Šildymo ir šaldymo poveikis raumens nuovargiui ir atsigavimui, jo priklausomumas nuo lyties ir raumens susitraukimo greičio ; The effect of warming and cooling on muscle fatigue and recovery depending on gender and muscle contraction rate

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LITHUANIAN ACADEMY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION Irina Ramanauskien ė THE EFFECT OF WARMING AND COOLING ON MUSCLE FATIGUE AND RECOVERY DEPENDING ON GENDER AND MUSCLE CONTRACTION RATE Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Biomedical Sciences, Biology (01 B), Physiology (B 470) Kaunas 2006 The research has been done during 2002—2006 at the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. The research was supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation in the years 2005 and 2006. Scientific supervisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aleksas STANISLOVAITIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education (biomedical sciences, biology — 01 B) Doctoral dissertation will be defended at the Biology Sciences Council of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education: Chairman Prof. Dr. Arvydas STASIULIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education (biomedical sciences, biology — 01 B) Members Prof. Osvaldas RUKŠ ĖNAS, Dr. Habil. Vilnius University (biomedical sciences, biology — 01 B) Dr. Žibuoklė SENIKIEN Ė Kaunas University of Medicine (biomedical sciences, biology — 01 B) Dr. Aidas ALABURDA Vilnius University (biomedical sciences, biophysics — 02 B) Dr. Tomas VENCK ŪNAS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education (biomedical sciences, biology — 01 B) Opponents Prof. Dr. Egidijus KEV ĖLAITIS Kaunas University of Medicine (biomedical sciences, medicine — 07 B) Dr.
Publié le : lundi 1 janvier 2007
Lecture(s) : 31
Source : VDDB.LIBRARY.LT/FEDORA/GET/LT-ELABA-0001:E.02~2006~D_20070117_072627-38857/DS.005.1.02.ETD
Nombre de pages : 55
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LITHUANIAN ACADEMY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Irina RamanauskienTHE EFFECT OF WARMING AND COOLING ON MUSCLE FATIGUE AND RECOVERY DEPENDING ON GENDER AND MUSCLE CONTRACTION RATE
Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Biomedical Sciences, Biology (01 B), Physiology (B 470)
Kaunas 2006
The research has been done during 20022006 at the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. The research was supported by the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation in the years 2005 and 2006. Scientific supervisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aleksas STANISLOVAITIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(biomedical sciences, biology  01 B) Doctoral dissertation will be defended at the Biology Sciences Council of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education: Chairman Prof. Dr. Arvydas STASIULIS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(biomedical sciences, biology  01 B)
Members Prof. Osvaldas RUKNAS, Dr. Habil. Vilnius University(biomedical sciences, biology  01 B) Dr. ibuoklKINISENEKaunas University of Medicine(biomedical sciences, biology  01 B) Dr. Aidas ALABURDA Vilnius University(biomedical sciences, biophysics  02 B) Dr. Tomas VENCKNAS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(biomedical sciences, biology  01 B)
Opponents Prof. Dr. Egidijus KEVLAITIS Kaunas University of Medicine(biomedical sciences, medicine  07 B) Dr. Aivaras RATKEVIČIUS Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education(biomedical sciences, biology  01 B) The doctoral dissertation will be defended in the open session of the Biology Sciences Council of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. The defence will take place on December 18th2006 at 11 a. m. in Action Hall. Address: Sporto 6, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lithuania The summary of the doctoral dissertation was sent out on November 17th2006. The doctoral dissertation is available at the library of the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. Address: Sporto 6, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lithuania
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LIETUVOS KNO KULTROS AKADEMIJAIrina RamanauskienILDYMO IR ALDYMO POVEIKIS RAUMENS NUOVARGIUI IR ATSIGAVIMUI, JO PRIKLAUSOMUMAS NUO LYTIES IR RAUMENS SUSITRAUKIMO GREIČIO Daktaro disertacija Biomedicinos mokslai, biologija (01 B), fiziologija (B 470) Kaunas 2006
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Disertacija rengta 20022006 metais Lietuvos kno kultros akademijoje. Darbą2005 ir 2006 m. rmLietuvos valstybinis mokslo ir studijfondas. Mokslinis vadovas Doc. dr. Aleksas STANISLOVAITIS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(biomedicinos mokslai, biologija  01 B) Disertacija ginama Lietuvos kno kultros akademijos Biologijos mokslo krypties taryboje: Pirmininkasprof. dr. Arvydas STASIULIS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(biomedicinos mokslai, biologija  01 B) Nariai prof. habil. dr. Osvaldas RUKNAS Vilniaus universitetas(biomedicinos mokslai, biologija  01 B) dr. ibuoklSNEIKINEKauno medicinos universitetas(biomedicinos mokslai, biologija  01 B) dr. Aidas ALABURDA Vilniaus universitetas(biomedicinos mokslai, biofizika  02 B) dr. Tomas VENCKNAS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(biomedicinos mokslai, biologija  01 B) Oponentai Prof. dr. Egidijus KEVLAITIS Kauno medicinos universitetas(biomedicinos mokslai, medicina  07 B) dr. Aivaras RATKEVIČIUS Lietuvos kno kultros akademija(biomedicinos mokslai, biologija  01 B) Disertacija bus ginama vieame Biologijos mokslo krypties tarybos posdyje 2006 m. gruodio 18 d. 11 val. Lietuvos kno kultros aktsalje. Adresas: Sporto g. 6, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lietuva. Disertacijos santrauka isista 2006 m. lapkričio 17 d. Disertacijągalima perirti Lietuvos kno kultros akademijos bibliotekoje. Adresas: Sporto g. 6, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lietuva.
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CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS ..............................................................................................71.METHODS AND ORGANIZATION OF THE RESEARCH ..............111.1.THESUBJECTS ...............................................................................111.2.METHODS .......................................................................................121.2.1.TESTING THE PROPERTIES OF CALF EXTENSORS AND FLEXORS ...................................................................................................121.2.2. ...................................................13PASSIVE MUSCLE WARMING1.2.3.LEG IMMERSION IN COLD WATER .........................................131.2.4. .ESTABLISHING LACTATE CONCENTRATION IN THE BLOOD  ......................................................................................................131.2.5.ESTIMATION OF CREATINKINASE ..........................................131.2.6.METHODS OF MEASURING TEMPERATURE .........................141.2.7.ESTIMATION OF MUSCLE PAIN ..............................................141.2.8.MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS...................................................141.3.NOORGANIZATIOFRESEARCH .................................................151.3.1.RESEARCH 1. THE EFFECT OF WARMING ON MUSCLE FATIGUE AND RECOVERY OF FEMALE EXTENSORS AND FLEXORS WHEN THE LEG IS BEING BENT IN THE KNEE JOINT AT THE FIXED 500o/ s SPEED ...........................................................................................151.3.2.RESEARCH 2. THE DEPENDENCY OF MUSCLE CONTRACTILE FUNCTION OF FEMALE AND MALE CALF EXTENSORS AND FLEXORS ON TEMPERATURE WHEN THE LEG IS BEING EXTENDED AND FLEXED IN THE KNEE JOINT AT THE 450o/ s SPEED ..................................................................................................... 161.3.3.RESEARCH 3. THE DEPENDENCY OF MUSCLE CONTRACTILE FUNCTION OF FEMALE AND MALE CALF EXTENSORS AND FLEXORS ON TEMPERATURE WHEN THE LEG IS BEING EXTENDED AND FLEXED IN THE KNEE JOINT AT THE 180o/ s SPEED ......................................................................................................172.RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION ........................192.1.RESEARCH1.THEEFFECTOFWARMINGONMUSCLEFATIGUEANDRECOVERYOFFEMALEEXTENSORSANDFLEXORSWHENTHELEGISBEINGBENTINTHEKNEEJOINTATTHEFIXED500O/SSPEED ................................................................................................192.2.RESEARCH2.THEDEPENDENCYOFMUSCLETIONCONTRACFUNCTIONOFFEMALEANDMALEKNEEEXTENSORSAND
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....................................................................................4...OCULCNSIONS...........................................................................DOS.IVA.49....TNASKUAR....84...........A.....................................................................OITACILB......SN........PU2.5..................................................................
.52........................
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FLEXORSONTEMPERATUREWHENTHELEGISBEINGEXTENDEDANDFLEXEDINTHEKNEEJOINTATTHEFIXED450O/SSPEED .......222.3.RESEARCH3.THEDEPENDENCEOFMUSCLENIOCTRANTCOFUNCTIONOFFEMALEANDMALEKNEEEXTENSORSANDFLEXORSONTEMPERATUREWHENTHELEGISBEINGEXTENDEDANDFLEXEDINTHEKNEEJOINTATTHEFIXED180O/SSPEED ......312
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................................................................NEGELIRAITAZONOERFTLUSS...............................
ABBREVIATIONSADP  adenosinphosphate ATP  adenosintriphosphate Ca2+ calcium ions CK  creatine kinase CNS  central nervous system FI  fatigue index H+ hydrogen  ions IC  isokinetc contraction IU  immunoferment units La  lactate MCF  muscle contraction force MFM  maximum force moment MVC  maximum voluntary contraction P  muscle pain
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INTRODUCTIONThe majority of physiological processes and various other processes taking place in the body are closely related to changes in body temperature (Shellock & Prentince, 1985; Bennett, 1990). The temperature of the human body is constant throughout ones life. It is approximately 37ºC and it constantly adjusts itself to changes in environment, relative air humidity, the level of radiation, atmosphere pressure and thermo isolation. During long-term physical load, in case of illness or in conditions of extreme body temperature may be in the range from 32ºC to 40ºC or even more (Wilmore & Costill, 2004). Direct warming of extremities may have considerable effect on muscle force and muscle capacity during isokinetic exercise (Sargeant, 1987; Ball et al., 1999). With rise in temperature tendons, ligaments and the connecting tissue are able to extend to a greater extent which brings improvement in the amplitude of movements in the joint (Strickler et al., 1990; Kirkendall & Garrett, 2002; Kandratavičius, 2004). First of all the rise in temperature makes metabolic processes more active. It has been established that the rise of inner muscle temperature by 1ºC causes metabolic processes in the cell to accelerate approximately by 13%oorB(1)971.,alteksomreffid,rfyltnelescMu.ngmiarw muscle cooling, brings about acceleration of ATP hydrolysis (Ball et al., 1999) and anaerobic glycolysis (Febbraio, 2000). The cohesion between cross-bridges of myosin and actin as well as relaxation accelerate because of the accelerated ATP hydrolysis (Ferreti, 1992; Ball et al., 1999) and due to Ca2+ kinetic properties (Ichihara, 1998). The improvement in muscle capacity observed after muscle warming is thought to be conditioned by the increased muscle contraction rate (Davies & Young, 1983; Bruas, 2004). After muscle cooling muscle contraction force and muscle capacity decreases, muscle contraction and relaxation rate, as well as metabolism processes slow down (De Ruiter & De Haan, 2001), and because of a slow down in the ATP hydrolysis and resynthesis myofibrillas are not sufficiently supplied with ATP (Ferretti, 1992). As established by A. J. Sargeant (1987) temperature changes cause an increase in muscle force (veloergometer pedalling increased muscle force and capacity by 4% when muscle temperature was raised by 1ºC). As found by A. J. Sargeant, there was a significant decrease in maximum force after muscle cooling at water temperature of 18ºC and 12ºC, compared to the indices of the usual muscle temperature (36.8ºC), when the exercise was being performed on the veloergometer in the isokinetic regimen. Still as reported by some authors, the subjects finding themselves in hot environment generate greater force getting fatigued faster at the same time (Sargeant 1987; Ball et al., 1999). High temperature in environment (Galloway & Maughan, 1997) and the increased inner temperature of the body (Gonzalez-Alonso et al., 1999) is known to speed up the rise of fatigue when performing exercise of high intensity in concentric
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regimen. As found by B. Nielsen et al. (1990, 2001), performing physical load in high temperature environmental increases inner body temperature by over 3ºC and this may be a direct cause for the rise of fatigue in the central nervous system. It could be hypothesized therefore that the muscle warmed prior to the load to be undertaken, when the leg is extended and flexed in the knee joint at high (500, 450o/ s) and average (180odepending on gender will increase muscle/ s) speed force and muscle capacity to a greater extent than the cooled muscle, but after lowering the temperature muscle resistance to fatigue will increase. Though considerable research has been done already certain questions still remain to be cleared up, namely: 1.how warming affects muscle fatigue and recovery of female knee extensors and flexors when the leg is being flexed and extended in the knee joint at the fixed 500o/ s speed; 2.contraction function of female and male kneehow muscle extensors and flexors depends on temperature when the leg is being flexed and extended in the knee joint at the fixed 450o/ s and 180o/ s peed. Though there is no agreement among scholars as to the real mechanism of delayed muscle damage and muscle pain still it has been established that, most frequently, muscle damage and muscle pain arise after performing eccentric exercise (Friden, 1984; Newham, 1988; Skurvydas, 1998; Kamandulis, 2005; Mickevičien, 2005; Bulotien, 2006). It is not clear, however, how muscle damage increases after performing concentric (isokinetic) load. As maintained in publications, muscle ability to develop force depends on gender, muscle mass, the type of muscle fibers and muscle contraction type (isometric, concentric or eccentric) as well as on muscle temperature (Henriksson-Larsen, 1985; Simoneau & Bouchard, 1989; Kanehisa et al., 1996; Pincivero et al., 2000 a, b; Hunter & Enoka, 2001). It is believed that men prevail in force over women because of their greater muscle mass and muscle capacity, as well as due to the fast muscle fibers of the II B type prevailing in male muscles, and that circumstance might be one of the reasons why men possess greater muscle force and muscle capacity. Muscle force of women during physical load, however is less subject to fatigue than that of men (Henriksson-Larsen, 1985; Simoneau & Bouchard, 1989). According to some scholars (Staron et al., 2000), greater number of muscle II B fibres prevails (I II A 13%,34% and II B 53% of muscle fibres accordingly) in mensm. quadriceps femoris. After performing a biopsy of muscle fibers J. A. Simoneau and C. Bouchard (1989) have established the following distribution of muscle fibers according to the three types in them. guadriceps femorisof men, namely, type I  II A 14%, 30% and II B56% accordingly. When physical load is performed in high temperature environment difference with respect to gender is also visible: women perspire less, compared to men, although they have more sweat-glands than men (Clapp, et al., 1987). It is not clear though in what
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different temperature determines changes in the functional properties of muscles during fatigue and recovery depending on gender and different muscle contraction rate. Therefore the present dissertation pursues the aim of establishing how warming and cooling affects fatigue and recovery of knee extension and flexion muscles depending on gender and muscle contraction rate. The aim of the researchwas to establish the effect of warming and done cooling on muscle fatigue and recovery depending on gender and muscle contraction rate. The tasks set in the dissertation were as follows: to establish the effect of warming on muscle fatigue and recovery of female knee extensors and flexors, when the leg is being flexed and extended in the knee joint at the fixed 500o/ s speed; to establish the dependency of muscle contraction function of female and male knee extensors and flexors on temperature when the leg is being flexed and extended in the knee joint at the fixed 450o/ s speed; to establish the depending of muscle contraction function of female and male knee extensors and flexors on temperature when the leg is being flexed and extended in the knee joint at the fixed 180o/ s speed. The originality of the research: It is for the first time that the effect of passive warming and cooling on muscle contraction properties and muscle fatigue depending on gender and muscle contraction rate has been studied and explained.
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1.METHODS AND ORGANIZATION OF THE RESEARCH 1.1.THE SUBJECTS The contingent of subjects and the methods of research used. All the experiments have been carried out keeping to the principles laid down in the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 concerning the ethics of experiments with humans. The subjects were acquainted with the aims and methods of the research, the procedure of the research and the possible inconveniences pertaining to it. The subjects confirmed their willingness to participate in the experiments in writing. The research protocol has been discussed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Biomedical Research of the Kaunas University of Medicine (protocol No. 80 / 2004). The subjects studied were healthy, physically active men and healthy, physically active women. The size of the samples and the indices of age, height and body mass are shown in Table 1. Table 1.Characteristics of the number of the subjects, their age, height and body mass (x±SD) The effect of warming onmusclefatigueandThceondterapcetniodnenfcuyncotfiomnuosfcleThceondterpaectnidoennfcuynocftiomnusocflerecovery of female female and male knee female and male knee knee extensors and extensor d flexors on extensors and flexors on flexors, when the leg is s an Indicesbeingflexedandtbeeminpgerfalteuxreedwahnednetxhteenledgedistbeeminpgerfalteuxreedwahnednetxhteenledgedisextended in the knee in the knee joint at the in the knee joint at the fixed joint at the fixed fixed 450o/ s speed 180o/ s speed 500o/ s speed
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Research Parameters I II thTheesunbujmecbtesr,nofW10W10M10W10M10Age, years 1923 1823 1923 1823 1923 Body mass, kg 56.2 ± 6.1 54.2 ± 5.2 78.2 ± 6.2 54.2 ± .,2 78.2 ± 6.2 Height, cm 166.4 ± 4.4 164.4 ± 5.6 177.8 ± 5.8 164.4 ± 5.6 177.8 ± 5.8 Note:M  men, W  women. During researches 2 and 3 the same persons were studied.
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