Double-Anchored Software Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks [Elektronische Ressource] / Vlado Handziski. Betreuer: Adam Wolisz

Double-AnchoredSoftwareArchitectureforWirelessSensorNetworksDouble-AnchoredSoftwareArchitectureforWirelessSensorNetworksvorgelegtvonVladoHandziski(M.Sc. inElectricalEngineering)vonderFakultätIVElektrotechnikundInformatikder TechnischenUniversitätBerlinzur ErlangungdesakademischenGradesDoktor derIngenieurwissenschaften-Dr.Ing. -genehmigteDissertationPromotionsausschussVorsitzender: Prof. Dr. AxelKüpperGutachter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. AdamWolisz: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dr. h. c. KurtRothermelTag der wissenschaftlichenAussprache: 07.03.2011Berlin2011D83©2010Vlado HandziskiThis work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 UnportedLicense. To view acopy of thislicense,visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/Summary ofthe license:You arefreeto:Share: Tocopy, distributeand transmit thework.Under the followingconditions:Attribution: You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not inany way thatsuggests thattheyendorse you oryour use ofthe work).No Derivative Works: Youmaynot alter,transform, orbuild upon thiswork.• Foranyreuseordistribution,youmustmakecleartoothersthelicensetermsofthiswork.The bestway todothis is with a link to thiswebpage.• Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyrightholder.• Nothing in thislicense impairsor restricts theauthor’s moral rights.Your fairuse andotherrights areinnowayaffectedby the above.
Publié le : samedi 1 janvier 2011
Lecture(s) : 26
Source : D-NB.INFO/1014619564/34
Nombre de pages : 217
Voir plus Voir moins

Double-Anchored
SoftwareArchitecturefor
WirelessSensorNetworksDouble-Anchored
SoftwareArchitecturefor
WirelessSensorNetworks
vorgelegtvon
VladoHandziski
(M.Sc. inElectricalEngineering)
vonderFakultätIV
ElektrotechnikundInformatik
der TechnischenUniversitätBerlin
zur ErlangungdesakademischenGrades
Doktor derIngenieurwissenschaften
-Dr.Ing. -
genehmigteDissertation
Promotionsausschuss
Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr. AxelKüpper
Gutachter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. AdamWolisz: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dr. h. c. KurtRothermel
Tag der wissenschaftlichenAussprache: 07.03.2011
Berlin2011
D83©2010Vlado Handziski
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported
License. To view acopy of thislicense,visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/
Summary ofthe license:
You arefreeto:
Share: Tocopy, distributeand transmit thework.
Under the followingconditions:
Attribution: You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in
any way thatsuggests thattheyendorse you oryour use ofthe work).
No Derivative Works: Youmaynot alter,transform, orbuild upon thiswork.
• Foranyreuseordistribution,youmustmakecleartoothersthelicensetermsofthiswork.
The bestway todothis is with a link to thiswebpage.
• Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright
holder.
• Nothing in thislicense impairsor restricts theauthor’s moral rights.
Your fairuse andotherrights areinnowayaffectedby the above.ToAni,ElenaandJan
withallmylove!Contents
Contents vii
ListofFigures x
ListofTables xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Wireless Sensor Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Software Design Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Double-anchored Software Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 Background 9
2.1 Hardware Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1.1 Generic Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1.2 Typical Representatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2 Hardware Design Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.1 Level of Reuse and Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.2 Feature Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2.3 Software Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3 Portability Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.1 General-purpose andEmbeddedOperatingSystems . . . . . 35
2.3.2 WSN Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.4 Programming Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.4.1 Overlay Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.4.2 Active Networks andMobileAgents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4.3 Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.4.4 Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.4.5 Publish/Subscribe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3 Double-anchored Software Architecture 49
viiContents
3.1 Cost of AbstractionsandDecoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2 Component-based Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.3 Double-anchored SoftwareArchitecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.3.1 Portability Anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.3.2 InteroperabilityAnchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.3.3 Configur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.4 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4 Portability Anchor 59
4.1 Design Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.2 Vertical Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.2.1 Hardware PresentationLayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.2.2 Hardware AbstractionLayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.2.3 Hardware InterfaceLayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.3 Horizontal Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.3.1 Chips and Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.3.2 Interconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.4 Concurrency and PowerManagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.5 Implementation inTinyOS2.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.5.1 General FeaturesofTinyOS2.x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.5.2 Portability Anchor’sImplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.5.3 Vertical DecompositionExample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.5.4 Horizontal DecompositionExample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.6 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.6.1 Composing PortableApplications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.6.2 Vertical DecompositionView . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.6.3 Horizontal DecompositionView . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.6.4 Controlling AbstractionCosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.6.5 Portability/FidelityTrade-offs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5 Interoperability Anchor 103
5.1 Design Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5.2 Naming Scheme andService API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.2.1 Attribute-basedNaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.2.2 DASANamingandService API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.3 Functional Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.4 Communication Decoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.4.1 Integrated CBPSRouting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.4.2 DASARouting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
5.5 TinyCOPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
5.5.1 PublishersandSubscribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5.5.2 Broker and AttributeCollection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
5.5.3 Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
viiiContents
5.5.4 Protocol Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
5.5.5 Application Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
5.6 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
5.6.1 Resource Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
5.6.2 Distributed Testing with TWIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
5.7 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
6 Distributed Testing Infrastructure 129
6.1 Design Validation and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6.2 TWISTTestbed Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
6.2.1 Sensor Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
6.2.2 Testbed Sockets and USB Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
6.2.3 USB Hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
6.2.4 Super Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
6.2.5 Testbed Server and ControlStation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.3 CONET Testbed Federation Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
6.3.1 Design Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
6.3.2 Functional Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
6.3.3 RESTful Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
6.3.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
6.4 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
6.4.1 TWISTinstance at TKN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
6.4.2 Power-supply Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
6.4.3 Testbed Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
6.5 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
6.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
7 Conclusions 159
7.1 Double-anchored Software Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
7.2 Portability Anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
7.3 Interoperability Anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
7.4 Distributed Testing Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
A Hardware Platforms Survey 163
A.1 Surveyed Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
A.2 Processing Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
A.3 Transceivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Publications 171
Bibliography 173
ixListofFigures
2.1 Generic hardware architectureofa WSN node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2 Architecture of the TexasInstrumentsMSP430F161x MCUfamily. . . . . 12
2.3 The Serial Peripheral Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.4 Top and bottom view oftheeyesIFXv2.1board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.5 Overview of the release year and the level of integration of the platforms
covered by our hardwaresurvey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.6 Levelofreuseof COTSchipsinthesurveyedplatformsample. Onlythe
ten most popular processor/transceiverchipcombinationsareshown. . 27
2.7 Breakdownofplatformreleasesperyeardependingonthebit-widthof
the CPU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.8 Trendsinthemaximalclockrateofthe CPUs,groupedbythebit-widthof
the architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.9 Trends in the core voltage of the processing elements, grouped by the
bit-width of the architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.10 Trends in the available program memory of the processing elements,
grouped by the bit-widthofthearchitecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.11 Trendsintheavailabledatamemoryoftheprocessingelements,grouped
by the bit-width of thearchitecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.12 Breakdownofplatformreleasesperyeardependingonthecommunica-
tion standard supportedbythetransceiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.13 Trends in the maximal carrier frequency band supported by the transceiver. 32
2.14 Trends in thedataratesupportedbythetransceiver. . . . . . . 33
2.15 Trends in the maximalcurrentconsumptionofthetrer. . . . . . . 34
2.16 The publish/subscribeinteractionpattern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.1 Component-based softwaremodel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.2 EYES protocol architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.3 High-level functional decompositionof DASA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.1 Vertical decompositionoftheportabilityanchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
x

Soyez le premier à déposer un commentaire !

17/1000 caractères maximum.