Craving in nicotine dependent smokers [Elektronische Ressource] : the effect of smoking cessation / Claudia Schlüssel. Betreuer: Ralf Demmel

De
Fachbereich Psychologie Craving in Nicotine-Dependent Smokers: the Effect of Smoking Cessation Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophischen Fakultät der Westfälischen-Wilhelms-Universität zu Münster (Westf.) vorgelegt von Claudia Schlüssel aus Düsseldorf 2010 Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 15.12.2010 Dekan: Prof. Dr. Christian Pietsch Erstgutachter: PD. Dr. Ralf Demmel Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Fred Rist meinen Eltern Es irrt der Mensch solang er strebt. Wer ewig strebend sich bemüht, den können wir erlösen.
Publié le : samedi 1 janvier 2011
Lecture(s) : 30
Tags :
Source : D-NB.INFO/1017849285/34
Nombre de pages : 236
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Fachbereich Psychologie






Craving in Nicotine-Dependent Smokers:
the Effect of Smoking Cessation




Inaugural-Dissertation

zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades

der

Philosophischen Fakultät

der

Westfälischen-Wilhelms-Universität

zu

Münster (Westf.)








vorgelegt von
Claudia Schlüssel
aus Düsseldorf
2010
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 15.12.2010


Dekan: Prof. Dr. Christian Pietsch
Erstgutachter: PD. Dr. Ralf Demmel
Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Fred Rist





































meinen Eltern



















































Es irrt der Mensch solang er strebt.





Wer ewig strebend sich bemüht, den können wir erlösen.

(Faust, Goethe)























TABLE OF CONTENTS



INTRODUCTION 1

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 4

Nicotine Dependence 4

Craving 10

Definition of Craving 10

Models of Craving 12

Cue Reactivity 17

Assessment Instruments 36

Classification of Cues and Cue Presentation Mode 40

Factors Modulating Craving 42

Availability 44

Classification of Availability 46

Study Rational 48

Hypotheses 49

METHOD 51

Participants 51

Experimental Design 56

Cues, Stimulus and Presentation Mode 57

Manipulation of Availability 58

Assessment Instruments 60

Background Variables 61

Motivation 62

Craving Response Measures 63

Tobacco Use and Nicotine Dependence 64

Affective Valence 66

Procedure 67

Telephone Screening 67

Laboratory Set-Up 68 Experimental Session 1 (t ) 68 1

Experimental Session 2 (t ) 73 2

Follow-Up Session (t ) 73 3

Definition of Craving, Cue Reactivity 75

RESULTS 78

Craving Response Measures 78

Overall Multivariate Analysis of Variance With Repeated 80
Measurements
Separate Multivariate Analysis of Variance With Repeated 82
Measurements for t and t 1 2
Analysis of Corresponding Craving Ratings (t /t ) 85 1 2

Comparisons of Smoking vs. Neutral Craving Change Scores 87

Comparisons of Craving Difference Scores 90

Redefined Craving Change Scores 93

Comparisons of Redefined Smoking vs. Neutral Craving 95
Change Scores
Comparisons of Redefined Craving Difference Scores 98

Composite Urge Score 101

Cue-Specific vs. Overall Craving 102

Affective Valence 103

Overall Multivariate Analysis of Variance With Repeated 106
Measurements
Comparisons of Redefined Smoking vs. Neutral Mood Change 109
Scores
Comparisons of Redefined Mood Difference Scores 112

Motivation 113

Correlations 115

Association between Craving and Affective Valence 115

Importance and Confidence 121

DISCUSSION 122

Magnitude and course of craving 123

Hypotheses 127

Hypotheses 1a/b/c 127

Hypothesis 2 128

Hypothesis 3 133

Mood and Affective Valence 133

Study Limitations and Conclusions 135

SUMMERY 139

REFERENCES 144

APPENDIX

ACKNOWLEGMENT

CURRICULUM VITAE


LIST OF TABLES


Table 1
Diagnostic Criteria for Nicotine Dependence………………………………………………….5

Table 2
Prevalence Rates for Tobacco Use and Nicotine Dependence………………………………...6

Table 3
Prevalence of Smoking Across Age…………………………………………………………...6

Table 4
Classification Schemes of Craving Models…………………………………………………..13

Table 5
Overview of Cue Reactivity Studies with the Focus on Recruitment and Subject Variables...19

Table 6
Overview of Cue Reactivity Studies with the Focus on Cue Presentation Mode and
Assessment Instruments………………………………………………………………………26

Table 7
Cue Reactivity and Assessment Instruments………………….……………………………...36

Table 8
Demographic Characteristics of Participants…………………………………………………53

Table 9
Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Nicotine Dependence……………………………………...…55

Table 10
Classification of Availability in the Present Study…………………………………………...59

Table 11
Classification of Questionnaires and Measurements…………………………………………61

Table 12
Mean and Standard Deviations for Craving Ratings Throughout the Sessions....……………79

Table 13
Pairwise Comparisons of VAS and ME Craving Ratings at Both Sessions ……..……….….84

Table 14
Comparison of Craving Change Scores for Both Sessions…………………………………...90

Table 15
Comparisons of Craving Difference Scores…………...……………………………………...92

Table 16
Comparison of Redefined Craving Change Scores With c as Baseline for Both Sessions….97 1Table 17
Comparisons of Redefined Craving Difference Scores…………..…………………………100

Table 18
Mean and Standard Deviations for Mood Ratings Throughout the Sessions……………….105

Table 19
Pairwise Comparisons of Mood Ratings in Both Test Sessions (MDBF)………………..…108

Table 20
Comparisons of Difference Scores for MDBF ………………………………………….......113

Table 21
Mean and Standard Deviations for Craving and Mood Ratings Throughout the Sessions.....116

Table 22
Correlation Between VAS and MDBF Subscales for Session One…………………………117

Table 23 Session Two………………………...118

Table 24
Correlation Between ME and MDBF Subscales for Session One…………………………..119

Table 25 Session Two.120

Table 26
Reclassification of Availability in the Present Study………………………………………..130
















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