Vascular flora of the Babitonga Bay region (Santa Catarina, Brazil) [Elektronische Ressource] : diversity and origins / vorgelegt von Jotham Ziffer Berger

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Vascular Flora of the Babitonga Bay Region (Santa Catarina, Brazil): Diversity and Origins Der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades vorgelegt von Jotham Ziffer Berger aus Tel Aviv Als Dissertation genehmigt von der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 15.7.2008 Vorsitzender der Promotionskommission: Prof. Dr. Eberhard Bänsch Erstberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Werner Nezadal Zweitberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Karin Esemann de Quadros ii רגרב תור יתבסל iii CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 4 1 INTRODUCTION 5 1.1 THE ATLANTIC FOREST 5 1.2 SCOPE OF THE SURVEY 8 1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 10 2 THE STUDY AREA 11 2.1 GEOGRAPHIC LOCALIZATION 11 2.2 CLIMATE 14 2.3 GEOLOGICAL FEATURES 19 2.4 VEGETATION 26 2.5 USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 35 3 METHODOLOGY 37 3.1 SELECTION OF SAMPLING LOCATIONS 37 3.2 FIELD WORK 38 3.3 SURVEY OF HERBARIUM SPECIMENS AND PREVIOUS CHECKLISTS 39 3.4 DETERMINATION OF PLANT SPECIMENS 39 3.5 BIOGEOGRAPHIC SURVEY 41 3.6 APPLIED TERMINOLOGY 42 3.7 DATA ARRANGEMENT AND PROCESSING 45 4 RESULTS 48 DETAILED PLANT LIST 48 4.1 PTERIDOPHYTES 48 4.
Publié le : mardi 1 janvier 2008
Lecture(s) : 27
Source : WWW.OPUS.UB.UNI-ERLANGEN.DE/OPUS/VOLLTEXTE/2008/1017/PDF/ZIFFERBERGER_DISSERTATION.PDF
Nombre de pages : 219
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Vascular Flora of the Babitonga Bay Region
(Santa Catarina, Brazil):
Diversity and Origins




Der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät
der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
zur
Erlangung des Doktorgrades






















vorgelegt von Jotham Ziffer Berger
aus Tel Aviv


























Als Dissertation genehmigt von der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität
Erlangen-Nürnberg


Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 15.7.2008

Vorsitzender der Promotionskommission: Prof. Dr. Eberhard Bänsch

Erstberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Werner Nezadal

Zweitberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. Karin Esemann de Quadros












ii














רגרב תור יתבסל

























iii


CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 4
1 INTRODUCTION 5
1.1 THE ATLANTIC FOREST 5
1.2 SCOPE OF THE SURVEY 8
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 10
2 THE STUDY AREA 11
2.1 GEOGRAPHIC LOCALIZATION 11
2.2 CLIMATE 14
2.3 GEOLOGICAL FEATURES 19
2.4 VEGETATION 26
2.5 USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 35
3 METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 SELECTION OF SAMPLING LOCATIONS 37
3.2 FIELD WORK 38
3.3 SURVEY OF HERBARIUM SPECIMENS AND PREVIOUS CHECKLISTS 39
3.4 DETERMINATION OF PLANT SPECIMENS 39
3.5 BIOGEOGRAPHIC SURVEY 41
3.6 APPLIED TERMINOLOGY 42
3.7 DATA ARRANGEMENT AND PROCESSING 45
4 RESULTS 48
DETAILED PLANT LIST 48
4.1 PTERIDOPHYTES 48
4.2 SEED PLANTS 57
1 4.3 SUMMARY STATISTICS 128
5 DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS AND ORIGINS OF THE FLORA 134
5.1 ENDEMISM 134
5.2 SPECIES OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST AND ADJACENT REGIONS 143
5.3 WIDESPREAD SPECIES OF TROPICAL AMERICA 146
6 DIVERSITY, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSERVATION OF SELECTED
TAXONOMIC GROUPS 151
6.1 ASTERACEAE 151
6.2 POACEAE 151
6.3 CYPERACEAE 152
6.4 ORCHIDACEAE 153
6.5 LEGUMES 153
6.6 MYRTACEAE 155
6.7 BROMELIACEAE 155
6.8 FERNS 156
7 DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED ECOLOGICAL GROUPS
158
7.1 PLANTS OF MANGROVE FOREST, SALT MEADOWS, AND THEIR PERIPHERY 158
7.2 STRAND PLANTS 159
7.4 FOREST SPECIES 160
7.5 PLANTS OF TREE RESTINGAS 161
7.6 RUDERAL PLANTS 163
7.7 ALIEN SPECIES 164
7.8 INVASIVE SPECIES 164
7.9 ESCAPING SPECIES 165
7.10 RARE SPECIES 165
8 CONCLUSION 169
8.1 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS 169
8.2 MEASURES FOR THE CONSERVATION OF THE FLORA 170
2 8.3 FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 171
BIBLIOGRAPHY 174
SUMMARY 205
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG 207
LISTS OF TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 209
APPENDIX I: MAPS OF DISTRIBUTION 211
LEBENSLAUF 215






























3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS




I am deeply indebted to my advisor Prof. Dr. Werner Nezadal for the help to
realize this research and for the pleasant atmosphere in which I had the fortune to
work. I am also grateful to Prof. Dr. Karin Esemann de Quadros for the help,
counsel and, most importantly, kind friendship during the research period in
Brazil.

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to the staff in Univille and to its
Rector, Paulo-Ivo Koehntopp. I owe my special thanks to Prof. Cláudio Tureck
and his wife Simone for the tremendous, ceaseless support and care during my
stay in Vila da Glória. My thanks are also due to Prof. Cynthia Hering Rinnert for
the hospitality in the herbarium in Joinville and for helpful advice.

This work would not be realizable without the thoughtfulness and consideration
of the staff of the Museu Botânico Municipal in Curitiba. I acknowledge a special
debt to Dr. Gerdt Hatschbach, Osmar dos Santos Ribas, Juarez Cordeiro, Eraldo
Barboza, and Clarisse Poliquesi for the generous guidance, suggestions and
valuable advice.

I thank my dear friends Alon Kol for reviewing this dissertation and for the
graphic edition, and Henry Siman Tov for the German translation of the summary.

Finally I would like to thank Dr. Walter Welß, Ricarda Bartschat, Jacqueline
Alfandari, Dr. Astrid Oppolzer, Rosane Schweidson, Uri Siman Tov and all the
friends and colleagues for their precious support and encouragement.







J.Z.
Fürth, April 2008
4 1 INTRODUCTION



1.1 THE ATLANTIC FOREST

THE ATLANTIC FOREST BIOME—A CENTER OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

The Atlantic Forest is a moist tropical and subtropical biome extending along the Brazilian
Atlantic coast from the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte southwards to the
Uruguayan coast, also reaching the Argentinean Province of Misiones and wide parts of
southern Paraguay (see figure 1.1). The northern portion of the biome is relatively narrow,
bordering with the caatinga (dry shrubland); the middle portion runs alongside the cerrado
(savanna); and the broadest southern portion borders on the pampas in the south and on the
Gran Chaco semi-arid plains in the west.


Figure 1.1: the original extent of the Atlantic Forest [source: Conservation International (2008)]


The Atlantic Forest—or Mata Atlântica in Portuguese—is one of the world’s leading centers of
endemism and biodiversity (Dean 1995), with approximately 8000 endemic plants and 650
vertebrate species (Myers et al. 2000). The biome has suffered severe exploitation and
deforestation since Europeans first settled in South America, and lost approximately 92% of
its original extent (see figures 1.1 and 1.2). Therefore, international conservation organizations
recognize the Atlantic Forest as a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities (Myers et al.
2000, Galindo-Leal & Câmara 2003), and UNESCO declared it a Biosphere Reserve in 1993
(UNESCO 2008).





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Figure 1.2: map of the southern part of the Atlantic Forest, indicating two large forest remnants: the coastal forests of Serra do Mar
(Brazil), and the semi-deciduous inland forest of Misiones (Argentina); taken from Galindo-Leal & Câmara (2003)






Figure 1.3: the interior of the Atlantic Forest, photographed in a hillside forest in Vila da Glória






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