DOSSIER MUTATIONS DU TRAVAIL ET CONFLITS SOCIAUX

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Niveau: Secondaire, Lycée
DOSSIER 10 - MUTATIONS DU TRAVAIL ET CONFLITS SOCIAUX Introduction ? Des conflits de natures diverses - Les conflits du travail Depuis que les sociétés sont entrées dans la modernité, depuis le 18è siècle environ, l'essentiel des conflits sociaux se sont déroulés sur le terrain du travail et de l'emploi. On peut essayer de comprendre pourquoi : le travail occupe, directement ou indirectement, l'essentiel de la vie des individus, en temps d'abord (et bien plus au 19ème siècle qu'aujourd'hui) et aussi parce qu'il est à l'origine de certaines des inégalités dont nous avons parlé dans le dernier chapitre (revenus en particulier). C'est aussi dans le travail que se noue une bonne partie des relations sociales qui entourent (et intègrent) l'individu. Pour toutes ces raisons, auxquelles il faut ajouter la valeur hautement symbolique du travail, les conflits sociaux sont bien souvent nés dans le monde du travail depuis la naissance du capitalisme. - Les conflits hors de la sphère du travail Cependant, il existe aussi des conflits en dehors de la sphère du travail : conflits autour des OGM, de l'éducation, de la reconnaissance du mariage homosexuel… Comment expliquer l'apparition de ces nouvelles formes de conflit ? Quelles en sont les grandes caractéristiques ?. ? Pourquoi des conflits ? Pourquoi des y a-t-il des conflits ? Avant tout parce qu'ils existent des situations où des intérêts différents sont en jeu, et où la décision à prendre ne peut convenir simultanément aux représentants des différents intérêts.

  • conflit

  • mouvement social

  • pouvoir politique

  • touraine

  • classe sociale

  • principe d'opposition

  • changement social

  • historicité


Publié le : mardi 29 mai 2012
Lecture(s) : 35
Tags :
Source : la-revanche-des-ses.fr
Nombre de pages : 20
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DOSSIER 10  MUTATIONS DU TRAVAIL ET CONFLITS SOCIAUX
   Des conflits de natures diverses                                                             !  "#$      % &    &        #   $ '                 &$  (       "   #                             '       #   #       )*       & #+ '         , -    &  , ● Pourquoi des conflits ?  (   ..   , /       0  1    "  0   %          1 /   %         .   2   .        1             Comment expliquer l’action collective ? 3       &  &  -       , /              ,  4          ' .    , 3  .   #&  , 3   . " , (. "     , '       , /. %      5      , -.    , -     6    7 , /. %       ,            
I  ACTION COLLECTIVE ET CONFLITS  1)  Qu’estce qu’une action collective ?    L’action collective            1        2     3       &            8          &      "  3 #      &       #                                !        3       8     1 %     3    9 : &$    1 %               &     9 Mancur Olson        !"         ;           &  1    #   &&    '          (         9 : &       ;     comportement utilitariste <      des coûts  &&         &           *       des avantages       &    &   "    '          &       &  « passager clandestin », 6   7$    9   &      &       /          & 8   *   %    « paradoxe d’Olson »),                   &  '    , ;   & &      .       #&            6 .# 7    &.        #    #    =$ .      &  %                   & $ #  #&   & $ 3#  ># ; >#     6 <   3 7             #         1 %             6 exit 7$       1 %   %       6 loyalty 7$                6 voice 7$ '   >#              3              &                      
3  8                       %  & 3      9   gratification        &         3      solidarité   #  & /&     0           6 obligation morale 7     &   plaisir  ;  &       6 9 7 3     ?                                           "  2)  Les mouvements sociaux 3         6   7    "#    6   7       &    6   7 <   &    @       "   #  $    $  $    % $   $ $   $ &$   '' ( % Un mouvement social        &      ## %   8           1   % #&   %   & + "  '  )   8 mouvement social   @     $*      $$     $  '$ $  $ '$   = A B   , '  = C      + -   /    '             $ >    #&  % D      &  '  % *         # ? @      2  #&    %       ' %    *                 ( @         #     3 E      @  ( @      "  E    il y a à sa base un acteur de classe  principe d’identité     $            Cet acteur de classe connaît un adversaire de classe   principe d’opposition      $  (        Cet acteur de classe est face à un enjeu de société   Principe de totalité            % #&     $  (           "                    #       ! @          %      %        0          (   &     #    #                ##  % #&    
II  CONFLITS DU TRAVAIL ET CLASSES SOCIALES          ' &    &  ##        *    6 &  7  6   7 , @  &    1     *                 %   F * &   ## # $   !  '.    1                     4                4   %               1      $  1)  La lecture de la stratification sociale en termes de classes sociales 4             &          6 7        <    3   ' G    %    3   +  "  $$$   $ $$$                 &  #&  > F *   ##  &  &  # ?          !  ;     %        %  &&        '        *        #&  (  le conflit de classes est la source du changement social -.    , ; * une classe sociale est un groupement d’individus occupant la même place dans le mode de production. Cette place est définie essentiellement par la possession ou la non possession des moyens de production. (   mêmes conditions matérielles d’existence       une conscience de classe  #  la lutte des classes * &   les classes en soi               H les classes pour soi               %      '           % &  %    &       Pour Marx l’histoire des société est celle de la lutte des classes : opposition radicale entre deux classes qui ont des places différentes et antagonistes dans le mode de production. Caractéristiques du mode de production capitaliste :     &                    &     3    &    L’exploitation     "  &                  plus value  "  &   I        %       ?      &   9 JK            JK       "              *          L .%.   
<             $   %  #     '      I  #&    '    #         *   6 .  7 %       I       $ 
 3 .                        &       (  les bourgeois « extorquent » une partie du travail (surtravail) réalisé par les prolétaires à leur profit : c’est en ce sens que Marx parle d’exploitation  ; .  &             La plusvalue est d’autant plus élevée que la valeur d’usage, c’estàdire le salaire, est faible           #5&   (       $     % &   '  ()          3 #5&   #       %     L’aliénation : 3   #   2                 2       & % .1   M$ '#B * les conflits sont des conflits d’intérêts de classes     1 %               1 %   #& Le conflit traduit donc une relation de domination; il exprime la contestation d’un système de pouvoir. '             6  7$                 &   H il doit trouver son aboutissement dans la révolution sociale qui précipitera l’effondrement de la société capitaliste   Conclusion      #B *      #&    %   $               %  *   $  "  $ $   $$  8               '          3         *          &            L’identité professionnelle peut être présentée comme l’identité au travail  (      $$ $  $       '         2      &    ##         &  &$ 3     "  "             &   .  $ $ & $  $  +                  &        %
      &  $ ' #           "      .  $ $  ,$ , $     $$     $                      #B     #    1  &      6      7 '      1    1        1  1 3      3             +$ &                   #        &  &        3     6  7 %     &                          %  Conclusion : un groupe social ne peut entrer dans le conflit que s’il a le sentiment d’intérêts communs à défendre face à un « ennemi » (ou au moins un adversaire) commun qui ne partage pas sa situation dans l’activité productive. En même temps, le conflit socialise les individus qui y participent, c'estàdire les amène à construire cette identité collective qui les soude.   2)  Vers la fin des classes sociales ? ;  &           %         4            NO                      (               "  # $$  $   (  $$ $    DOCUMENT Une montée en uissance des « classes mo ennes »
 ;  <1 ;  POOM  '          &       6   7          *  
"  $ $$$ $$ $ $$ . Diminution de la place temporelle du travail professionnel dans la vie quotidienne  3              #  &  "#            Eclatement de la classe dirigeante :            H    &       &  &     . Q     JK moyennisation     /  *     3 &     $      #       #         %     /            "# . Montée de l’individualisme         %   %  &  '      %      . Dépolitisation d’une partie de la société :     %        %   3     /"#      +        6  7           %  1   "    '   .  3 institutionnalisation              %       &   ? &    &  "          &  &  H        "   5       .  3 précarisation     @# : 3         '? 1    #       %  1   .   chômage       6 #   7            .  Individualisation     %     %  1          .1  ## %     1  +   1    .   flexibilité :     #  %     %  1     .  Externalisation              . 1     .     &   +$       %  1      NFOT            .   $    : 2  %             1   "  - $     $$ .  3   &      %         6   7                                       /"#  6   7         1   - .  , '     , 3         même position dans le processus de production               ?             3           ?           %      9
        &   3          &      (       d’avoir conscience de former un groupe    1      %    &      3     &     6   7      & "  !RO$     1               3&    &  6    7     6  7 %     .           .      (' ')@+ .   #           &+ .        + .   % 1  .   &&#         %  #  &  .         #  #    3        G      $  . !EN  EO S   (/   $ . !RM  TO S $H . "#   PMS  <      &      #  6 & 7   &U %     % $       <    .                  $       .        /  POO                = .                   #           /  &             ('    $ 3    G                        1   @         "    6   7                 !NO  !RO              # %    H        &    &          &              %   &U   < +        #  &                #  #5&       + '    .& %       3 &    2       '       <  "# &       &     1          %     !O    $  1 3 '#   %    PO          #     ##                &   &        /"#                
&         &  #          %       <  &      '       " %                            &    &   1      $  %     &     &      %    & &  +$ #     +  "  /    $$  $ $  3 6   7  ( V ( V            6   7$      %   # ? I     un espace social        4        position différentes des individus dans l’espace social      %      '## %         %   /      "      0    "        H               *               $ ( V &    *   l’espace social    ##           ' ##   &          #   $   $ 3     ,  ;    "#          H                    %      %          /      "#  &   %         4     E                     #&   #   &   III  INSTITUTIONNALISATION DES CONFLITS ET CONFLICTUALIT E DU TRAVAIL   /   PO  les conflits se sont institutionnalisés          -.   & , Définition $$ $ $ $  $ $  $ $ $* $ .$* $  $*      * $   $$    $ .$ $%      syndicats  "  & 5  .1  %     "  5 &   &  3                    &  )     *   & ) **    +,-. /  4                      %     <            .1     2    0           
 1)  L'institutionnalisation des conflits et du rôle des syndicats  "  0 '$ 3   3         W 3    (            %     3 &   &    Q       " NT ' &  "%         &$    1#  &    &      3            1   &  '  %    !  T  Q       %                    1 W 3    PO  <         %     %    &        3 &         !EN  Q$       &   *&     <     & &   # (              #     #   3   !TM.!RM$ W <             3        &    &    %  &     %  &       &          (#$  3     %         &  & #   & &  & %  +$     "  5    3       &       &   "%  %     W 3   NT          &  T      !ON       !!    !EN   *&  P   &    TO #   &      !TM      !TR     #&       !P   /   &   &  &         &  $ Le principe a été de faire porter à la collectivité les risques encourus par les travailleurs : on « collectivise », on « socialise », on « institutionnalise » la relation de travail  /                          collectifs W 3   8        5    1   #     ?          1         1   ; Pierre Rosanvallon   $ $1  '.3 !! $    E             &          &           $         #     
3     ')@   &   'Q@   I    Q  Q  ')'   &   'Q@'   I   # *<<Q  *    3# "    Q  &    & &  .       %  .        #&    3        %    %    &  %     &  %         /    &     ##   /         droit du travail          0     &  %            '       !TM     <.  /      négociations collectives     &  #           #     #    # & +$ &   &          #         <                   &  &        '     (         =$     #  EM #       PO  '    #                6   7     EM>       # #    
  
/     '        #  ##   &                  <       M   &  8    &         ?   %         ##    #   ##              Q  & '            "  21$  $ $ $                     ? &    &  "          &  &    L’institutionnalisation des conflits signifie le développement d’un processus de  création d’instances représentatives, et de lieux de procédures de négociations et d’arbitrages entres les parties d’un conflit '    &                      
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