Manitoba M

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Manitoba M

Publié le : jeudi 21 juillet 2011
Lecture(s) : 89
Nombre de pages : 24
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Francop C h o on u e nity Profile mm Manitoba 2nd Edition
of
FCFA du Canada
Statistical Portrait: Anne Gilbert, Université d'Ottawa/L'ANALYSTE (for the first edition) Community Life: Société franco-manitobaine, Centre de recherche du Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface Maps: André Langlois, Université d'Ottawa/L'ANALYSTE (for the first edition) Coordination: Micheline Doiron (first edition), Robin Cantin (updated edition) Production Support: Michel Bédard, Karine Lamarre (first edition), Tina Desabrais, Joelle Dubois, Isabelle Lefebvre, Micheline Lévesque (updated edition) Graphic Design: GLS dezign Inc. Printing: Corporate Printers Ltd. © March 2004 Legal deposit: National Library of Canada ISBN: 2-922742-09-01 This publication was produced with the financial help of the:
Acknowledgements
Telephone : (613) 241-7600 Fax : (613) 241-6046 E-mail : fcfa@fcfa.franco.ca Internet : www.fcfa.ca
La Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne (FCFA) du Canada 450 Rideau Street, office 300 Ottawa (Ontario) K1N 5Z4
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T communities in Canada prepared in 2000 by the Fédération health and social services, legislation and government des communautés francophones et acadienne (FCFA) du services, and economics. Canada within the framework of the “Dialogue” project and updatedin2004.iTnhclisudueps,dfaoterdtheediftiirsotntiamdde,sadsaetcatifroonmonthtehe2c0u0l1turCaelndsiuvse.rsIittyalsoof These provincial and territorial profiles are supplemented by a the francophone and Acadian communities. national profile, which describes the situation of Canadian fran-cophones as a whole and examines the status of the French fact To obtain the other products of this series, please contact the throughout the country. Following a general introduction to the dFuédCéraantaiodna. des communautés francophones et acadiennes history and geography of each community, the profile is pre-sented in two sections: • A statistical portrait describing the vitality of communities which have French as a mother tongue from demographic, linguistic and economic points of view.
Table of Contents History and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Demographic Vitality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Linguistic Vitality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Economic Vitality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Francophone Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Community Vitality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Last Thirty Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Manitoba
History Walking into the footsteps of La Vérendrye, who reached in 1738 the future site of Saint-Boniface, the first Europeans to reach the West in the 13th century were francophones. One hundred and fifty years before Manitoba became a province, the territory had many French place names: Fort Rouge, Fort LaReine, Fort Dauphin, Fort Bourbon. These were some of the fur trading posts visited annually by voyageurs and coureurs des bois . Having migrated from their homes in what would become Lower Canada, they established a francophone presence in Manitoba. Resulting from the permanent settlement of these newcomers and their contacts with First Nations, the Metis nation came into being at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. The Metis asserted themselves in mid-19th century by contesting the monopoly of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Resisting the Government of Canada’s plans for settlement in the region caused many of them to disperse in the Canadian West. Since then, the Metis have existed on the fringes of other populations in the region, distant from their French origins. The Red River colony founded by the Metis was established with the help of the Church and became one of the main centres of francophone life in the West. With the arrival in 1818 of Canadian settlers lead by two abbots, Norbert Provencher and Sévère Dumoulin, a strong francophone community was established on the Red River near the Assiniboine, before spreading throughout the future province. Saint-Boniface became the catholic and francophone capital of the burgeoning Red River colony. Francophone Manitobans owe their existence mainly to migrationsbeginninginthesecondhalfofthe19thcentury.At the same time, francophones of diverse origins settled in Manitoba. The majority were French Canadians, originally from Quebec, and Acadians, a number of them having already lived in the United States. There were also French, Belgian and Swiss settlers. The Red River colony became the Province of Manitoba in 1870, following a popular democratic movement led by Louis Riel, a Métis. The Manitoba Act, which is the province’s constitutional document, acknowledges the linguistic and cultural duality of the new province. English and French enjoy equal status in Parliament and the courts of law. Between 1870 and 1885, the Métis and francophone Canadians rapidly found themselves in a minority situation. Ontarian and British immigration vastly surpasses the number
of francophone immigrants. More than half the population in 1870, francophones represent only a little more than 10% of the Manitoban population in 1886. In 1890, the Manitoba Legislature made English the only official language of the province. During the same period, a Bill to abolish religious duality was passed. After a protracted dispute, the teaching of languages other than English won limited acceptance. All further agreements ended, however, in 1916 with the Thornton Act. The francophone community mobilized and founded the Association d ’éducation des Canadiens Français du Manitoba. French was not reestablished until 1979 and Manitoba francophones did not regain control of their schools until 1993. The Société franco-manitobaine, established in 1968 to r eplace the Association d’éducation des Canadiens français, is today the official political representative of the francophone community. Geography The franco-Manitoban community includes 47 560 people with French as their mother tongue in 2001. It accounted for 4.3 percent of the Manitoban population. Manitoba’s Francophonie is mostly urban. Fully two-thirds of all Franco-Manitobans live in Winnipeg, while about a third live in villages or rural centres, concentrated in the south of the province. In fact, nearly 90% of francophones liv e within one hour of the Manitoban capital. More than half of the francophones living in Winnipeg are found within the traditionally French-speaking neighbourhoods of Saint-Boniface, Saint-Vital and Saint-Norbert. Others live in villages and parishes founded by francophones and today members of the Association des municipalities bilingues du Manitoba (AMBM), such as Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes, Saint-Claude, Saint-Pierre-Jolys and Saint-Anne-des-Chênes. Other francophone municipalities, such as Sainte-Rose-du-lac and Saint-Laurent, are relatively distant from the provincial capital.
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Demographic Vitality
Population by mother tongue 2001, Manitoba
Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
The French language Of the 1,103,695 inhabitants, a bit more than 280,000 have a mother tongue other than English. The 47 560 Francophones make up about 4.3 percent of the total population. French . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47,560 English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .839,765 Non-official languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232,775 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,103,695 Note: Some people declared having more than one first language. Hence, the total of the categories exceeds provincial population.
A female majority Population by mother tongue and sex, In Manitoba, there are 24,935 2001, francophones, Manitoba francophone women and 22,620 men. The gap gets Frenchonly21,M36al5e2F3e,4m1al0e wider if we consider only French and English 1,255 1,525 Francophones who have both French and English as first Total 22,620 24,935 language. Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
Both Sexes 44,775 2,780 47,555
A stable population... French mother tongue The population of francophones went 1951-2001, Manitoba from 50,775 in 1991 to 47,560 in 2001. This slight decrease follows a period of relative stability, from 1981 to 1996. The Francophone community in Manitoba went through a period of strong growth in the fifties, then a decrease in the seventies. These changes largely reflect birthrate tendencies.
Data from: Marmen and Corbeil, 1999, Statistics Canada ... But it doesn’t keep up with provincial growth Since 1951, the percentage of francophones in Manitoba has fallen from 7 to 4.3 percent. The percentage has been declining since 1951, although the decrease is less rapid than twenty years ago. Francophone Manitobans continue, nevertheless, to have high concentrations in some rural areas where French plays an important part in their daily lives. In Winnipeg, the French language retains its strength due to the large number of francophones in Saint-Boniface.
A largely adult population Age distribution, 2001, The francophone population in Manitoba is largely adult. The median age of the francophones, Manitoba community is 46, a full 10 y ears more than it is for the Manitoban population. The birthrate of francophone Manitobans is lower than other linguistic groups in the province. A higher percentage, however, are old enough to work and to take an activ e part in the social and economic development of the province.
Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
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A people with strong roots: Born in Manitoba... Eight franco-Manitobans in 10 were born in Manitoba. Approximately 2.7 percent were born outside Canada. The franco-Manitoban community is solidly based as is evident from their sense of identity and belonging.
Place of residence in 2001 Francophones, Manitoba
Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
Place of birth, 2001 Francophones, Manitoba
Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
... That rarely moves A majority of franco-Manitobans lived at the same address in 2001 as in 1996. Only 6 percent of the rest of franco-Manitobans did not reside in the province five years earlier. Interprovincial movements have little or no effect on the franco-Manitoban population and the impact of the few francophone immigrants from abroad is minimal.
Linguistic Vitality
French spoken at home 1971-2001, Manitoba
Data from: Marmen and Corbeil, 1999, Statistics Canada.
Speaking French at home remains a challenge… In 2001, 21,740 people stated that they often spoke French at home; there were 39,600 who said so in 1971. The decline in the use of French at home has been less obvious during the past ten years. As the French language is in close contact with English in almost all franco-Manitoban environ-ments, the decline in spoken French at home is not surprising. While there are franco-Manitobans who speak English at home some of them also speak French away from home. As a matter of fact, a total of 15,965 people, among them close to 6,000 Anglophones, say they speak French regularly at home, even though it is not the most frequently-used language.
... But knowledge Knowledge of Fr ench of French is more 1951-2001, Manitoba widespread In Manitoba, the number of people who say they know French (French only or French and English) has almost doubled in less than 50 years. More than 104,000 people, or 9.4 percent of the population, said they can speak French. This is evidence that French is seen as prestigious and the province benefits from the presence of Francophiles. German (75,000 speakers) and U krainian (35,000 speakers) follow French on the list of most popular languages.
Data from: Marmen and Corbeil, 1999, Statistics Canada.
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Economic Vitality
Education remains Education, 2001 Francophones, Manitoba a challenge Close to half of Franco-manitobans didn’t stay in school past grade 13. However, more than 7,900 of them have attended university, making an important contribution to the pr i ’ ov nce s economy. The educational profile of franco-Manitobans varies from one region to another. More people have not completed high school in the francophone regions of rural Manitoba. Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
Franco-Manitoban employment by industry Franco-Manitobans are employed in many work environments. They are particularly active in the goods-producing sectors, including agriculture (6.6 percent) and manufacturing (9 percent). They are also very active in the service-producing sector. Thirty two percent of them are involved in public administration, education, and health care and social assistance. Many work in retail and wholesale trades and they are actively involved in the financial services, real estate and business services sectors in the province. These sectors include leading edge activities, those associated with the new economy, and the several economic engines. Contrary to manufacturing and public service, such new sectors are expanding. Franco-Manitobans are also active in transportation, which is especially important to Manitoba because of its location at the center of the country. Today Manitoba has 3565 francophones who own their own businesses. These entrepreneurs are 13 percent of the francophone workforce. Many independent business owners employ others, thus providing work for franco-Manitobans and other Manitobans.
Labour force by sector of activity 2001, francophones, Manitoba N % Agriculture 1 790 6.6 Mining 250 0.9 Utilities 280 1.0 Construction 1 870 6.8 Manufacturing 2 465 9.0 Wholesale Trade 880 3.2 Retail Trade 2 130 7.8 Transportation 1 880 6.9 Information Industry 495 1.8 Finance and insurance 1 110 4.1 Real Estate 365 1.3 Professional Services 825 3.0 Management of Companies 30 0.1 Administrative Services 770 2.8 Education Services 2 970 10.9 Health Care 3 365 12.3 Arts 370 1.4 Accommodation 1 365 5.0 Other services 1 565 5.7 Public Administration 2 525 9.2 All sectors 27 300 100.0 Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census. Agriculture: Includes forestry, fishing and hunting Mining: Includes oil and gas extraction Information Industry: Includes cultural industry Professional Services: Includes scientific and technical services Administrative Services: Includes support, waste management and remediation services. Arts: Includes entertainment and recreation Accommodation: Includes food services Transportation: Includes warehousing
Occupations This overview of the economic vitality of franco-Manitobans would be incomplete without a review of their occupations. Three areas of occupation are dominant: sales and services, which employs one in four franco-Manitobans; trades, transportation and equipment operation, employing 16.5 percent; and finance, business and administration with 19.4 percent.
Source of income 2001, francophones, Manitoba
Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
Labour force by occupation 2001, francophones, Manitoba N % Management 2 360 8.6 Finance, business and administration 5 290 19.4 Natural and applied sciences 1 055 3.9 Health 1 715 6.3 Social sciences, education and government services 2 645 9.7 Arts and culture 625 2.3 Sales and services 6 065 22.2 Trades, transportation and equipment operation 4 495 16.5 Primary industry occupations 1 840 6.7 Manufacturing industries occupations 1 215 4.4 All occupations 27 305 100.0 Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
Personal Income from employment... Franco-Manitobans receive 74 percent of their personal income from employment. Government transfers, such as employment insurance and old age benefits, and others, account for 15 per cent.
... And relatively high T2o0t0al1i,nfdriavindcuoaplhinceosm,eManitoba Personal income is unevenly divided on among franco-Manitobans. Seven franco-Manitobans out of 10 earn less than $30,000 per year; one out of four earns less than $10,000 annually. Less than 20 percent of Francophones have income in excess of $40,000. Income varies strongly from one region to the other. The average personal income of franco-phones in Manitoba is $27,329. That is higher than the average provincial income of $26,416. Data from: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
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