Determinants of the internationalization-performance relationship [Elektronische Ressource] : an empirical examination of the influence of organizational and contextual variables / vorgelegt von Sebastian Sieler

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Universität Augsburg Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät Determinants of the Internationalization-Performance Relationship: An Empirical Examination of the Influence of Organizational and Contextual Variables Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Wirtschaftswissenschaften (Dr.rer.pol.) an der Universität Augsburg vorgelegt von Sebastian Sieler Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Dres. h.c. Adolf G. Coenenberg Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schultze Vorsitzender der mündlichen Prüfung: Prof. Dr. Otto Opitz Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 24. Juli 2008 CURRICULUM VITAE Persönliche Daten Name: Sebastian SielerGeboren am: 06.07.1979in Karlsruhe Nationalität: deutsch Familienstand: ledig Akademischer Werdegang und Schulbildung Juni 1999 Abitur am Max-Planck Gymnasium Karlsruhe Sep. 1999 - Mai 2003 International Partnership of Business Schools (IPBS), deutsch-amerikanischer Doppeldiplom-Studiengang der ESB Reutlingen und der Indiana University Bloomington, USA Sep. 1999 - Jun. 2001 European School of Business (ESB), FH Reutlingen Aug. 2001- Dez. 2001 Red McCombs School of Business, University of Texas, Austin, US Jan. 2002 - Mai 2003 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA Abschluss: Dipl. Betriebswirt (FH); B.Sc.
Publié le : mardi 1 janvier 2008
Lecture(s) : 39
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Source : WWW.OPUS-BAYERN.DE/UNI-AUGSBURG/VOLLTEXTE/2008/1290/PDF/DISS_INT_PERF_RELATIONSHIP_SSIELER.PDF
Nombre de pages : 286
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Universität Augsburg
Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät

Determinants of the Internationalization-Performance
Relationship:
An Empirical Examination of the Influence of
Organizational and Contextual Variables

Dissertation
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktors der Wirtschaftswissenschaften (Dr.rer.pol.)
an der Universität Augsburg

vorgelegt von
Sebastian Sieler

Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Dres. h.c. Adolf G. Coenenberg
Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schultze
Vorsitzender der mündlichen Prüfung: Prof. Dr. Otto Opitz
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 24. Juli 2008
CURRICULUM VITAE
Persönliche Daten
Name: Sebastian Sieler
Geboren am: 06.07.1979in Karlsruhe
Nationalität: deutsch
Familienstand: ledig

Akademischer Werdegang und Schulbildung
Juni 1999 Abitur am Max-Planck Gymnasium Karlsruhe
Sep. 1999 - Mai 2003 International Partnership of Business Schools (IPBS),
deutsch-amerikanischer Doppeldiplom-Studiengang der ESB
Reutlingen und der Indiana University Bloomington, USA
Sep. 1999 - Jun. 2001 European School of Business (ESB), FH Reutlingen
Aug. 2001- Dez. 2001 Red McCombs School of Business, University of Texas, Austin, US
Jan. 2002 - Mai 2003 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA
Abschluss: Dipl. Betriebswirt (FH); B.Sc. in Business
Juli 2008 Promotion an der wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der
Universität Augsburg
Beruflicher Werdegang
Jul. 2000 - Sep. 2000 Merrill Lynch International Bank Ltd., Frankfurt
Praktikum im Bereich private Vermögensverwaltung und Portfolio
Management der International Private Client Group
Okt. 2000 - Feb. 2001 DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart
Praktikum im Produktmanagement der A-Klasse
Jun. 2002 - Aug. 2002 Deloitte & Touche, München
Praktikum in den Bereichen „Transaction Services“ und „M&A“ der
Corporate Finance Group
Sep. 2002 - Dez. 2002 McKinsey&Company Inc., München
Praktikum innerhalb der Insurance Practice
Seit Sep. 2003 Consultant bei McKinsey & Company Inc., München -
Mitglied der deutschen und europäischen Pharma/Healthcare Practice

Preise und Auszeichnungen
Seit April 2002 Mitglied der Golden Key International Honour Society
Seit April 2003 Mitglied in der Beta Gamma Sigma business honor society

Publikationen
Kapitelbeitrag Salfeld, R./ Hehner, S./ Wichels, R.: Modernes
Krankenhausmanagement – Konzepte und Lösungen, Springer, Berlin
Heidelberg New York, 2008. Table of Contents V
TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................IX
LIST OF TABLES ..............................................................................................................XI
LIST OF EQUATIONS.................................................................................................... XIII
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................... XV
1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1
2 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS................................................................................ 5
2.1 Theories on the Benefits of Corporate Internationalization ............................................ 5
2.1.1 Economic Theories of Internationalization.............................................................. 5
2.1.1.1 Theory of Comparative Costs ........................................................................... 5
2.1.1.2 Theories of Foreign Direct Investment............................................................. 9
2.1.1.2.1 The International Product Life Cycle Theory............................................ 9
2.1.1.2.2 Theory of Monopolistic Advantages ....................................................... 12
2.1.1.2.3 Internalization Theory ............................................................................. 15
2.1.1.3 The Eclectic Theory of International Production............................................ 18
2.1.1.4 Portfolio Diversification Theory..................................................................... 20
2.1.2. Organizational Perspectives of Corporate Internalization .................................... 23
2.1.2.1 Resource Transmission Theory ...................................................................... 24
2.1.2.2 The Resource-Based View of the Firm and Organizational Learning............ 26
2.1.2.3 Theory of Operational Flexibility................................................................... 30
2.2 Theories on the Costs of Corporate Internationalization............................................... 32
2.2.1 Costs of Internationalization Arising from the External Business Environment... 32
2.2.2 Costs of Internationalization Arising from the Intra-Company Environment ....... 35
2.3 Summary of the Benefits and Costs of Corporate Internationalization......................... 38
3 THE INTERNATIONALIZATION-PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP............. 43
3.1 Outline of Empirical Studies on the Internationalization-Performance Relationship ... 43
3.2 Survey of Past Empirical Results .................................................................................. 46
3.3 Critique and Object of Investigation ............................................................................. 51
4 DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES ........................................................................ 55
4.1 Company-Level Variables Affecting the Internationalization-Performance
Relationship..................................................................................................................55
4.1.1 Development of International Strategies................................................................ 55
4.1.2 International Strategy Implementation................................................................... 59 VI Table of Contents
4.1.3 The Transnational Concept .................................................................................... 63
4.1.4 Hypotheses on Organizational and Managerial Variables ..................................... 65
4.1.4.1 Configuration of Value Chain Activities ........................................................ 66
4.1.4.2 Intra-Company Knowledge Flows.................................................................. 68
4.1.4.3 Social Control Mechanisms ............................................................................ 70
4.1.4.4 Subsidiary Autonomy ..................................................................................... 75
4.1.4.5 Organizational Slack....................................................................................... 77
4.2 Contextual Variables Affecting the Internationalization-Performance Relationship.... 81
4.2.1 Industry Membership ............................................................................................. 82
4.2.2 Geographic Origin.................................................................................................. 85
4.3 Overview of Hypotheses ............................................................................................... 91
5 CONCEPTUALIZATION OF MEASURES AND DATA COLLECTION............. 93
5.1 Definition and Measurement of Variables..................................................................... 93
5.1.1 Dependent (Endogenous) Variables....................................................................... 94
5.1.2 Independent (Exogenous) Variables ...................................................................... 99
5.1.3 Moderating Variables........................................................................................... 104
5.1.4. Control Variables ................................................................................................ 113
5.2 Data Collection............................................................................................................ 117
5.2.1 Research Site........................................................................................................ 117
5.2.2 Sampling Process ................................................................................................. 122
5.2.3 Survey .................................................................................................................. 123
5.2.3.1 Survey Design............................................................................................... 123
5.2.3.2 Survey Process.............................................................................................. 126
5.2.3.3 Survey Response Analysis............................................................................ 128
6 VALIDATION AND OPERATIONALIZATION OF CONSTRUCTS ................. 135
6.1 Conceptual Differences between Reflective and Formative Constructs ..................... 135
6.1.1 Procedures Used for Assessing the Reliability and Validity of Reflective
Constructs ............................................................................................................. 140
6.1.2 Procedures Used for Assessing the Reliability and Validity of Formative
Constructs 144
6.2 Specification of Constructs.......................................................................................... 148
6.3 Validation and Operationalization of Multi-Item Constructs Used in the Study ........ 150
6.3.1 Validation and Operationalization of Reflective Constructs ............................... 150
6.3.2 Validation and Operationalization of Formative Constructs 153
6.4 Test for Potential Bias Introduced by Different Subsidiary Types Included in the
Survey .....................................................................................................................159 Table of Contents VII
7 TEST OF HYPOTHESES ........................................................................................... 161
7.1 Methodology................................................................................................................ 161
7.1.1 Procedures Used for Evaluating Multiple Regression Models ............................ 161
7.1.2 Regression Strategy Used to Test the Moderating Effects of Organizational
and Managerial Variables..................................................................................... 167
7.1.3 Regression Strategy Used to Test the Moderating Effects of
Contextual Variables ............................................................................................ 173
7.2 Empirical Results......................................................................................................... 175
7.2.1 Regression Results on the Moderating Effects of Organizational and
Managerial Variables 175
7.2.2 Regression Results on the Moderating Effects of Contextual Variables ............. 187
7.2.2.1 Results on the Moderating Effect of Industry Membership ......................... 188
7.2.2.2 Results on the Moderating Effect of Geographic Origin.............................. 192
7.3 Summary of Findings .................................................................................................. 197
8 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................ 199
8.1 Discussion of Empirical Findings ............................................................................... 199
8.2 Implications for Theory and Practice .......................................................................... 205
8.3 Limitations and Directions for Future Research ......................................................... 206
9 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 209
APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................... 211
Appendix A: Details of Past Empirical Studies on the Internationalization-
Performance Relationship............................................................................ 213
Appendix B: Search Results for Sullivan's DOI on the Social Science Citation Index .... 221
Appendix C: Questionnaire ............................................................................................... 227
Appendic D: Official Accompanying Letter ..................................................................... 237
Appendix E: Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Matrices........................................... 241
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................ 253 List of Figures IX
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Development of Foreign Business Activities between 1993 and 2005................ 1
Figure 2: Relation between OLI-Advantages and Mode of Internationalization .............. 19
Figure 3: Different Forms of the Relationships between Internationalization and
Corporate Performance found in Empirical Studies ......................................... 46
Figure 4: Model Used in Most Previous Literature ........................................................... 52
Figure 5: Integration-Responsiveness Matrix ................................................................... 56
Figure 6: Characteristics of Multinational, Global, and International Organizational
Models ...............................................................................................................62
Figure 7: Classification of Control and Coordination Mechanisms on Two Dimensions. 70
Figure 8: Attributes of Internationalization ..................................................................... 102
Figure 9: The Value Chain .............................................................................................. 105
Figure 10: Industry Globalization Matrix.......................................................................... 120
Figure 11: Sales and Market Sizes of the Pharmaceutical and Food & Beverage
Industries .......................................................................................................... 121
Figure 12: Example Screen of Online Questionnaire ........................................................ 125
Figure 13: Distribution of Respondents across Management Groups ............................... 132
Figure 14: Conceptual Difference between Reflective and Formative Latent Variable
Constructs ........................................................................................................ 136
Figure 15: Possible Configurations of Individual Value Activities Captured by the
Value Chain Construct ..................................................................................... 154
Figure 16: Reflection of the Benefits of Corporate Internationalization in the Possible
Configurations of Individual Value Activities................................................. 155
Figure 17: Construction of the Index Measuring a Firm's Total Value Chain
Configuration ................................................................................................... 157
Figure 18: Mistaken Interpretation of the Internationalization-Performance-
Relationship when the Heterogeneity in the Intercept is not Accounted for .. 168
Figure 19: Hypothesized Moderated Model ...................................................................... 172
Figure 20: ROS as a Function of the Degree of Internationalization and
Knowledge Flows ........................................................................................... 179
Figure 21: ROS as a Function of the Degree of Internationalization and the Use of
Social Control Mechanisms ............................................................................ 180
Figure 22: ROS as a Function of the Degree of Internationalization and the
Configuration of the Value Chain .................................................................... 181
Figure 23: Fitted Model .................................................................................................... 187

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