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DOSSIER 10  MUTATIONS DU TRAVAIL ET CONFLITS SOCIAUX
   Des conflits de natures diverses                                                             !  "#$      % &    &        #   $ '                 &$  (       "   #                             '       #   #       )*       & #+ '         , -    &  , ● Pourquoi des conflits ?  (   ..   , /       0  1    "  0   %          1 /   %         .   2   .        1             Comment expliquer l’action collective ? 3       &  &  -       , /              ,  4          ' .    , 3  .   #&  , 3   . " , (. "     , '       , /. %      5      , -.    , -     6    7 , /. %       ,            
I  ACTION COLLECTIVE ET CONFLITS  1)  Qu’estce qu’une action collective ?    L’action collective            1        2     3       &            8          &      "  3 #      &       #                                !        3       8     1 %     3    9 : &$    1 %               &     9 Mancur Olson        !"         ;           &  1    #   &&    '          (         9 : &       ;     comportement utilitariste <      des coûts  &&         &           *       des avantages       &    &   "    '          &       &  « passager clandestin », 6   7$    9   &      &       /          & 8   *   %    « paradoxe d’Olson »),                   &  '    , ;   & &      .       #&            6 .# 7    &.        #    #    =$ .      &  %                   & $ #  #&   & $ 3#  ># ; >#     6 <   3 7             #         1 %             6 exit 7$       1 %   %       6 loyalty 7$                6 voice 7$ '   >#              3              &                      
3  8                       %  & 3      9   gratification        &         3      solidarité   #  & /&     0           6 obligation morale 7     &   plaisir  ;  &       6 9 7 3     ?                                           "  2)  Les mouvements sociaux 3         6   7    "#    6   7       &    6   7 <   &    @       "   #  $    $  $    % $   $ $   $ &$   '' ( % Un mouvement social        &      ## %   8           1   % #&   %   & + "  '  )   8 mouvement social   @     $*      $$     $  '$ $  $ '$   = A B   , '  = C      + -   /    '             $ >    #&  % D      &  '  % *         # ? @      2  #&    %       ' %    *                 ( @         #     3 E      @  ( @      "  E    il y a à sa base un acteur de classe  principe d’identité     $            Cet acteur de classe connaît un adversaire de classe   principe d’opposition      $  (        Cet acteur de classe est face à un enjeu de société   Principe de totalité            % #&     $  (           "                    #       ! @          %      %        0          (   &     #    #                ##  % #&    
II  CONFLITS DU TRAVAIL ET CLASSES SOCIALES          ' &    &  ##        *    6 &  7  6   7 , @  &    1     *                 %   F * &   ## # $   !  '.    1                     4                4   %               1      $  1)  La lecture de la stratification sociale en termes de classes sociales 4             &          6 7        <    3   ' G    %    3   +  "  $$$   $ $$$                 &  #&  > F *   ##  &  &  # ?          !  ;     %        %  &&        '        *        #&  (  le conflit de classes est la source du changement social -.    , ; * une classe sociale est un groupement d’individus occupant la même place dans le mode de production. Cette place est définie essentiellement par la possession ou la non possession des moyens de production. (   mêmes conditions matérielles d’existence       une conscience de classe  #  la lutte des classes * &   les classes en soi               H les classes pour soi               %      '           % &  %    &       Pour Marx l’histoire des société est celle de la lutte des classes : opposition radicale entre deux classes qui ont des places différentes et antagonistes dans le mode de production. Caractéristiques du mode de production capitaliste :     &                    &     3    &    L’exploitation     "  &                  plus value  "  &   I        %       ?      &   9 JK            JK       "              *          L .%.   
<             $   %  #     '      I  #&    '    #         *   6 .  7 %       I       $ 
 3 .                        &       (  les bourgeois « extorquent » une partie du travail (surtravail) réalisé par les prolétaires à leur profit : c’est en ce sens que Marx parle d’exploitation  ; .  &             La plusvalue est d’autant plus élevée que la valeur d’usage, c’estàdire le salaire, est faible           #5&   (       $     % &   '  ()          3 #5&   #       %     L’aliénation : 3   #   2                 2       & % .1   M$ '#B * les conflits sont des conflits d’intérêts de classes     1 %               1 %   #& Le conflit traduit donc une relation de domination; il exprime la contestation d’un système de pouvoir. '             6  7$                 &   H il doit trouver son aboutissement dans la révolution sociale qui précipitera l’effondrement de la société capitaliste   Conclusion      #B *      #&    %   $               %  *   $  "  $ $   $$  8               '          3         *          &            L’identité professionnelle peut être présentée comme l’identité au travail  (      $$ $  $       '         2      &    ##         &  &$ 3     "  "             &   .  $ $ & $  $  +                  &        %
      &  $ ' #           "      .  $ $  ,$ , $     $$     $                      #B     #    1  &      6      7 '      1    1        1  1 3      3             +$ &                   #        &  &        3     6  7 %     &                          %  Conclusion : un groupe social ne peut entrer dans le conflit que s’il a le sentiment d’intérêts communs à défendre face à un « ennemi » (ou au moins un adversaire) commun qui ne partage pas sa situation dans l’activité productive. En même temps, le conflit socialise les individus qui y participent, c'estàdire les amène à construire cette identité collective qui les soude.   2)  Vers la fin des classes sociales ? ;  &           %         4            NO                      (               "  # $$  $   (  $$ $    DOCUMENT Une montée en uissance des « classes mo ennes »
 ;  <1 ;  POOM  '          &       6   7          *  
"  $ $$$ $$ $ $$ . Diminution de la place temporelle du travail professionnel dans la vie quotidienne  3              #  &  "#            Eclatement de la classe dirigeante :            H    &       &  &     . Q     JK moyennisation     /  *     3 &     $      #       #         %     /            "# . Montée de l’individualisme         %   %  &  '      %      . Dépolitisation d’une partie de la société :     %        %   3     /"#      +        6  7           %  1   "    '   .  3 institutionnalisation              %       &   ? &    &  "          &  &  H        "   5       .  3 précarisation     @# : 3         '? 1    #       %  1   .   chômage       6 #   7            .  Individualisation     %     %  1          .1  ## %     1  +   1    .   flexibilité :     #  %     %  1     .  Externalisation              . 1     .     &   +$       %  1      NFOT            .   $    : 2  %             1   "  - $     $$ .  3   &      %         6   7                                       /"#  6   7         1   - .  , '     , 3         même position dans le processus de production               ?             3           ?           %      9
        &   3          &      (       d’avoir conscience de former un groupe    1      %    &      3     &     6   7      & "  !RO$     1               3&    &  6    7     6  7 %     .           .      (' ')@+ .   #           &+ .        + .   % 1  .   &&#         %  #  &  .         #  #    3        G      $  . !EN  EO S   (/   $ . !RM  TO S $H . "#   PMS  <      &      #  6 & 7   &U %     % $       <    .                  $       .        /  POO                = .                   #           /  &             ('    $ 3    G                        1   @         "    6   7                 !NO  !RO              # %    H        &    &          &              %   &U   < +        #  &                #  #5&       + '    .& %       3 &    2       '       <  "# &       &     1          %     !O    $  1 3 '#   %    PO          #     ##                &   &        /"#                
&         &  #          %       <  &      '       " %                            &    &   1      $  %     &     &      %    & &  +$ #     +  "  /    $$  $ $  3 6   7  ( V ( V            6   7$      %   # ? I     un espace social        4        position différentes des individus dans l’espace social      %      '## %         %   /      "      0    "        H               *               $ ( V &    *   l’espace social    ##           ' ##   &          #   $   $ 3     ,  ;    "#          H                    %      %          /      "#  &   %         4     E                     #&   #   &   III  INSTITUTIONNALISATION DES CONFLITS ET CONFLICTUALIT E DU TRAVAIL   /   PO  les conflits se sont institutionnalisés          -.   & , Définition $$ $ $ $  $ $  $ $ $* $ .$* $  $*      * $   $$    $ .$ $%      syndicats  "  & 5  .1  %     "  5 &   &  3                    &  )     *   & ) **    +,-. /  4                      %     <            .1     2    0           
 1)  L'institutionnalisation des conflits et du rôle des syndicats  "  0 '$ 3   3         W 3    (            %     3 &   &    Q       " NT ' &  "%         &$    1#  &    &      3            1   &  '  %    !  T  Q       %                    1 W 3    PO  <         %     %    &        3 &         !EN  Q$       &   *&     <     & &   # (              #     #   3   !TM.!RM$ W <             3        &    &    %  &     %  &       &          (#$  3     %         &  & #   & &  & %  +$     "  5    3       &       &   "%  %     W 3   NT          &  T      !ON       !!    !EN   *&  P   &    TO #   &      !TM      !TR     #&       !P   /   &   &  &         &  $ Le principe a été de faire porter à la collectivité les risques encourus par les travailleurs : on « collectivise », on « socialise », on « institutionnalise » la relation de travail  /                          collectifs W 3   8        5    1   #     ?          1         1   ; Pierre Rosanvallon   $ $1  '.3 !! $    E             &          &           $         #     
3     ')@   &   'Q@   I    Q  Q  ')'   &   'Q@'   I   # *<<Q  *    3# "    Q  &    & &  .       %  .        #&    3        %    %    &  %     &  %         /    &     ##   /         droit du travail          0     &  %            '       !TM     <.  /      négociations collectives     &  #           #     #    # & +$ &   &          #         <                   &  &        '     (         =$     #  EM #       PO  '    #                6   7     EM>       # #    
  
/     '        #  ##   &                  <       M   &  8    &         ?   %         ##    #   ##              Q  & '            "  21$  $ $ $                     ? &    &  "          &  &    L’institutionnalisation des conflits signifie le développement d’un processus de  création d’instances représentatives, et de lieux de procédures de négociations et d’arbitrages entres les parties d’un conflit '    &                      