Influence of ergometry mode and training adaptation specificity on aerobic capacity in athletes ; Sportininkų aerobinio pajėgumo ypatumai priklausomai nuo ergometrijos ir lėtosios adaptacijos specifikos

LITHUANIAN ACADEMY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATIONInga PravdinskienėINFLUENCE OF ERGOMETRY MODE AND TRAINING ADAPTATION SPECIFICITY ON AEROBIC CAPACITY IN ATHLETESSummary of Doctoral DissertationBiomedical Sciences, Biology (01B), Physiology (B 470)Kaunas 2010The research was done at the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education in 2005–2009.The research was supported by the Lithuanian State Science and StudiesFoundation in the years 2007–2008.Scientific supervisorProf. Dr. Arvydas STASIULISLithuanian Academy of Physical Education (Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)Doctoral dissertation will be defended at the Biology Sciences Council of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education: ChairmanProf. Habil. Dr. Albertas SKURVYDASLithuanian Academy of Physical Education (Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)Members:Assoc. Prof. Genuvaitė CIVINSKIENĖKaunas University of Medicine (Biomedical Sciences, Medicine – 07 B)Assoc. Prof. Sigitas KAMANDULISLithuanian Academy of Physical Education (Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)Dr. Daina KRANČIUKAITĖ-BUTYLKINIENĖKaunas University of Medicine (Biomedical Sciences, Public Health — 10B)Assoc. Prof. Vytautas STRECKISLithuanian Academy of Physical Education (Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)Opponents:Dr. Marius BRAZAITISLithuanian Academy of Physical Education logy – 01 B)Assoc. Prof.
Publié le : samedi 1 janvier 2011
Lecture(s) : 37
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Source : VDDB.LABA.LT/FEDORA/GET/LT-ELABA-0001:E.02~2010~D_20110112_143413-44371/DS.005.1.01.ETD
Nombre de pages : 67
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LITHUANIAN ACADEMY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Inga Pravdinskien
INFLUENCE OF ERGOMETRY MODE AND TRAINING ADAPTATION SPECIFICITY ON AEROBIC CAPACITY IN ATHLETES
Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Biomedical Sciences, Biology (01B), Physiology (B 470)
Kaunas 2010
The research was done at the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education in 2005– 2009. The research was supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation in the years 2007–2008.
Scientific supervisor Prof. Dr. Arvydas STASIULIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)
Doctoral dissertation will be defended at the Biology Sciences Council of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education:
Chairman Prof. Habil. Dr. Albertas SKURVYDAS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)
Members: Assoc. Prof.Genuvait CIVINSKIEN Kaunas University of Medicine(Biomedical Sciences, Medicine – 07 B)
Assoc. Prof. Sigitas KAMANDULIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)
Dr. DainaKRANČIUKAITBUTYLKINIEN Kaunas University of Medicine(Biomedical Sciences, Public Health — 10B)
Assoc. Prof. Vytautas STRECKIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)
Opponents: Dr. Marius BRAZAITIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(Biomedical Sciences, Biology – 01 B)
Assoc. Prof. Rasa RAUGALIENKaunas 2nd Clinical Hospital(Biomedical Sciences, Medicine — 07B)
The doctoral dissertation will be defended in the open session of the Biology Sciences Council of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. The defense will take place on September 24th 2010 at 11 a. m. in auditorium of Prof. V. Stakonien (218). Address: Sporto 6, LT44221 Kaunas, Lithuania. The summary of the doctoral dissertation was sent out on August 24th 2010. The doctoral dissertation is available at the library of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education.
LIETUVOS KUNO KULTUROS AKADEMIJA
Inga Pravdinskien
SPORTININK AEROBINIO PAJGUMO YPATUMAI PRIKLAUSOMAI NUO ERGOMETRIJOS IR LTOSIOS ADAPTACIJOS SPECIFIKOS
Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Biomedicinos mokslai, biologija (01B), fiziologija (B 470)
Kaunas 2010
Disertacija rengta 2005–2009 metais Lietuvos kno kultros akademijoje. Mokslindarbą2007–2008 metais rmLietuvos valstybinis mokslo ir studijfondas.
Mokslinis vadovas prof. dr. Arvydas STASIULIS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(Biomedicinos mokslai, biologija – 01B)
Disertacija ginama Lietuvos kno kultros akademijos Biologijos mokslo krypties taryboje:
Pirmininkas Prof. habil. dr. Albertas SKURVYDAS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(Biomedicinos mokslai, biologija – 01B)
Nariai: Doc. dr. Genuvait CIVINSKIEN Kauno medicinos universitetas (Biomedicinos mokslai, medicina — 07B)
Doc. dr. Sigitas KAMANDULIS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(Biomedicinos mokslai, biologija – 01B)
Dr. Daina KRANČIUKAITBUTYLKINIEN Kauno medicinos universitetas (Biomedicinos mokslai, visuomens sveikata — 10B)
Doc. dr. Vytautas STRECKIS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(Biomedicinos mokslai, biologija – 01B)
Oponentai: Dr. Marius BRAZAITIS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(Biomedicinos mokslai, biologija – 01B) Doc. dr. Rasa RAUGALIEN Kauno 2oji klinikinligonin(Biomedicinos mokslai, medicina — 07B)
Disertacija bus ginama viešame Biologijos mokslo krypties tarybos posdyje 2010 m.rugsjo 24d. 11 val. Lietuvos kno kultros akademijos centrinirmprof. V. Stakioniensauditorijoje (218). Adresas: Sporto g. 6, LT44221 Kaunas, Lietuva.
Disertacijos santrauka išsiuntinta 2010 m. rugpjčio 24d. Disertacijągalima peržirti Lietuvos kno kultros akademijos bibliotekoje. Adresas: Sporto g. 6, LT44221 Kaunas, Lietuva.
CONTENTS
ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................... 7 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 8 1. RESEARCH METHODS AND ORGANIZATION .............................. 13 1.1 Subjects ............................................................................................ 13 1.2. Research Methods ........................................................................... 14 1.2.1. Interview .................................................................................. 14 1.2.2. Spirometry ............................................................................... 14 1.2.3. Pulsometry ............................................................................... 15 1.2.4. Biochemical blood analysis ..................................................... 15 1.2.5. Body composition analysis ...................................................... 15 1.2.6. Perceived exertion (work load intensity) evaluation scale....... 16 1.2.7. Ergometry ................................................................................ 16 1.2.7.1. Continuously increasing load ........................................... 16 1.2.7.2. Constant physical loads .................................................... 18 1.2.8. Determination maximal values of cardio respiratory system function and maximal aerobic capacity ............................................. 19 1.2.9. Determination of ventilatory thresholds .................................. 20 1.2.10. The analyses of cardio respiratory system functions parameters kinetics............................................................................. 20 1.2.11. Mathematical statistics........................................................... 21 1.3. Research organization ..................................................................... 22 2. RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ....................................... 25 2.1. Peculiarities of changes in indices of aerobic fitness and cardio respiratory system function of swimmers and untrained persons working out on an arm cranking ergometer and cycle ergometer ........................ 25 2.2. Peculiarities of changes in indices of aerobic fitness and cardio respiratory system function in dependence of slow adaptation specificity working out on a cycle ergometer, treadmill and arm cranking ergometer ................................................................................................................ 29 2.2.1. Values of indices of maximal cardio respiratory system function performing various work loads .......................................................... 29 2.2.2. Values of indices of submaximal cardio respiratory system function performing various work loads............................................ 36 2.2.3. Changes in indices of cardio respiratory system function in phases of different constant physical load ......................................... 45 3. GENERALIZATION OF THE RESULTS ............................................ 49 CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................ 58 5
SANTRAUKA............................................................................................ IŠVADOS................................................................................................... PUBLICATIONS ....................................................................................... ABOUT THE AUTHOR ............................................................................
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ABBREVIATIONS
LHI – load of heavy intensity FEV – forced expired volume BF – breathing frequency TV tidal volume MVV – maximal voluntary ventilation CIL – continuously increasing load CPL – constant physical load RER – respiratory exchange ratio HR – heart rate HRmax – maximal heart rate VCO2– carbon dioxide output VO2– oxygen uptake VE – pulmonary ventilation VeT1 – first ventilatory threshold VeT2 – second ventilatory threshold VO2max – maximal oxygen uptake LMI – load of moderate intensity
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INTRODUCTION
Aerobic capacity of the human body can be described by such indices as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), lactate/ventilatory thresholds, work efficiency, the kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) and of other indices of cardio respiratory system function during ontransition and recovery periods (Whipp et al., 1982; Jones et al., 2000). In the laboratories of exercise physiology those indices are established performing tests of continuously increasing load and constant physical load on arm cranking ergometers, cycle ergometers or treadmills. It has long been known that some indices of aerobic fitness and cardio respiratory function during continuously increasing load (CIL) depend on the nature of the physical load performed (Hermansen et al., 1970). Research literature includes many studies about the differences between the physiological changes of the human body while running and cycling or working out on a cycle ergometer (Millet et al., 2009), and fewer studies have been devoted to the differences working out on a cycle ergometer and arm cranking ergometer. And still there were fewer data comparing the physiological changes of the same persons working out on three different ergometers. The slow adaptation of the human body to the loads of sports training is characterized by specificity, and this influences athlete’s response to maximal CIL (Fernhall, Kohrt, 1990). Most often athletes’ maximal respiratory gas exchange indices are demonstrated in those activities where they specialize: runners’ indices are the highest when they are tested on a treadmill, cyclists’ – on a cycle ergometer (Caputo, Denadai, 2004), though some authors have established that not only runners’ but also cyclists’ VO2max is higher when they perform CIL on a treadmill compared to a cycle ergometer (Basset, Boulay, 2000; Royals et al., 2005). Many studies have shown that ventilatory thresholds let us predict competition results in many branches of endurance sport (running, cycling) (Weltman, 1995: Plato et al., 2008). There is evidence that performing tests on different ergometers (cycle ergometer, treadmill, arm cranking ergometer) not only the thresholds are different but also the indices of
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cardio respiratory system function working out at the intensity of ventilatory thresholds (Schneider et al., 1990; Bohnert et al., 1998). Some authors consider that lactate and ventilatory thresholds are the highest in physical loads which correspond to the loads of training sessions and competitions (Pierce et al., 1990). Little is known about the differences in absolute and relative (percent from maximal) cardiovascular and respiratory system indices working out at the intensities of lactate and ventilatory thresholds on different ergometers, and how much those differences depend on athletic fitness and its specificity. All those data are important not only in the evaluation of aerobic fitness, but also providing recommendations about the intensity of aerobic endurance training for persons of different athletic fitness. During constant physical loads the changes in indices of VO2, HR and other cardio respiratory system function have two or even three phases. For persons both not engaged in sports and of moderate athletic fitness VO2 kinetics increase at the beginning of the physical load under influence of training (Yoshida et al., 1992; Philips et al., 1995; Norris, Petersen, 1998; Billat et al., 2002; Demarole et al., 2001). There is little evidence about the impact of such physical loads on the kinetics of those and earlier mentioned indices. The influence of athletic fitness and its specificity on the changes in VO2and other indices at the beginning of constant physical load of different nature have yet received little attention of researchers. We have not found data about the peculiarities of runners and cyclists’ adaptation working out on an arm cranking ergometer. Changes in VO2and HR are different performing physical loads of high intensities on an arm cranking ergometer and cycle ergometer: working out on an arm cranking ergometer the time constant of the second phase of change was shorter, and the slow component of change was bigger (Schneider et al., 2002; Koppo et al., 2002). During the constant physical load of maximal aerobic intensity, no influence of the mode of work (ergometer) on the rate of changes in VO2 was established, however, kinetics among runners, cyclists and triathlon athletes was faster compared to those of persons not engaged in sports (Caputo, Denadai, 2004). Arm VO2kinetics of female swimmers of pre 9
pubertal age was faster compared to their peers not engaged in sports, though it did not differ while working out on a cycle ergometer, and HR kinetics was faster working out on both ergometers (Winlove et al., 2010). Performing the load of very high intensity (close to maximal aerobic) on a treadmill and cycle ergometer, the slow components of VO2change were different, but the fast components were similar (Billat et al., 1999; Carter et al., 2000). And on the contrary, the fast phase of VO2change was faster while running compared to performing the load on a cycle ergometer (Hill et al., 2003). Thus, the interaction of the specificity of the applied ergometer and slow adaptation is complicated, and the data about that are controversial. It is not clear how the indices of cardio respiratory system function and aerobic fitness and their changes performing CIL and constant physical load of different intensity on different ergometers depend on the type of the ergometer applied and the specificity of the tested athletes’ slow adaptation to physical loads. The comparison of indices of fitness and cardio respiratory system function of athletes adapted to different physical activities and persons not engaged in sports when they perform physical loads of increasing intensity and constant physical loads on different ergometers enables better understanding of the specificity of adaptation of different physiological systems of the human body and the relation between the general and the specific components of slow adaptation.
Research hypothesis The dependence of maximal and submaximal indices of aerobic fitness and cardio respiratory system function on the type of ergometry will change due to specific impact of slow adaptation of the researched athletes. The functional indices of persons of different athletic fitness and sports specialization responsible for general adaptation of the human body to physical loads should vary less performing different continuously increasing loads or constant physical loads compared to those fitness indices which more depend on the adaptation specificity of trained muscles.
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The aim of the researchwas to establish the peculiarities of indices of athletes’ aerobic fitness and cardio respiratory system function in dependence on ergometry and the specificity of slow adaptation. Research objectives: 1. To compare maximal and submaximal values of indices of cardio respiratory system function of swimmers and untrained persons during cycling and arm ergometry. 2. To compare maximal values of indices of cardio respiratory system function of athletes in dependence on ergometry and the specificity of slow adaptation. 3. To compare submaximal values of indices of cardio respiratory system function of athletes in dependence on ergometry and the specificity of slow adaptation. 4. To compare the changes in the indices of cardio respiratory system function of athletes in the transitional phases of different constant physical load in dependence on ergometry and the specificity of slow adaptation. Scientific novelty of research results Testing the same persons on three different ergometers which are most often used in research laboratories (cycle ergometer, treadmill and arm cranking ergometer) we compared the indices of almost all components of aerobic fitness (aerobic power, endurance, agility) of well trained cyclists, runners, and kayak and canoe rowers. For the first time the peculiarities of aerobic fitness of elite cyclists and runners were established while they were working out on an arm cranking ergometer. We also specified the influence of ergometry on the physiological changes in the human body in dependence on athletic fitness and its specificity.
Theoretical and practical significance The data obtained have enriched the knowledge in sports physiology (especially in aerobic fitness physiology) about the interaction of fast and slow, general and specific components of the adaptation of the human body to physical loads. That would enable better understanding of the specificity 11
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