Rénovation du service public de l'Education nationale : responsabilité et démocratie

De
Rapport à Monsieur le Ministre de l'éducation nationale et à Madame la deléguée chargée de l'enseignement scolaire sur l'amélioration de l'éducation nationale en tant que service public, à travers la refonte ou l'évolution de son organisation. Dans cette étude, les notions de service public, d'établissement et d'académie sont redéfinies à partir de leur fonctionnement et leur rôle.
Publié le : dimanche 1 février 1998
Lecture(s) : 6
Source : http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/rapports-publics/984000633-renovation-du-service-public-de-l-education-nationale-responsabilite-et-democratie
Licence : En savoir +
Paternité, pas d'utilisation commerciale, partage des conditions initiales à l'identique
Nombre de pages : 87
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4ˆPQXCVKQP FW UGTXKEG RWDNKE FG N ’FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG
TGURQPUCDKNKVˆ GV FˆOQETCVKG
TCRRQTV
· OQPUKGWT NG OKPKUVTG FG N ˆFWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG FG NC TGEJGTEJG GV FG NC
VGEJPQNQIKG
· OCFCOGNC OKPKUVTGFˆNˆIWˆG EJCTIˆG FG N GPUGKIPGOGPV UEQNCKTG
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7PG GZKIGPEG RQWT VQWV UGTXKEG RWDNKE
. FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG GUV WP ECU RCTVKEWNKGT
.GU OKUUKQPU FG N EQNG
3WG TGVGPKT RQWT QTKGPVGT PQVTG TˆHNGZKQP !
7P FKCIPQUVKE
& CDQTF HCKTG RCUUGT N KFˆG FG UGTXKEG
%JCRKVTG &GU RTKPEKRGU RQWT NC TˆHNGZKQP
&GU TGURQPUCDKNKVˆU TˆRCTVKGU
7P VTCXCKN EQNNGEVKH
7P FˆENQKUQPPGOGPV GPVTG NGU GPUGKIPGOGPVU RTKOCKTG GV UGEQPFCKTG
7PG TGURKTCVKQP FCPU WP ECFTG PQTOˆ
7PG TˆIWNCVKQP EQPVKPWG
7P FKCIPQUVKE
%JCRKVTG . GPUGKIPGOGPV FW RTGOKGT FGITˆ RQWT WPG PQWXGNNG QTICPKUCVKQP
%G SW KN HCWV OCKPVGPKT
%G SWK FQKV ˆXQNWGT
4ˆWPKT NGU ˆEQNGU VTQR RGVKVGU
%TˆGT FGU ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU FW RTGOKGT FGITˆ
4ˆCNKUGT WP ˆSWKNKDTG GPVTG EQOOWPG GV ˆEQNG FCPU WP GURCEG ˆFWECVKH NQECN
4GFˆHKPKT NG TˇNG FGU KPURGEVGWTU FG N O FWECVKQP 0CVKQPCNG
7PG OKUG GP QGWXTG RTQITGUUKXG
%JCRKVTG .GU ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU UEQNCKTGU XGTU WPG RNWU ITCPFG TGURQPUCDKNKVˆ
4GURQPUCDKNKVˆ GV FˆOQETCVKG CW UGKP F WP ˆVCDNKUUGOGPV
3WGUVKQPU · GZCOKPGT
. CWVQPQOKG FG N OˆVCDNKUUGOGPV
7P HQPEVKQPPGOGPV FW %QPUGKN F OCFOKPKUVTCVKQP FG OGKNNGWTG SWCNKVˆ
.G RTQLGV F OˆVCDNKUUGOGPV
7PG QTICPKUCVKQP KPVGTPG CFCRVˆG
. ˆSWKRG FG FKTGEVKQP GV NGU RGTUQPPGNU FG FKTGEVKQP
. ˆXCNWCVKQP FGU ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU
. ˆXCNWCVKQP FGU RGTUQPPGNU
.C HQTOCVKQP EQPVKPWG GV NC EQQRˆTCVKQP GPVTG ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU
%JCRKVTG . CECFˆOKG PKXGCW UVTCVˆIKSWG WPG TˆRCTVKVKQP RNWU GHHKECEG
FGU TGURQPUCDKNKVˆU
7P PKXGCW KPVGTOˆFKCKTG
.GU HQPEVKQPU · CUUWTGT GV NG TˇNG FGU ECFTGU
.GU ECFTGU FGU CECFˆOKGU
.G RKNQVCIG PCVKQPCN
%QPENWUKQP
#PPGZGU

4ˆUWOˆ FGU RTQRQUKVKQPU
.GVVTG FG OKUUKQP
1TICPKUCVKQPU GV RGTUQPPCNKVˆU TGPEQPVTˆGU
.KUVG FGU UKINGU
%JCRKVTG
.OGPLGW
WP UGTXKEG RWDNKE RQWT PQVTG VGORU
7PG GZKIGPEG RQWT VQWV UGTXKEG RWDNKE
.C TˆPQXCVKQP FW UGTXKEG RWDNKE GP IˆPˆTCN CˆVˆ ˆXQSWˆG RCT NG 2TGOKGT /KPKUVTG GP LWKP
NQTU FG UC FˆENCTCVKQP FG RQNKVKSWG IˆPˆTCNG Q.OˆXQNWVKQP FW OQPFG GV FG PQVTG
UQEKˆVˆ NGU PQWXGNNGU VGEJPQNQIKGU TGPFGPV PˆEGUUCKTGU CWLQWTF OJWK WPG CFCRVCVKQP FG
NO VCV GV WP XCUVG GHHQTV FG TˆPQXCVKQP FW UGTXKEG RWDNKE %GU TˆHQTOGU FQKXGPV KORNKSWGT
NOCFJˆUKQP FGU HQPEVKQPPCKTGU .C SWCNKVˆ FG NC HQPEVKQP RWDNKSWG NG UGPU FG NC
TGURQPUCDKNKVˆ FGU CIGPVU RWDNKEU UQPV NGU OGKNNGWTU ICIGU FG NC TˆWUUKVG FG NC TˆHQTOG
FG N O VCV R’V NG 2TGOKGT /KPKUVTG KPXKVG N O VCV GV UGU HQPEVKQPPCKTGU ·WPG CVVKVWFG SWK
UQKV QEGNNG FW FKCNQIWG EQPVKPW FG N OCVVGPVKQP UETWRWNGWUG FG NC FKURQPKDKNKVˆ
EQPUVCPVG R
.C PQVKQP FG UGTXKEG · TGPFTG GUV OKUG GP CXCPV RCT FG ITCPFU QTICPKUOGU RWDNKEU
EQOOG’&( )&(.C 2QUVG (TCPEG 6ˆNˆEQONC 50%(QW GPEQTGN O#02’ ’NNG UGTV FG
OQVGWT ·NGWT TˆPQXCVKQP NGWTU TGURQPUCDNGU CHHKTOGPV SW OKN HCWV RCUUGT PQP RNWU
EQOOGCWVTGHQKU FG QNOCUUWLGVVKR · Q N OWUCIGTROCKU OCKPVGPCPV FG Q NOWUCIGTR CW
Q ENKGPV RSWK CW FGN· FG N OGHHKECEKVˆ SWOKN GZKIG EQPVTKDWG ·FˆHKPKT NG UGTXKEG CVVGPFW+N
UOCIKV FG UQTVKT FW Q LG TQWNG RQWT XQWU R QLG UCKU EG SWK GUV DQP RQWT XQWU R
’P GHHGV NGU FGOCPFGU FG PQU EQPVGORQTCKPU UG TGPHQTEGPV FCPU EG UGPU RQWT FG
OWNVKRNGU TCKUQPU NG EQPUWOˆTKUOG N OKPFKXKFWCNKUOG NC EQPEWTTGPEG NC OQPFKCNKUCVKQP
NC EQORCTCKUQP CXGE EG SWK RGWV GZKUVGT FCPU F OCWVTGU RC[U NG FˆXGNQRRGOGPV FG NC
NKDGTVˆ FCPU FG PQODTGWZ FQOCKPGU NC FˆOQETCVKUCVKQP FG NC UQEKˆVˆ GV CWUUK N OˆNˆXCVKQP
IˆPˆTCNG FW PKXGCW FG HQTOCVKQP SWG N O EQNG C RGTOKUG #WLQWTF OJWK EQOOG PQWU N OC
FKV 4QDGTV (TCKUUG Q NC NˆIKVKOKVˆ FG N OCEVKQP RWDNKSWG PC V FG UQP WVKNKVˆ XˆTKHKˆGRQWT NG
DKGP FG EJCEWP R
%G SWK GUV CVVGPFW RGWV ˜VTG TˆUWOˆ GP SWGNSWGU OQVU
NC NKUKDKNKVˆFW UGTXKEG KN P OGUV RNWU RQUUKDNG FG U OCDTKVGT FGTTK´TG NC VGEJPKSWG QW NC
EQORˆVGPEG
NC TGURQPUCDKNKVˆFGU KPVGTNQEWVGWTU SWGTGPEQPVTGPV NGU WUCIGTU QW NGU ENKGPVU KN P OGUV
RNWU CEEGRVˆ SW OKNU UOCDTKVGPV FGTTK´TG NC JKˆTCTEJKG
GV RQWT NG RGTOGVVTG WPG FˆEGPVTCNKUCVKQP FGU FˆEKUKQPU



%GRGPFCPV EGVVG FˆEGPVTCNKUCVKQP PG FQKV RCU HCKTG QDUVCENG · F OCWVTGU FGOCPFGU
ˆICNGOGPV HCKVGU GP (TCPEGCWZ UGTXKEGU RWDNKEU N OˆSWKVˆGV NC EQPVKPWKVˆFCPU NG VGORU
GV NOGURCEG’V EGNNGUN· PˆEGUUKVGPV WP RKNQVCIG F OGPUGODNG %G RKNQVCIG RGWV ˜VTG OGPˆ
RCT WPG OˆVJQFG Q QP HKZG FGU QDLGEVKHU GV Q QP EQPVTˇNG NGU TˆUWNVCVU OCKU
NOGHHKECEKVˆ FG EG V[RG FG RKNQVCIG GUV FQWVGWUG UK GNNG PG U OCEEQORCIPG RCU F OWPG
CFJˆUKQP FGU RGTUQPPGNU % OGUV RQWTSWQK QP RCTNG CWUUK FG QOCPCIGOGPV RNQTUSWG N OQP
XGWV ˆXKVGT NC EQPPQVCVKQP VTQR FKTGEVKXG FW XGTDG QRKNQVGT R
2QWT TGPFTG WP OGKNNGWT UGTXKEG KN HCWV COˆNKQTGT NG HQPEVKQPPGOGPV GV ˆXGPVWGNNGOGPV
RQWT EGNC CFCRVGT N OQTICPKUCVKQP NG HQPEVKQPPGOGPV GUV RNWU KORQTVCPV SWG
NOQTICPKUCVKQP GV NGU ˆXQNWVKQPU FCPU N OQTICPKUCVKQP POQPV FG UGPU SWG RQWT CIKT UWT NG
HQPEVKQPPGOGPV
.O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG GUV WP ECU RCTVKEWNKGT
.C NQK F OQTKGPVCVKQP FW LWKNNGV FˆENCTG F OGODNˆGSWG QNGUGTXKEG RWDNKE FG
NOˆFWECVKQP GUV EQP`W GP HQPEVKQP FGU ˆN´XGU R2QWTVCPV RGWV QP XTCKOGPV CHHKTOGT SWG
NOQTKGPVCVKQP N OCHHGEVCVKQP FGU ˆN´XGU FCPU NGU UGEVKQPU RTQHGUUKQPPGNNGU NC UGEVQTKUCVKQP
NC RQNKVKSWG FGU NCPIWGU XKXCPVGU RCT GZGORNG UQKGPV VQWLQWTU CW UGTXKEG FGU ˆN´XGU !
%GPOGUV RCU EGRGPUGPV NGU RCTGPVU ’V SWG FKTG NQTUSWG NG FQOCKPG RˆFCIQIKSWG GUV
EQP`W RCT NGU GPUGKIPCPVU EQOOG NGWT EJCUUG ICTFˆG ! %GVVG RJTCUG FG NC .QK SWK CRW
RCTC VTG DCPCNG PG XC FQPE RCU FG UQK % OGUV SWG N O EQNG GUV WP UGTXKEG RWDNKE
RCTVKEWNKGT
&OCDQTF N OˆN´XG P OGUV RCU WP ENKGPV SWK RGWV · NWK UGWN FˆHKPKT NG UGTXKEG CVVGPFW OQKPU
RGWV ˜VTG RCTEG SWG DGCWEQWR F OˆN´XGU UQPV OKPGWTU SWG RCTEG SWG NG DWV FG N OˆFWECVKQP
GUV SWG NGU ˆN´XGU UG VTCPUHQTOGPV GV RCTEG SW OKNU UQPV FGU CEVGWTU FG NGWT HQTOCVKQP
&CPU NC EQPEGRVKQP HTCP`CKUG NGU RCTGPVU PG UQPV RCU F OCKNNGWTU PQP RNWU FGU ENKGPVU
FOWPG GPVTGRTKUG FQPV NGU ˆN´XGU UGTCKGPV FGU RTQFWKVU ECT N O EQNG GUV CW UGTXKEG FGU
ˆN´XGU . O EQNGP OGUV FQPE RCU WPG GPVTGRTKUG
’P QWVTG NO EQNG P OQR´TG RCU UWT WP OCTEJˆ EQPEWTTGPVKGN ’P GHHGV N OˆSWKVˆ GV NC
EQPVKPWKVˆ FGOCPFˆGU CW UGTXKEG RWDNKE U OCEEQOOQFGTCKGPV OCN FW OCTEJˆ PQVCOOGPV
GP OCVK´TG F O FWECVKQP Q QP CIKV · NQPI VGTOG +N GZKUVG EGTVGU FGU CURGEVU
EQPEWTTGPVKGNU GPVTG ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU GPVTG NG UGEVGWT RWDNKE GV NG UGEVGWT RTKXˆGPVTG
N[EˆGU RTQHGUUKQPPGNU GV CRRTGPVKUUCIG RQWT NC HQTOCVKQP EQPVKPWG FGU CFWNVGU SWK GNNG
QR´TG UWT WP OCTEJˆ GV FCPU WP CWVTG TGIKUVTG GPVTG EQNG GV OˆFKCU GPVTG N O EQNG GV NC
XKG EQPEWTTGPEG RQWT NG VGORU FGU ˆN´XGU RQWT NGWT CVVGPVKQP %GRGPFCPV NG UGTXKEG
RWDNKE FG N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG PG XKUG RCU WP QEJKHHTG F OCHHCKTGU ROCKU WP UGTXKEG
QRVKOCN FGU LGWPGU EG P OGUV RCU PˆEGUUCKTGOGPV RCTEG SWG NG PQODTG F OˆN´XGU ETQ V SWG
NG UGTXKEG GUV OGKNNGWT N· C RW ˜VTG WP QDLGEVKH FCPU NG RCUUˆ OCKU CWLQWTF OJWK NC
DCVCKNNG SWCPVKVCVKXG GUV NCTIGOGPV ICIPˆG
+N HCWV EGTVGU ˜VTG EQPUEKGPV FG EGTVCKPGU HQTOGU FG EQPEWTTGPEGRQWT UG RTˆOWPKT FGU
GHHGVU H‚EJGWZ SW OGNNGU RGWXGPV GPIGPFTGT2CT GZGORNG KN GUV FCPU NC PCVWTG FGU EJQUGU
SWOWPG TKXCNKVˆ CRRCTCKUUG GPVTG NGU ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU GV GNNG UG TGPHQTEGTC CXGE NCDCKUUG
FˆOQITCRJKSWG EGVVG EQPEWTTGPEG N· FQKV ˜VTG TˆIWNˆG CW PKXGCW CECFˆOKSWG RQWT

P?CKUGFGTGEJGTEJGU.G!VNUWTRWDNKESWGNNG&QEWOGPVCVKQPCQWXC&GTQ
FKTUGTXKEGGPOQFGTPKUCVKQP(TCGFPECUEGV?VCDNKUUGOGPVUTCIG8QKTO%TVKENG)T?OKQP,.4WGV(TCKUUGNGFGUUEQNCKTGU
ICTCPVKT NOˆSWKVˆ RCT N OCHHGEVCVKQP FGU ˆN´XGU NC FˆHKPKVKQP FG NC ECTVG FGU HQTOCVKQPU W
/CKU EGTVCKPU V[RGU FG EQPEWTTGPEG RGWXGPV ˜VTG WVKNKUˆU CW EQPVTCKTGFCPU NG UGPU FG
NOCOˆNKQTCVKQP FG NC SWCNKVˆ FW UGTXKEG RCT GZGORNG FˆHKPKT NG TˇNG FG N O?EQNG GP VGPCPV
EQORVG FG N OGZKUVGPEG FG N OQHHTG GV FW HQPEVKQPPGOGPV FGU OˆFKCU ’V KN HCWV RTGPFTG
ICTFG · EG SW OWPG CDUGPEG F OCFCRVCVKQP FW UGTXKEG RWDNKE PG EQPFWKUG ·VGTOG · WPG
EQPEWTTGPEG SWK EQPVTGFKTCKV N OˆSWKVˆ F OQTGU GV FˆL· FGVGNU GHHGVU GZKUVGPV KNU XKGPPGPV
FO˜VTG FˆPQPEˆU FCPU WP TCRRQTV UWT NG QRKNQVCIG FW U[UV´OG ˆFWECVKH RˆOCPCPV FW
ITQWRG Q ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU GVXKG UEQNCKTG R FGN OKPURGEVKQP IˆPˆTCNG SWK CVVKTG N OCVVGPVKQP
UWT NC PˆEGUUKVˆ FG TGUVCWTGTWPG ˆVJKSWG FW UGTXKEG RWDNKE 1P FQKV GHHGEVKXGOGPV UG
FGOCPFGT EQOOGPV NG UGTXKEG RWDNKE FG N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG VGN SWG PQWU NG
EQPPCKUUQPU TˆUKUVGTCCWZ VGPFCPEGU FG PQVTG UQEKˆVˆ VGNNGU SWG NG EQPUWOˆTKUOG GV NC
OQPFKCNKUCVKQP KN P O[ RCTXKGPFTC EGTVCKPGOGPV RCU U OKN POˆXQNWG RCU FCPU UQP
HQPEVKQPPGOGPV
’PHKP NGU QDLGEVKHU FG N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG UG SWCPVKHKGPV OCN GV UG RT˜VGPV FQPE OCN ·
WP UKORNG OCPCIGOGPV FW V[RGQDLGEVKHU TˆUWNVCVU &G RNWU NGU TˆUWNVCVU UQPV GP DQPPG
RCTVKG FˆVGTOKPˆU RCT NG U[UV´OG NWK O˜OG E OGUV CKPUK SWG N OQDLGEVKH FGU CW PKXGCW
FW DCE C RW ˜VTG ETKVKSWˆ RCT EGTVCKPU EQOOGCEEQORCIPˆ F OWPG RTˆVGPFWG DCKUUG FW
PKXGCW QW SWG NGU QTKGPVCVKQPU FCPU WP EQNN´IG FˆRGPFGPV CWVCPV FG UGU EJQKZ SWG FGU
EQPPCKUUCPEGU TˆGNNGOGPV CESWKUGU RCT UGU ˆN´XGU
7P UEJˆOC EQPEGTPCPV NG HQPEVKQPPGOGPV FGU ITCPFGU QTICPKUCVKQPU PQWU C ˆVˆ RTQRQUˆ
RCT NOWP FG PQU KPVGTNQEWVGWTU GZVˆTKGWTU ·N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG +N FKUVKPIWG SWCVTG ECU
UGNQP SWG FCPU WPG QTICPKUCVKQP NG RQWXQKT GUV EQPEGPVTˆ QW FKHHWUˆ GV SWG NC
TGURQPUCDKNKVˆ EQPHKˆG CWZ RGTUQPPGNU GV CWZ WPKVˆU FG DCUG GUV HCKDNG QW RNWU HQTVG
responsabilité
management management
par par forte
objectifs le sens
résultats
faible bureaucratie anarchie
concentré diffusé pouvoir
.O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG TGN´XG RNWVˇV UGNQP NG RQKPV FG XWG CFQRVˆ FGU FGWZ ECUGU
KPHˆTKGWTGU QP C XQWNW FCPU NC RˆTKQFG TˆEGPVGGV CXGE WPG TˆWUUKVG XCTKCDNG NC HCKTG
RCUUGT FCPU NC ECUG UWRˆTKGWTG ICWEJG KN GUV VGORU F OCNNGT XGTU NC SWCVTK´OG EGNNGFW
Q OCPCIGOGPV RCT NG UGPU R#W FGN· FGU QDLGEVKHU KN HCWV FQPE UG TˆHˆTGT CWZ OKUUKQPU
FG NO EQNG SWK QPV WP ECTCEV´TG FGRˆTGPPKVˆ OCKU FQPV N OCTVKEWNCVKQP C DGUQKP F O˜VTG
CEVWCNKUˆG
.GU OKUUKQPU FGN O EQNG
$GCWEQWR C FˆL· ˆVˆ ˆETKV GP EG FQOCKPG GV PQWU UGTQPU FQPE DTGHU 1P FKUVKPIWG
VTCFKVKQPPGNNGOGPV VTQKU OKUUKQPU FG DCUG N OKPUVTWEVKQP N OˆFWECVKQP NC HQTOCVKQP

GCXGPKTQNGRRQWT7PGNCXGO8QKTRCTZGORNG?EQNGQWT.QOWPPKTN+7(/?EFGTTCKPG*CEJGVVG
RGTOGVVCPV GP RCTVKEWNKGT WPG KPUGTVKQP RTQHGUUKQPPGNNG GNNGU U OGZGTEGPV CW DˆPˆHKEGFG
NOˆN´XG /CKU KN GP GUV F OCWVTGU SWK EQPEGTPGPV NC UQEKˆVˆRQWT UC EQPUGTXCVKQP QW UQP
ˆXQNWVKQP UGNQP NGU ˆRQSWGU QP C RNWU QW OQKPU KPUKUVˆ UWT NC EQJˆUKQP PCVKQPCNG UWT
NOˆICNKVˆ FGU EJCPEGU UWT NC EQORˆVKVKXKVˆ ˆEQPQOKSWG ’V QP RGWV FKTG SWG EG UQPV EGU
OKUUKQPU UQEKCNGU SWK · EJCSWG ˆRQSWG RGTOGVVGPV F OCTVKEWNGT GV FG JKˆTCTEJKUGT NGU VTQKU
OKUUKQPU FG DCUG
#KPUK N O EQNG FG NC 6TQKUK´OG 4ˆRWDNKSWG XKUCKV · CUUWTGT NC EQJˆUKQP PCVKQPCNG ·
EKOGPVGT NC 4ˆRWDNKSWG GP FˆRCUUCPV NGU RCTVKEWNCTKUOGU GNNG OGVVCKV FQPE CW RTGOKGT
RNCP NOKPUVTWEVKQP NC VTCPUOKUUKQP FG UCXQKTU EQPUKFˆTˆU EQOOG WPKXGTUGNU XQKTG
ˆVGTPGNU FCPU WP GURCEGENQU FG OCPK´TG WPKHQTOG UWT NG VGTTKVQKTG N OˆFWECVKQP POGP
ˆVCKV RCU CDUGPVG OCKU GNNG ˆVCKV RTKUG GP EQORVG · VTCXGTU N OKPUVTWEVKQP NC OQTCNG
UOGPUGKIPCKV RCT FGU NG`QPU NC HQTOCVKQP SWK ETˆG FGU FKHHˆTGPEKCVKQPU ˆVCKV RGW
RTˆUGPVG GV UGWNGOGPV EQOOG UQWU RTQFWKV F OWPG KPUVTWEVKQP IˆPˆTCNG GV NC OˆTKVQETCVKG
HQPFˆG UWT NG UCXQKT LWUVKHKCKV NC UˆRCTCVKQP FGU FGWZ QTFTGU F OGPUGKIPGOGPV NG RTKOCKTG
GV NG UGEQPFCKTG . OEQNG FGU QVTGPVG INQTKGWUGUROGVVCKV GNNG GP CXCPV N OˆICNKVˆ FGU
EJCPEGU NGU ETKVKSWGU FG NC QTGRTQFWEVKQP RˆOCPCPV FG UQEKQNQIWGU EQPFWKUCKGPV ·
KPUKUVGT UWT N OˆFWECVKQP FGU GPHCPVU
NGUCXQKT ˜VTG CXCPV NG UCXQKTSWK RCTV FGU RGTUQPPGU
VGNNGU SWOGNNGU UQPV GV RTGPF FQPE GP EQORVG NGWTU RCTVKEWNCTKVˆU [EQORTKU RQWT KPUVTWKTG
NC HQTOCVKQP RTQHGUUKQPPGNNG UG FˆXGNQRRCKV · ECWUGFG NC ETQKUUCPEG ˆEQPQOKSWG
EGNNG EK EQPFWKUCKV · WPG OQDKNKVˆ UQEKCNG ETˆCPV WPG CURKTCVKQP GP FKTGEVKQP FG N O EQNG GV
TGPHQT`CPV NC FGOCPFG F OˆICNKVˆ FGU EJCPEGU #XGE NC ETKUG RQWT HCXQTKUGT NC
EQORˆVKVKXKVˆ ˆEQPQOKSWG GV NWVVGT EQPVTGNG EJˇOCIG NC HQTOCVKQP GV NG UCXQKT HCKTG
XQPV XGPKT CW RTGOKGT RNCP N OKPUVTWEVKQP GV N OˆFWECVKQP ˆVCPV EQPUKFˆTˆGU EQOOG FGU
OQ[GPU
.GU FˆUKNNWUKQPU PˆGU FG N OCIITCXCVKQP FW EJˇOCIG N OKPEGTVKVWFG UWT N OCXGPKT GV NC RGTVG
FG UGPU RQWT DGCWEQWR FG LGWPGU FG EGVVG EQNG · NCSWGNNG QP FGOCPFG VTQR
GZENWUKXGOGPV NOKPUGTVKQP RTQHGUUKQPPGNNG EQPFWKUGPV OCKPVGPCPV · NC TGEJGTEJG F OWP
PQWXGN JQTK\QP 2QWT CWLQWTF OJWK GV RQWT FGOCKP NC OKUUKQP FG N O EQNG CWVQWT FG
NCSWGNNG UOCTVKEWNGPV UGU OKUUKQPU FG DCUG KPUVTWKTG ˆFWSWGT HQTOGT RQWTTCKV ˜VTG ·
PQVTG UGPU FG RTˆRCTGT ·XKXTGFCPU WPG UQEKˆVˆFˆOQETCVKSWG RNQPIˆG FCPU WP OQPFG
GP EJCPIGOGPV EQPUVCPV EGTVCKPU RCTNGPV FG QUCXQKT FGXGPKT R
3WG TGVGPKT RQWT QTKGPVGT PQVTG TˆHNGZKQP !
2CTOK NGU ˆNˆOGPVU FG NC TˆPQXCVKQP FGU UGTXKEGU RWDNKEU GP IˆPˆTCN EGTVCKPU
UOCRRNKSWGPV ·N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG QW RGWXGPV U O[ CFCRVGT RQWT VGPKTEQORVG FG UGU
RCTVKEWNCTKVˆU
.C PQVKQP FG UGTXKEG · TGPFTG CHHKTOˆG RCT NC .QK GUV NG OQVGWT FG NC TˆPQXCVKQP
.G UGTXKEG GUV · FˆHKPKT CXGE EGWZ SWK GP DˆPˆHKEKGPV ˆN´XGU QCWEGPVTG FW U[UV´OG R
CEVGWTU FG NGWT HQTOCVKQP RCTGPVU FQPV NC NQK RTˆXQKV SW OKNU UQPV CWUUK QOGODTGU FG NC
EQOOWPCWVˆ ˆFWECVKXG REGVVG GZRTGUUKQP UKIPKHKG SWG UK NCTGNCVKQP CXGE GWZ P OGUV RCU
FW V[RG HQWTPKUUGWT ENKGPV GNNG GUV FG N OQTFTG FW RCTVGPCTKCV

???FWECVKQP
&GU FKTGEVKQPU · RTKXKNˆIKGT UQPV NC NKUKDKNKVˆ FW UGTXKEG NC TGURQPUCDKNKVˆ GV N OCFJˆUKQP
FGU RGTUQPPGNU ·VQWU NGU PKXGCWZ PQVCOOGPV CW RNCP NQECN GV WPG FˆEGPVTCNKUCVKQP FGU
FˆEKUKQPU SWK F OCKNNGWTU HCXQTKUG NG EJCPIGOGPV
+N TGXKGPV ·N O VCV FG FˆHKPKT NGU OKUUKQPU GV FG ICTCPVKT N OˆSWKVˆ GV NC EQPVKPWKVˆ FW
UGTXKEG NG UGTXKEG RWDNKE FQKV FQPE HCKTG N OQDLGV FOWP RKNQVCIG EG FGTPKGT C GP
RCTVKEWNKGT · VTCKVGT NGU CURGEVU EQPEWTTGPVKGNU GV · HCXQTKUGT N OCFCRVCVKQP UCPU NCSWGNNG NG
UGTXKEG RWDNKE CWSWGN PQWU UQOOGU CVVCEJˆU UGTC OGPCEˆ · VGTOG
% OGUV FOCDQTF NGHQPEVKQPPGOGPV SW OKN EQPXKGPV F OCOˆNKQTGT GV NGU ˆXQNWVKQPU FCPU
NOQTICPKUCVKQP PG UQPV SWG FGU OQ[GPU RQWT [ RCTXGPKT
&OCRT´U (TCP`QKUG %TQU Q NC TˆPQXCVKQP FW U[UV´OG ˆFWECVKH PG EJCPIG RCU NGU QDLGEVKHU
OCKU CKFG · OKGWZ NGU CVVGKPFTG R2QWTVCPV EQOOG PQWU N OQPV FKV CXGE HQTEG EGTVCKPU FG
PQU KPVGTNQEWVGWTU PQU RTQRQUKVKQPU PG RGWXGPV ˜VTG KPFˆRGPFCPVGU F OWPG EQPEGRVKQP FG
NO EQNG GV FG UCOKUUKQP ’P GHHGV UQP HQPEVKQPPGOGPV CRQWT NGU LGWPGU WP ECTCEV´TG
OQFˆNKUCPV &CPU WP OQPFG GP ˆXQNWVKQP NC UQEKˆVˆFˆOQETCVKSWG P OGUV RCU WP FQPPˆ
GNNG GUV VQWLQWTU · EQPUVTWKTG %OGUV RCTEG SWG NC UQEKˆVˆ QˆVCDNKUUGOGPV RHQPEVKQPPGTC
UGNQP NGU T´INGU F OWPG UQEKˆVˆ XˆTKVCDNGOGPV FˆOQETCVKSWG GV UK GNNG FQPPG EG UGPU · UQP
HQPEVKQPPGOGPV SWG NGU LGWPGU SW OGNNG HQTOG EQPVTKDWGTQPV FGOCKP · EGVVG EQPUVTWEVKQP
%OGUV RCTEG SWG NG UGTXKEG RWDNKE FG N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG FCPU UQP GPUGODNG
HQPEVKQPPGTC UGNQP EGU T´INGU SWG NGU RGTUQPPGNU NGU HGTQPV XKXTG FCPU NGU
ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU.GU GZKIGPEGU FG NKUKDKNKVˆ FG TGURQPUCDKNKVˆ F OˆSWKVˆ FG EQPVKPWKVˆ
XQPV FCPU EG UGPU
&CPU PQVTG UQEKˆVˆ SWK GUV F OCKNNGWTU GP DQPPG RCTV NG TˆUWNVCV FW FˆXGNQRRGOGPV FG NC
UEQNCTKUCVKQP KN GUV FKHHKEKNG FG FˆEKFGT GV FG HCKTG GZˆEWVGT NGU FˆEKUKQPU %GTVCKPU
RCTNGPV FG ETKUG FG NC FˆOQETCVKG OCKU PG HCWV KN RCU RNWVˇV [ XQKT N OCRRGN · WPG PQWXGNNG
HQTOG FG FˆOQETCVKG !. OQTICPKUCVKQP GP VGTOGU FG RQWXQKT PG HQPEVKQPPG RNWU RQWT
NO EQNG KN U OCIKV FW RQWXQKT FW RTQHGUUGWT UWT N OˆN´XG FG N OKPURGEVGWT UWT NG RTQHGUUGWT
FG NOKPURGEVGWT FOCECFˆOKG UWTNG EJGHF OˆVCDNKUUGOGPV FW OKPKUVTG UWT NGU TGEVGWTU W
/CKU NO VCV GUV CW UGTXKEG FGU EKVQ[GPU VQWV PG XKGPV RCU FW UQOOGV NGU FˆEKUKQPU UQPV
EQPEGTVˆGU NGU TGURQPUCDNGU TGPFGPV EQORVG NCUQEKˆVˆ GUV QTICPKUˆG GP EQPUˆSWGPEG
Q %QPXCKPETGGV PQP RCU EQPVTCKPFTG RFKUCKV UQWXGPV #NCKP 5CXCT[
5K NO EQNG FG NC 6TQKUK´OG 4ˆRWDNKSWG CXCKV RQWT OQF´NG N OWPKXGTUKVˆ SWK GPUGKIPG UK
EGNNG FGU Q VTGPVG INQTKGWUGU RRQWXCKV XQWNQKT TGUUGODNGT · NCHCOKNNG SWK ˆFWSWG UK NG
OQF´NG FG N OGPVTGRTKUG GUV VT´U RTˆUGPV RQWT N O EQNG FGNC ETKUGPG HCWV KN RCU OCKPVGPCPV
RGPUGT NOEQNG GV EJCEWPG FG UGU WPKVˆU EQOOG WPG UQEKˆVˆ !
7PFKCIPQUVKE
.G UGTXKEG RWDNKE FG N OˆFWECVKQP POGUV RCU LWIˆ FˆHCXQTCDNGOGPV RCT NGU (TCP`CKU UK N OQP
GP ETQKV NGU UQPFCIGU HCKVU CW EQWTU FGU FGTPK´TGU CPPˆGU %GNC P OGUV UCPU FQWVG RCU
KPFˆRGPFCPV FG NC RTKUG FG EQPUEKGPEG ETQKUUCPVG FG N OKORQTVCPEG FG N O EQNG /CKU GP
O˜OG VGORU NGU CVVGPVGU CWIOGPVGPV GP TCKUQP FGN OGPLGW FGU ˆVWFGU EG SWK RQWTTCKV ·
VGTOG CNVˆTGT EG LWIGOGPV RQUKVKH ’P QWVTG NGU TGNCKU F OQRKPKQP CFQRVGPV UQWXGPV WPG

NGUFCFOKPKUVTCVKQP?EQNGPUKVKQPUQEK?V?FWKPUVKVWVKQPHTCP?CKUGPGPVTGNNCQWXNXQK?OWG5WTTGNCVKQPUNCGVOGVSWGUVKQP#R.GITCPFQKT.PU?FOPCVKUEQNCKTGGPT.CQ.GVVTGOFGWECVKQPNQPCNGOVTC?RFWECVKQP4GXWGPQF#RWDNKSPQXGOQDTG

CVVKVWFG FˆHCXQTCDNG EGSWK OQPVTG NC HTCIKNKVˆ FG N OCRRTQDCVKQP GV RGWV HCKTG ETCKPFTG
SWG PQU EQPEKVQ[GPU UQKGPV FGOCKP VGPVˆU RCT F OCWVTGU OQF´NGU
%G SWK GUV RGWV ˜VTG RNWU RTˆQEEWRCPV GPEQTG GUV N OGZKUVGPEG FG OWNVKRNGU VGPUKQPU
KPVGTPGU SWK OCPKHGUVGPV FGU FKXGTIGPEGU UWT NG UGTXKEG · TGPFTG GV UWT NC PQVKQP FG
UGTXKEG GNNG O˜OG +N U OCIKV FOCDQTF FGVGPUKQPU GPVTG ˆN´XGU GV GPUGKIPCPVU NC XKQNGPEG
POGUV RCU UGWNGOGPV WP RJˆPQO´PG KORQTVˆ FG N OGZVˆTKGWT /CKU NGU TGPEQPVTGU SWG PQWU
CXQPU GWGU HQPV CRRCTC VTG F OCWVTGU V[RGU FG VGPUKQPU
GPVTG RCTGPVU GV RGTUQPPGNU FG N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG GPUGKIPCPVU GV EJGHU
FOˆVCDNKUUGOGPV PQVCOOGPV OCKU CWUUK KPURGEVGWTU F OCECFˆOKGNGU RTGOKGTU CEEWUGPV
NGU UGEQPFU FG OCPSWG F OˆEQWVG GV FG TGURGEV NGU UGEQPFU CEEWUGPV NGU RTGOKGTU FG
EQPUWOˆTKUOG GV F OKPIˆTGPEG OCKU GUV KN VGPCDNG CWLQWTF OJWK FG U OCDTKVGT FCPU WP
FQOCKPG TˆUGTXˆ O˜OG UQWU RTˆVGZVG FG FˆVGPKT NG UCXQKT GV NC EQORˆVGPEG !
GPVTG NGU GPUGKIPCPVU UWT FGU EQPEGRVKQPU RˆFCIQIKSWGU GV FGU TGRTˆUGPVCVKQPU
FKXGTIGPVGU FG NGWT OˆVKGT
GPVTG GPUGKIPCPVU GV EJGHU F OˆVCDNKUUGOGPV CXGE KEK CWUUK WPG SWGTGNNG FG FQOCKPG GV FG
EQORˆVGPEG
RNWU IˆPˆTCNGOGPV GPVTG WPG HKNK´TG QRˆFCIQIKSWG RGVWPG HKNK´TG QCFOKPKUVTCVKXG R
CXGE FGU CEEWUCVKQPU TGURGEVKXGU F OKIPQTCPEG FGU TˆCNKVˆU GV F OKTTGURQPUCDKNKVˆ
RNWU IˆPˆTCNGOGPV GPEQTGGPVTG WP RQKPV FG XWG KPFKXKFWGN XQKTG NKDGTVCKTG HQPFˆ UWT
NC RTˆˆOKPGPEG FW UCXQKT GV WP RQKPV FG XWG JKˆTCTEJKSWG LWUVKHKˆ RCT NGU QDLGEVKHU ·
CVVGKPFTG F OWP EˇVˆN O VCV GUV XˆEW · NC HQKU EQOOG WP RTQVGEVGWT O[VJKSWG GV EQOOG
XQWNCPV KORQUGT FGU GZKIGPEGU KNNˆIKVKOGU RCT N OKPVGTOˆFKCKTG FG NC JKˆTCTEJKG CNQTU SWG
FG NOCWVTG NGU RGTUQPPGNU UQPV EQPUKFˆTˆU EQOOG FGU EQTRQTCVKUVGU GPHGTOˆU FCPU WPG
VQWT FOKXQKTG
GPVTG NGU TGURQPUCDNGU RQNKVKSWGU NGU CFOKPKUVTCVGWTU NGU RˆFCIQIWGU FQPV NGU
Q EQPUVCPVGU FG VGORU R UQPV DKGP FKHHˆTGPVGU
1P CUUKUVG RCTHQKU · FGU FˆPQPEKCVKQPU ECVˆIQTKGNNGU INQDCNGU HCKVGU FG OˆRTKU FG
OˆHKCPEGU GV F OCEEWUCVKQPU OWVWGNNGU 5K QP CLQWVCKV VQWV EG SWK PQWU C ˆVˆ FKV FG EJCSWG
ITQWRG RCT NGU CWVTGU QP EQPENWTCKV SWG N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG HQPEVKQPPG CXGE WPG
CFOKPKUVTCVKQP EGPVTCNG KIPQTCPVG FGU TˆCNKVˆU FGU TGEVGWTU KPEQORˆVGPVU FGU KPURGEVGWTU
FOCECFˆOKG LCNQWZ FG NGWT CWVQTKVˆ FGU RTKPEKRCWZ GV FGU RTQXKUGWTU C[CPV HWK
NOGPUGKIPGOGPV FGU KPURGEVGWTU RGVKVU EJGHU FGU GPUGKIPCPVU TGHWUCPV VQWV EJCPIGOGPV
FGU RGTUQPPGNU #615 KIPQTˆU XQKTG OˆRTKUˆU FGU RCTGPVU FˆOKUUKQPPCKTGU WUCPU RCTNGT
FGU ˆN´XGU PK KPVˆTGUUˆU PK KPVˆTGUUCPVU GV RCTHQKU FˆNKPSWCPVU Q’V RQWTVCPV GNNG VQWTPG R
GV O˜OG GNNG RTQITGUUG +N FQKV FQPE DKGP [ CXQKT FCPU EGVVG FGUETKRVKQP SWGNSWG EJQUG
FOKPGZCEV /CKU VQWV EGNC PG FQPPG RCU N OKOCIG FOWP UGTXKEG RWDNKE F[PCOKSWG VGPFW
XGTU NG RTQIT´U
+N XCWFTCKV OKGWZ EJGTEJGT NGU TCKUQPU FGU FKHHKEWNVˆU PQP FCPU WPG OCNKIPKVˆ FGU
RGTUQPPGU QW FGU ITQWRGU OCKU FCPU NG HQPEVKQPPGOGPV GV N OQTICPKUCVKQP %GU VGPUKQPU
OQPVTGPV WPG WTIGPEG GV GP O˜OG VGORU RCTCFQZCNGOGPV KORQUGPV WPG RTWFGPEG FCPU

NGU UQNWVKQPU % OGUV EG SWK PQWU EQPFWKTC · FGU RTQRQUKVKQPU CODKVKGWUGU GV ·WP GZCOGP
FG NGWTU EQPFKVKQPU FG OKUG GP QGWXTG RTQITGUUKXG
%G UQPV NC EQJˆUKQP GV NC EQPHKCPEG SW OKN HCWV TGUVCWTGT NC SWGUVKQP QGUV EGSWG
NO FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG HQPEVKQPPG R NC TˆRQPUG GUV KPFˆPKCDNGOGPV QWK &GU RTQIT´U
EQPUKFˆTCDNGU QPV ˆVˆ CEEQORNKU FCPU NGU FGTPK´TGU FˆEGPPKGU GP VGTOGU FG PKXGCW
FOKPUVTWEVKQP GV FG HQTOCVKQP FG NC RQRWNCVKQP UEQNCKTG GP VGTOGU FG RQWTEGPVCIGU
CVVGKIPCPV NGU FKXGTU PKXGCWZ UCPU SW OCRRCTCKUUG WPGFˆITCFCVKQP FGU EQPPCKUUCPEGU ·
EJCSWG PKXGCW /CKU ·NC SWGUVKQP Q GUV EG SWG N O FWECVKQP PCVKQPCNG RGWV HQPEVKQPPGT
OKGWZRNC TˆRQPUG GUV ˆICNGOGPV · EQWR U T RQUKVKXG %QODKGP F OKFˆGU RTQOGVVGWUGU
PQVCOOGPV RQWT COˆNKQTGT NCTGURQPUCDKNKVˆ GV N OˆSWKVˆ EQOOG RCT GZGORNG EGNNG FG
RTQLGV FOˆVCDNKUUGOGPV FG E[ENG ·N OˆEQNG RTKOCKTG QW FGOQFWNG CW N[EˆG UG UQPV
CHHCFKGU QW UQPV FGXGPWGU RWTGOGPV HQTOGNNGU 2QWTSWQK GV EQOOGPV HCKTG OKGWZ ·
NOCXGPKT ! 8QKN· NC SWGUVKQP SWK UQWU VGPF PQU TˆHNGZKQPU GV PQU RTQRQUKVKQPU
%OGUV CWVQWT FG NC PQVKQP FG UGTXKEG GV FG UGTXKEG RWDNKE SWG PQWU NGU PQWGTQPU 1T NGU
QDUGTXCVKQPU SWG PQWU CXQPU HCKVGU OQPVTGPV SWG EGVVG PQVKQP PG TG`QKV FCPU NG U[UV´OG
ˆFWECVKH SWOWPG TˆXˆTGPEG HQTOGNNG XKVG ˆXCEWˆG FGXCPV NGU RTQDN´OGU FG QDQWVKSWG R
&OCDQTF HCKTG RCUUGT N OKFˆG FG UGTXKEG
&GXCPV EGVVG SWGUVKQP CWUUK HQPFCOGPVCNG SWG FKHHKEKNGPQVTG RTQRQUKVKQP GUV OQFGUVG
OCKU GNNG GUV WP RQKPV FG FˆRCTV SWG EJCSWG ˆEQNGQW ˆVCDNKUUGOGPV QTICPKUG WPG
GPSW˜VG CWRT´U FGU RCTGPVU GV FGU ˆN´XGU UWT NGWTU CVVGPVGU GV NGWTU DGUQKPU GP OCVK´TG
FG UGTXKEG
.OGPSW˜VG FQPV NC OˆVJQFQNQIKG UGTCKV FˆHKPKG CW PKXGCW PCVKQPCN FGXTCKV ˜VTG OKUG CW
RQKPV GV GHHGEVWˆG RCT EJCSWG ˆEQNG QW ˆVCDNKUUGOGPV UEQNCKTG GV EQORQTVGT FGU SWGUVKQPU
UWT NC OCPK´TG FQPV NG UGTXKEG [ GUV TGPFW CWUUK EQPET´VGU SWG RCT GZGORNG N OQWXGTVWTG
FGU RQTVGU · N OCTTKXˆG FGU ECTU NGU TGPEQPVTGU GPVTG RCTGPVU GV GPUGKIPCPVU N OCEEWGKN CW
UGETˆVCTKCV NC SWCNKVˆ GV NC EKTEWNCVKQP FG N OKPHQTOCVKQP NG NCPICIG GORNQ[ˆ NG OQFG FG
EQORQUKVKQP FGU ENCUUGU NGU GORNQKU FW VGORU FGU ˆN´XGU NCRTˆRCTCVKQP NG FˆTQWNGOGPV
GV NG UWKXK FGU EQPUGKNU FG ENCUUGNC SWCPVKVˆ GV NC TˆRCTVKVKQP FW VTCXCKN · NC OCKUQP NG
TGORNCEGOGPV FGU GPUGKIPCPVU CDUGPVU NGU EQPFKVKQPU FGU UVCIGU GP GPVTGRTKUG W #RT´U
UQP FˆRQWKNNGOGPV WPG FKUEWUUKQP UGTCKV QTICPKUˆG GP %QPUGKN F OˆEQNG QW
FOCFOKPKUVTCVKQP GV QP GP VKTGTCKV FGU EQPUˆSWGPEGU RQWT NG RTQLGV FG N OˆEQNG QW FG
NOˆVCDNKUUGOGPV .G PKXGCW CECFˆOKSWG CUUWTGTCKV WP UWKXK 7PG VGNNG GPSW˜VG FGXTCKV ˜VTG
TGPQWXGNˆG RˆTKQFKSWGOGPV CW T[VJOG FG NC TˆXKUKQP FW RTQLGV
0QWU RTQRQUQPU F OCWVTG RCTV FG TGNCPEGT NC OKUG GP RNCEG FGOˆFKCVGWTU FG N O EQNG
EJCTIˆU FOCRRQTVGT WP EQPUGKN GV WPG CKFG CWZ WUCIGTU SWK GUVKOGPV TGPEQPVTGT FGU
FKHHKEWNVˆU · QDVGPKT NG UGTXKEG SW OKNU CVVGPFGPV %GVVG KFˆG GUV FˆL· CPEKGPPG GV GNNG CˆVˆ
RTˆXWG RCTNG Q PQWXGCW EQPVTCV RQWT N O EQNG RCW PKXGCW FG EJCSWGCECFˆOKG OCKU GNNG
RCTC V VT´U KPˆICNGOGPV CRRNKSWˆG GV RGW EQPPWG FW RWDNKE .G OˆFKCVGWT FQKV · NC HQKU
DKGP EQPPC VTG NG U[UV´OG ˆFWECVKH GV ˜VTGKPFˆRGPFCPV NG PKXGCW FG N OCECFˆOKG GUV UCPU
FQWVG NG DQP CXGE EG SW OKN HCWV F OˆNQKIPGOGPV %GRGPFCPV QP FGXTCKV GPXKUCIGT CWUUK
FGU OˆFKCVGWTU CW PKXGCW NQECN CXGEWP TˇNG WP RGW FKHHˆTGPV N· Q NGU RCTGPVU QPV FW

FUFKXGNCEQPUETKVUFG?EQNGCUWTRCTPWO?TO?NRWDNK?UFGVGUVHCKVUNGUTCRRQTV?UNGUTUQUN?VCVGOOPRCTVFKTGEVKQPGN?XCNWCVKQ8QKTGNGUFT?UWNVCVUNFGURTQURGEVKXG
OCN · PQWGT FGU TGNCVKQPU CXGE N O EQNG · ECWUG PQVCOOGPV FG NGWTU EQPFKVKQPU FG XKG FG
NGWT JKUVQKTG UEQNCKTG GV F OWPG OˆEQPPCKUUCPEG TˆEKRTQSWG FCPU EG ECU KN UGTCKV DQP
SWG NG OˆFKCVGWT XKXG FCPU NG O˜OG OKNKGW UQEKCN
/CKU NGU OˆFKCVGWTU PG FQKXGPV RCU ˜VTG EQPUKFˆTˆU EQOOG NGU URˆEKCNKUVGU FW FKCNQIWG
CXGE NGU RCTGPVU EGSWK GZQPˆTGTCKV NGU RGTUQPPGNU FG EGVVG HQPEVKQP 7P EQORNˆOGPV GUV
NC HQTOCVKQP FGU RGTUQPPGNU CW RCTVGPCTKCV CXGE NGU HCOKNNGU PQVCOOGPV FCPU NGU ECU Q
KN GUV NG RNWU FˆNKECV
0QU RTGOK´TGU RTQRQUKVKQPU UQPV FQPE HCKVGU GP FKTGEVKQP FGU ˆN´XGU GV FG NGWTUHCOKNNGU
%GNNGU FGU EJCRKVTGU SWK UWKXGPV RQTVGPV FCXCPVCIGUWT N OKPVˆTKGWT FW U[UV´OG ˆFWECVKH
UQP HQPEVKQPPGOGPV UQP QTICPKUCVKQP UGU ˆVCDNKUUGOGPVU UGU RGTUQPPGNU /CKU PQWU
FGOCPFQPU CW NGEVGWT FG PG LCOCKU RGTFTG FG XWG SW OGNNGU PG XKUGPV SW O· HCKTG
RTQITGUUGT NG UGTXKEG TGPFW CWZ ˆN´XGU GV CVVGPFW RCT NGWTU RCTGPVU

?EQNGR?FWEPVFGXCITCPNCFG%CWXTGV?2CKT*CEJGVVG.CVKQPO

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