Storage protein quality, metabolite composition, and baking quality of winter wheat as affected by late sulfur fertilization [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Dorothee Steinfurth

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Aus dem Institut für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel Storage protein quality, metabolite composition, and baking quality of winter wheat as affected by late sulfur fertilization Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel vorgelegt von Dorothee Steinfurth, M. Sc. aus Trebel im Wendland Kiel, 2010 Dekanin: Prof. Dr. Karin Schwarz 1. Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Karl H. Mühling 2. Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Elke Pawelzik Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 4. November 2010 Gedruckt mit der Genehmigung der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel Diese Arbeit kann als pdf-Dokument unter http://eldiss.uni-kiel.de/macau/content/below/index.xml aus dem Internet geladen werden. Habt Ehrfurcht vor der Pflanze. Alles lebt durch sie. Friedrich Walter Domke (1899-1988) Contents 1. General Introduction ..............................................................................................1 1.1. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) – production, consumption, and genetic background ... 2 1.2. Importance of sulfur in agricultural wheat production ............................................ 3 1.3. The role of sulfur in wheat plant metabolism....
Publié le : vendredi 1 janvier 2010
Lecture(s) : 27
Source : D-NB.INFO/1011040689/34
Nombre de pages : 124
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Aus dem Institut für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde
der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel


Storage protein quality, metabolite composition, and baking quality
of winter wheat as affected by late sulfur fertilization


Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades
der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel


vorgelegt von
Dorothee Steinfurth, M. Sc.
aus Trebel im Wendland

Kiel, 2010

Dekanin: Prof. Dr. Karin Schwarz
1. Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Karl H. Mühling
2. Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Elke Pawelzik
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 4. November 2010
Gedruckt mit der Genehmigung
der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel




















Diese Arbeit kann als pdf-Dokument unter
http://eldiss.uni-kiel.de/macau/content/below/index.xml
aus dem Internet geladen werden.







Habt Ehrfurcht vor der Pflanze.
Alles lebt durch sie.

Friedrich Walter Domke (1899-1988)


Contents
1. General Introduction ..............................................................................................1
1.1. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) – production, consumption, and genetic background ... 2
1.2. Importance of sulfur in agricultural wheat production ............................................ 3
1.3. The role of sulfur in wheat plant metabolism............................................................ 5
1.4. Composition of storage proteins in wheat ................................................................ 9
1.5. Effects of sulfur deficiency on wheat quality........................................................... 12
1.6. Objectives................................................................................................................ 13
2. Time-dependent distribution of sulfur, sulfate and glutathione in wheat tissues
and grain as affected by late S fertilization .......................................................21
2.1. Abstract................................................................................................................... 23
2.2. Introduction............................................................................................................. 24
2.3. Material and Methods............................................................................................. 25
2.4. Results..................................................................................................................... 27
2.4.1 Effect of S fertilization on protein concentration............................................................................ 27
2.4.2 Effect of S fertilization on sulphur and sulphate concentrations .................................................... 27
2.4.3 Effect of S fertilization on glutathione concentration ..................................................................... 28
2.4.4 Effect of S fertilization on whole plant S, sulphate and glutathione distribution............................ 28
2.4.5 Effect of S fertilization on N/S ratio ................................................................................................ 29
2.5 Discussion............................................................................................................... 29
2.5.1 Impact of S fertilization on total S, sulphate and glutathione concentration.................................. 30
2.5.2 Tissue specific response to S fertilization ....................................................................................... 32
2.6 Conclusions............................................................................................................. 33
3. Quantitative protein composition and baking quality of winter wheat as
affected by late sulfur fertilization .....................................................................45
4. Impact of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on gluten, composition and baking
quality of wheat....................................................................................................47
4.1. Abstract................................................................................................................... 49
4.2. Introduction............................................................................................................. 50
4.3. Gluten Protein Composition and Synthesis............................................................. 51
4.4. The role of nitrogen fertilization in gluten formation and the resulting baking
quality ..................................................................................................................... 52
4.4.1 Assimilation and translocation of nitrogen within the wheat plant
................................................................................................................................ 52
4.4.2. Nitrogen fertilization increases the amount of gluten proteins. Is this all we know?...........54
4.4.3. Nitrogen fertilization increases baking quality, but the question is how? ........................... 56
4.5. Influence of S fertilization on gluten composition and baking quality.................... 58





4.5.1. Assimilation and translocation of sulfur within the wheat plant .................................................... 58
4.5.2. Does sulfur fertilization increase gluten proteins as it has been reported for nitrogen
fertilization?.................................................................................................................................... 60
4.5.3. Is there a potential to further increase baking quality by adequate sulfur fertilization?................ 66
4.6. How nitrogen and sulfur interact in gluten composition........................................ 68
5. Comparison of baking tests using wholemeal and white wheat flour.............. 79
5.1. Abstract................................................................................................................... 81
5.2. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 82
5.3. Material and Methods............................................................................................. 83
5.4. Results..................................................................................................................... 84
5.5. Discussion............................................................................................................... 86
5.5.1. Comparison of standard-scale and micro-scale baking tests ......................................................... 86
5.5.2. Bread making performance of white and wholemeal flour............................................................. 87
5.5.3. Future perspectives......................................................................................................................... 89
5.6. Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 90
6. General Discussion................................................................................................ 99
6.1. Influence of sulfur fertilization on storage protein composition .......................... 100
6.2. Influence of sulfur fertilization on storage protein composition during grain
development .......................................................................................................... 103
6.3. Influence of sulfur fertilization on baking quality ................................................ 105
6.4. Advantages of a late sulfur fertilization in wheat production............................... 106
7. Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 111
8. Zusammenfassung .............................................................................................. 113
9. Danksagung…………………………………………..…………………………115



























Chapter 1


General Introduction






1 Chapter 1 – General Introduction

1. General Introduction
1.1. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) – production, consumption, and
genetic background
Besides France, Germany is one of the most important countries for wheat production in
Europe. Compared to France that produced 5.4% of world’s wheat production in 2007,
Germany produced only 2% less. Furthermore, the consumption of wheat is highly
important. Germans consumed about 82 kg wheat per capita in 2007, which is about 6-
times the amount of maize consumption (FAO, 2009). Compared to high protein crops
like legume seeds, wheat only contains about half of the protein concentration.
Although wheat grain has a lower protein concentration of about 8-14% (Shewry et al.,
2009), the high amount of human wheat consumption leads to wheat protein intake of
about 20.4 g per capita per day. Unlike wheat consumption, Germans consume
negligible protein amounts of 0.12 g protein per capita per day from pulses (FAO,
2009).

Data about the consumption of bakery products confirm the high prominence of wheat
products and its importance for protein intake in human nutrition. In Germany, men
consume about 300 g of bread, bakery and cereal products per day. For men this is the
largest food group consumed, whereas for women it is the second largest next to fruits
and vegetables (Max Rubner-Institute, 2008). Due to the importance of bread and
bakery products and its primary impact for protein intake, protein quality aspects are of
increasing interest.

There are many factors that influence wheat protein quality: Genetics, environmental
conditions and phyto-pathological factors. The evolutionary genetic background of
today’s wheat cultivars are built by einkorn and emmer. Emmer (Triticum turgidum)
was developed from the domestication of Triticum uratu (AA) and Aegilops speltoides
(BB). Later, hybridization of cultivated emmer with Triticum tauschii (DD) formed
today’s bread wheat. That is why today’s wheat contains a hexaploid genome
(AABBDD). The A genome is related to the A genome of einkorn, whereas the D
genome is derived from T. tauschii (Feldman, 2001). The B genome derives from
2

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