Thèse de l'Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse INPT n°

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Thèse de l'Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT) – n° 1917 Présentée à l'ENAC de Toulouse, le 15 Novembre 2002 par Fabrice LEGRAND MODELES DE BOUCLE DE POURSUITE DE SIGNAUX A SPECTRE ETALE ET METHODE D'AMELIORATION DE LA PRECISION DES MESURES BRUTES Membres du jury : Prof. Dr. Tony PRATT, (rapporteur) Directeur technique GPS chez Parthus Ltd, Northampton, England M. Jean-Luc ISSLER, (directeur) Chef du département Radionavigation du CNES, Toulouse, France Prof. Dr. Francis CASTANIE, (président du jury) Directeur du laboratoire TéSA, Toulouse, France Prof. Dr. Bernd EISSFELLER, (rapporteur) Institut de Géodésie et de Navigation, University of the Federal Armed Forces, Munich, Germany Dr. Dennis AKOS, (rapporteur) Chercheur associé, Stanford University GPS Lab, Stanford, USA Dr. Christophe MACABIAU, (directeur) Chef du laboratoire CNS de l'ENAC, Toulouse, France Version finale du rapport – Janvier 2005

  • gps lab

  • research associate

  • radionavigation department

  • cns research

  • methode d'amelioration de la precision

  • chef du département radionavigation du cnes


Publié le : mardi 19 juin 2012
Lecture(s) : 197
Source : ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr
Nombre de pages : 170
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Thèse de l’Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT) – n° 1917 Présentée à l’ENAC de Toulouse, le 15 Novembre 2002 par Fabrice LEGRAND MODELES DE BOUCLE DE POURSUITE DE SIGNAUX A SPECTRE ETALE ET METHODE D’AMELIORATION DE LA PRECISION DES MESURES BRUTESMembres du jury : Prof. Dr. Tony PRATT, (rapporteur) Directeur technique GPS chez Parthus Ltd, Northampton, EnglandM. Jean-Luc ISSLER, (directeur) Chef du département Radionavigation du CNES, Toulouse, France Prof. Dr. Francis CASTANIE, (président du jury) Directeur du laboratoire TéSA, Toulouse, France Prof. Dr. Bernd EISSFELLER, (rapporteur) Institut de Géodésie et de Navigation, University of the Federal Armed Forces, Munich, GermanyDr. Dennis AKOS, (rapporteur) Chercheur associé, Stanford University GPS Lab, Stanford, USADr. Christophe MACABIAU, (directeur) Chef du laboratoire CNS de l’ENAC, Toulouse, France Version finale du rapport – Janvier 2005
Thesis of the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT), France Presented at ENAC, Toulouse, France, on November 15, 2002 by Fabrice LEGRAND SPREAD SPECTRUM SIGNAL TRACKING LOOP MODELS AND RAW MEASUREMENTS ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT METHODExamining board: Prof. Dr. Tony PRATT, (thesis reviewer) GPS Technical Director at Parthus Ltd, Northampton, EnglandMr. Jean-Luc ISSLER, (thesis supervisor) Head of the Radionavigation department of the CNES, Toulouse, France Prof. Dr. Francis CASTANIE, Director of the TéSA Laboratory, Toulouse, France Prof. Dr. Bernd EISSFELLER, (thesis reviewer) Institute of Geodesy and Navigation at the University of the Federal Armed Forces, Munich, GermanyDr. Dennis AKOS, (thesis reviewer) Research associate with the Stanford University GPS Lab, Stanford, USADr. Christophe MACABIAU, (thesis supervisor) Head of the CNS Research Laboratory of the ENAC, Toulouse, France Final version of the report – January 2005
Avant-propos
Etant donné que les rapporteurs de cette thèse sont non-francophones, le manuscrit est rédigé en anglais. Néanmoins, l’introduction, la conclusion, la table des matières ainsi que le résumé des chapitres sont rédigés en français.
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Acknowledgments
Author wish to thank the CENTRE NATIONAL D’ETUDES SPATIALES (CNES, theFrench Space Agency) and ALCATEL SPACE INDUSTRIES (ASPI) for having supported this research, and the ECOLE NATIONALE DE L’AVIATION CIVILE (ENAC, theCivil Aviation School French ) for having provided accommodations during these years of work. I specially wish to thank my thesis supervisors M. Christophe MACABIAU and M. Abdelahad BENHALLAM from the ENAC, M. Jean-Luc ISSLER and M. Laurent LESTARQUIT from CNES, M. Christian MEHLEN from ASPI for having put trust in me and given lots of their time to support and help me. I also wish to thank M. Eric CHATRE, M. Jean-Marc LISEZ and M. Cyril DUPOUY from STNA for having provided technical assistance. Thanks to the students, the trainees and the staffs of the ENAC, and of course to my family and friends for their support and help.
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Contents
Avant-propos...............................................................................................................................................................................5Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................................................................................7Contents ......................................................................................................................................................................................9Tables des matières ...................................................................................................................................................................13
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 17
Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................................19
CHAPTER I : RANGE MEASUREMENTS ON SPREAD SPECTRUM SIGNALS..... 21
Chapitre I : Mesures de distance sur les signaux à spectre étalé................................................................................................21I.1INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS ABOUT PSEUDORANGE AND RAW PHASE MEASUREMENTS .............................................................................................................................................22I.1.1DEFINITION OF THE PSEUDORANGE...............................................................................2.2................I.1.1.1RANGE AND PSEUDORANGE.........................2.....................................................................................2I.1.1.2ERRORS ON MEASURED PSEUDORANGE........................................................................................23....I.1.2INTRODUCTION ON THE PSEUDORANGE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE...........................................25I.1.2.1PSEUDORANGE INFORMATION EXTRACTION.......2........6......................................................................I.1.2.2INTRODUCTION ON RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE..................................................................................26I.2MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF GNSS SPREAD SPECTRUM SIGNALS ...............................28I.2.1MODEL OF A RECEIVED SIGNAL................28......................................................................................I.2.1.1GENERAL EXPRESSION..................................28...................................................................................I.2.1.2DYNAMICS MODEL.................................................................29..........................................................I.2.1.3CARRIER TO NOISE RATIO.............................................31....................................................................I.2.2SIGNAL PROPERTIES..........................................31..............................................................................I.2.2.1INSTANTANEOUS CARRIER FREQUENCY ANDDOPPLER FREQUENCY SHIFT.......................................31I.2.2.2AUTOCORRELATION FUNCTION OF SPREADING SIGNALS...................................................................32I.2.2.3CROSS CORRELATION FUNCTION OF SPREADING SIGNALS.................................................................33I.2.2.4POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY................34..............................................................................................Appendix of Chapter I...............................................................................................................................................................37Appendix I-1: Maximal length sequences and Gold codes........................................................................................................39Appendix I-2: Correlation functions of a PRN signal based on Gold codes..............................................................................41
CHAPTER II : SEQUENTIAL MODELS OF DIGITAL TRACKING LOOPS ............ 45
Chapitre II : Modèles séquentiels des boucles de poursuite numériques ...................................................................................45II.1CARRIER PHASE TRACKING WITH COSTAS LOOP..............................................................46II.1.1MIXING WITH THE LOCAL SIGNALS/ IQDECOMPOSITION............................................................47II.1.2PREDETECTION FILTERING.............................................................................................47................II.1.3PHASE DISCRIMINATORS................................52.................................................................................II.1.4LOOP FILTERING.............................................................................................................................53II.1.5LOCAL SIGNALS GENERATION....................................5...........................4.........................................II.1.6DATA DEMODULATION................................................................................55....................................
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II.2II.2.1II.2.2II.2.3II.2.4II.3
CODE TRACKING WITH DELAY LOCK LOOPS ......................................................................57CODE CORRELATORS..........................................85............................................................................CODE PHASE DISCRIMINATORS95.......................................................................................................LOOP FILTERING..16...........................................................................................................................LOCAL CODE GENERATION................................................................1.6............................................SIMULTANEOUS CODE AND CARRIER PHASE TRACKING LOCK LOOPS.....................63
II.4GAUSSIAN NOISE IN THE LOOPS ...............................................................................................64II.4.1RFFILTERING EFFECT..........................................64..........................................................................II.4.2IN-PHASE AND QUADRATE BASEBAND NOISES.................................................................................65II.4.3CORRELATOR OUTPUT NOISES........................................................................66................................Appendix of Chapter II .............................................................................................................................................................67Appendix II-1: Series expansions of sine and cosine functions.................................................................................................69Appendix II-2: Gaussian noise in the loops...............................................................................................................................73
CHAPTER III : SAMPLED PHASE PROPAGATION MODELS .................................. 79
Chapitre III : Modèles discrets de propagation de la phase .......................................................................................................79III.1TRADITIONAL DIGITAL CONSTANT-RATE MODEL ............................................................80III.1.1GENERIC CLOSED LOOP MODEL80......................................................................................................III.1.1.1MODEL OF THE DISCRIMINATOR................80.......................................................................................III.1.1.1.1................................................................................................ericnonGenomed.l..l-niaer........80......................III.1.1.1.2Linear model ....................................................................................................................................................81III.1.1.2DIGITAL LOOP FILTER.......................................................18................................................................III.1.1.3NCOMODEL....................................................18................................................................................III.1.2LINEAR CLOSED LOOP MODEL.......................................2.8................................................................III.1.3LINEAR TRANSFER FUNCTIONS.......................................83................................................................III.2PROPOSED MULTI-RATE MODEL INCLUDING INTEGRATE & DUMP PREDETECTION FILTERS..............................................................................................................................85III.2.1DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL.........................................................................................85................III.2.1.1GENERIC CLOSED LOOP MODEL........................................................................................58................III.2.1.2MODEL OF THE DISCRIMINATOR INCLUDING THEI&DPREDETECTION FILTERS................................85III.2.1.3MODEL OF THENCOWITH A HELD COMMAND SIGNAL....................................................................86III.2.1.4CLOSED LOOP MODEL......................................................................................................................68.III.2.1.5 LINEAR TRANSFER FUNCTIONS AS A FUNCTION OF THE LOOP FILTER ORDER....................................89III.2.1.6VALIDATION OF THE NEW LINEAR MODEL.......................................................................9.1................III.2.2EVALUATION OF THE TRACKING ERROR................................................................95........................III.2.2.1SENSITIVITY ON NOISE......9.........5.......................................................................................................III.2.2.1.1Phase noise model ............................................................................................................................................95III.2.2.1.2Equivalent noise bandwidth of the loop ...........................................................................................................96III.2.2.1.3Expression of the equivalent noise bandwidth as a function of the loop filter coefficients ..............................99III.2.2.2SENSITIVITY TO DYNAMICS................................................10..3..........................................................III.2.2.2.1Expression of the steady state error ................................................................................................................103III.2.2.2.2Definition of the Steady State Error Factor ....................................................................................................105III.2.2.3TOTAL TRACKING ERROR..................................01....6.........................................................................Appendix of Chapter III ..........................................................................................................................................................109Appendix III-1: Multi-rate linear model simplifications .........................................................................................................111Appendix III-2: Loop filter coefficients expressed as a function of the poles of the loop transfer function – Usual digital constant rate model..................................................................................................................................................................115th Appendix III-3: Equivalent initial value of themderivative of the averaged input phase.....................................................119Appendix III-4: Generic Expressions of the linear transfer functions derived from the multi-rate model of loops.................121
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