area considering significant quantities of pesticide residues present in food. Regarding this situation, the WHO campaign in favour of breastfeeding in our country can constitute an important source of POPs transmission from mothers to children.  Groups of people exposed to pesticides Populations exposed to potential pesticide risks can be divided in sub-groups according to the exposure level. Generally, sub-groups are the following: Rural workers and market-gardeners potentially exposed to POPs and to other pesticides Warehouse keepers in charge of managing warehouses contaminated by POPs People formerly or currently handling POPs areas where burning operations are carried outPopulations exposed or living next to (wastes/household wastes, biomass) Populations involved in salvage operations or using POPs-containing equipments to U-POPs stemming from factory and exhaustTaxi-motorbike drivers exposed fumes. Domestic maids exposed to dioxin/furan releases during food preparation on firewood. According to our observations, rural populations with traditional way of life are virtually not exposed because pesticides use is low. However, certain pesticides can fall within small-scale farmers hands cultivating subsistence crops. Most of the time, they are not knowledgeable about pesticide hazards and precautions to take. This does mean that they are not totally spared by these toxic chemicals hazards.
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On the other hand, exposure of rural populations can occur through food, air and water current. It is mainly about accidental exposure, outside workplaces following: Conservation of pesticides in a unlocked cupboard within reach of children recipients or reuse of pesticide recipients toConservation of pesticides in non-labeled keep water or food. Conservation of agricultural pesticides next to unprotected foodstuffs The use of pesticides to household or medical purposes, with a risk of massive exposure through skin route or by inhalation The use of old pesticide recipients to carry or keep water or other food. Transportation of food and seeds in the same vehicles than pesticides Medicinal plants cultivated in pesticide-treated farms also sources of human are contamination and poisonings It is necessary to carry out more thorough studies by taking samples on biotic and abiotic compartments to assess the contamination level and take appropriate measures. For the time being, IEC programs must be initiated to inform and raise awareness of the abusive use of pesticides among local populations
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