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CPSC 121 Midterm Thursday, October 25th, 2007 [12] 1. After the midterm, several friends are thinking about going to see a movie, either Death at a Funeral or Rendition. Let a = Alice wants to go to the movie e = Ebert wants to go to the movie p = Peter wants to go to the movie v = Volkov wants to go to the movie w = Wolfgang wants to go to the movie d = The movie is Death at a Funeral r = The movie is Rendition The table below contains various English sentences, predicates, and logic circuits.
  • logic circuits
  • unsigned integers
  • bit patterns
  • vancouver canucks with the property that everybody
  • games of the vancouver canucks
  • direct proof
  • predicate logic
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Publié le : mardi 27 mars 2012
Lecture(s) : 29
Source : duke.edu
Nombre de pages : 15
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Index

I. Basics
2 Rescue Phrases
3 Pronunciation Guide

II. Useful Words

4 Nouns
4 Adjectives, Personal Pronouns, Questions
5 Short Answers
5 Colors, Numbers
6 Weekdays and Time of Day

III. Useful Phrases

6 Introduce Yourself
6 Taking a Taxi Ride
7 Eating Out
7 Shopping
7 Pay the Bill
7 Getting Places

IV. Making Your Own Phrases

8 Word Order
8 Noun Gender
8 About Verbs
9 To Be (Ser) or to Be (Estar)?
10 Usted and Tú
10 Useful Verbs

V. Most Common Spanish Words

11 (by category)
13 (by alphabetical order)

VI. Other Resources

14 Links
15 Units
Page 1
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya Basics


Rescue Phrases
Do you speak English? ¿Habla usted Inglés?
AH-blah oos-TEHD een-GLEHS?

Sorry, but I don't speak Spanish. Perdón, pero no hablo Español.
Pehr-DOHN, PEHroh noh AH-bloh ehs-pah-NYOHL

Please speak more slowly. Hable más despacio, por favor.
AH-bleh mahs des-PAH-syoh, pohr fah-VOHR

Sorry, but I don’t understand. Lo siento, pero no entiendo.
Loh SYEN-toh, PEH-roh noh ehn-TEE-ehn-doh

Please repeat. Otra vez, por favor.
OH-trah vehs, pohr fah-VOHR

May I ask a question? ¿Puedo hacerle una pregunta?
Puh-EH-doh ah-SEHR-leh OO-nah preh-GOON-tah

Could you please help me? ¿Podría ayudarme?
Poh-DREE-ah ah-yoo-DAHR-meh?

Thank you very much!. ¡Muchas gracias!.
MOO-chas GRAH-syahs

Where is... the bathroom? ¿Dondé está... el baño?
DOHN-deh ehs-TAH ehl BAH-nyoh deh Dah-mahs

What does ____ mean? ¿Qué significa ______?
KEH seeg-knee-FEE-cah

At what time does it open/close? ¿A qué hora abre/cierra?
Ah keh OH-rah AH-breh/CYEH-rrah

How do you say? ¿Cómo se dice?
COH-moh seh DEEH-seh

Where can I find a phone? ¿Dónde hay un teléfono?
DOHN-deh ay uhn teh-LEH-foh-noh
Page 2
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya Pronunciation Guide
Each of the five vowels has its own clear sharp sound:
a as in far
e as in pet
i as in feet
ocloak
u as in moose
C's and Z's
Latin American and southern Spain speakers of Spanish pronounce ‘Z’ as /s/. C’s, are
pronounced /s/ only when followed by ‘e’ or ‘i’ as in Cecilia or cielo. When ‘C’ is followed
by the other vowels it's always a hard /k/ sound, as in casa and Colombia.

G's and J's
‘J’, as in jinete, is a harder, stronger version of the English letter ‘H’. ‘G’, when followed by –
e and –i, sounds exactly the same as ‘J’. Otherwise, it is pronounced as the English 'G' in go.

Ll's and Y’s
‘Ll’, as in calle, and llave and ‘Y’ as in yo and yegua are pronuonced like the ‘Y’ in yes.
There are two diferent sounds for ‘R’ in Spanish. The ‘soft R’, /r/, has a sound somewhere in
between the English /r/ and the /l/. The ‘hard R’ or double ‘R’, /rr/, has a very distictive
rolling sound. Words that have an ‘R’ at the begining or a double ‘R’ in the middle are
pronounced with a hard /rr/, like Rosa and carro; words that have a single ‘R’ in the middle
are pronounced with a soft /r/, like caro and vegetariano.

X’s
‘X’ is the trickiest letter in Spanish because it has four separate sounds. The first is the most
common, and it sounds like the /ks/ in the word "talks" many words with latin roots will be
pronounced like this: existe, extraterrestre, examen, extenso. The second is pronounced like
the Spanish ‘J’, and is mostly reserved for certain nouns and words that are derived from
them like México, mexicana. The third is pronounced like the English sound /ch/ and it is also
mostly reserved for certain proper nouns like Xomalin. The forth way to pronounce is /s/, it is
used in some other proper nouns like Xochitl, Xochimilco. Sadly, since there are really no
rules for knowing which is the appropiate ‘X’ sound for the word, words need to be learned
case by case.



Page 3
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya Useful Words
Nouns
Airport El Aeropuerto Downtown El Centro
Street La Calle Intersection Cruce
ATM Cajero Automático Bank El Banco
Drugstore La Farmacia Supermarket El Supermercado
Medicine La Medicina Gas Station La Gasolinera
Church La Iglesia City block La Cuadra
Address Dirección North El Norte
East El Este/Oriente West Oeste/Poniente
South Sur Plane Avión
Right La Derecha Left La Izquierda
Bus El Autobús/Camión Car El Carro/Coche
Parking Lot El Estacionamiento Reservation Reservación
Name Nombre Last Name Apellido
Money El Dinero Bill La Cuenta
Phone Teléfono Phonecall La Llamada
Night La Noche Wedding La Boda
Breakfast El Desayuno Vegetarian El Vegetariano
Waiter/ess El Mesero(a) Food La Comida
Menu Menú/La Carta Hour Hora
Drink La Bebida Water El Agua
Sugar El Azúcar Coffee El Café
Juice Jugo Beer La Cerveza
Family La Familia Children Los Niños(as)
Ladies Las Damas Gentlemen Caballeros
Women Mujeres Men Los Hombres
Son El Hijo Daugther La Hija
Dad El Papá Mom La Mamá
Groom El Novio Bride La Novia

The plural is formed by adding ‘s’ at the end if the word ends in a vowel and –es if it ends in
a consonant. Articles also change to match the number, el to los, and la to las.

Adjectives
Hot Caliente Cold Frío
Good Bueno Bad Malo
Nice Agradable Small Pequeño
Far Lejos Near Cerca
Cheap Barato Expensive Caro
Salty Salado Spicy Picante
Page 4
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya
Personal Pronouns Questions(?)
I Yo Where Dondé DOHN-deh
You Tú (informal)/ When Cuándo KWAHN-doh
Usted (polite) What Qué Keh
He/She Él/Ella Which Cuál Kwahl
We Nosotros Why Porqué Pohr-KEH
You(all) Ellos (informal)/ Who Quién Kyh-EHN
Ustedes (polite) How Cómo KOH-moh
Short Answers
Of course! ¡Claro! CLAH-roh
It’s true Es cierto Ehs CYER-toh
I don't know No lo sé Noh loh SEH
I don't think so Creo que no CREH-oh keh noh
I think so Creo que sí CREH-oh keh SEE
It doesn't matter No importa Noh eem-POHR-tah
I don't mind No me molesta Noh meh mo-LEHS-tah
That depends Depende Deh-PEHN-deh

Colores
Negro Rojo Naranja Amarillo Verde Turquesa Azul Morado Café Blanco Gris l

Numbers

1 Uno, 2 Dos, 3 Tres, 4 Cuatro, 5 Cinco,
6 Seis, 7 Siete, 8 Ocho, 9 Nueve, 10 Diez,
11 Once, 12 Doce, 13 Trece, 14 Catorce, 15 Quince,
16, Dieciséis, 17 Diecisiete, 18 Dieciocho, 19 Diecinueve, 20 Veinte,
21 Veintiuno, 22 Veintidós, 23 Veintitrés, 24 Veinticuatro, and so on...

30 Treinta, 40 Cuarenta, 50 Cincuenta, 60 Sesenta, 70 Setenta,
80 Ochenta, 90 Noventa, 100 Cien, 200 Doscientos, 300 Trescientos,
400 Cuatrocientos, 500 Quinientos, 600 Seiscientos,
and so on...

1000 Mil, 10, 000 Diez mil, 100, 000 Cien mil, 1,000,000, Un Millón.

Page 5
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya Weekdays ¿Qué hora es? Time of the Day
Monday Lunes Es la una en punto. It’s one o’clock.
Tuesday Martes Son las dos y media. It’s half past two.
Wednesday Miércoles Son las cinco y cuarto. It’s quarter past five.
Thursday Jueves Son cuarto para las seis. It’s a quarter‘til six
Friday Viernes Son las once y dieciocho. It’s 18 minutes past eleven.
Saturday Sábado diez para las nueve. It’s ten past nine.
Sunday Domingo Es mediodía. It’s noon.
Weekend Fin de semana Es medianoche. It’s midnight.
Useful Phrases


Introduce Yourself
Hi. My name is John . What is your name?. Pleased to meet you.
Hola. Me llamo John. ¿Cómo te llamas?. Mucho Gusto/Gusto en conocerlo.
How are you doing? How are you? Fine, thank you
¿Cómo te va? ¿Cómo estás? Bien, Gracias
Where are you from? I am from the US/I am from Canada/I am from the South of the US.
¿De dónde eres? Soy de los Estados Unidos/ Soy de Canadá/ Soy del Sur de los EE.UU.
Where did you come from? From Connecticut/ ConNECKticut, Arizona/ Ah-ree-ZOH-nah,
California/ Cah-lee-FOR-knee-ah, Carolina del Norte/ Cah-roh-LEE-nah dehl NOHR-teh.
¿De dónde vienes?De Ah-ree-ZOH-nah.
(If you pronounce these the right way, people will have a harder time understanding!)
What do you do for a living?. I am an Engineer/I am a Lawyer/ I am a Researcher.
¿A qué se dedica usted? Soy Ingeniero/ Soy Abogado/ Soy Investigador.

Taking a Taxi Ride
Driver: Good Morning. Where do you want me to take you?
Buenos Días. ¿A dónde va?
You: Good Morning. Can you take me to__________, please?
Buenos Días, ¿Puede llevarme a ___________, por favor?
Driver: Do you have the adress for it?
¿Tiene la dirección? or,¿Cuál es la dirección?
You: Yes, it’s on #54, _________ Street
Sí, está en el número cincuenta y cuatro de la calle__________.
Page 6
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya Eating Out
Waiter: What will you have to drink? ¿Qué van a beber?
May I take your order? ¿Puedo tomar su orden?
Do you need anything else? ¿Necesitan algo más?
For here or to go? ¿Para aquí o para llevar?
You: Are there any specialties? ¿Cuál es la especialidad de la casa?
I’d like to have___ , please? Quiero...
Can I take a look at your wine list? ¿Me puede traer su carta de vinos, por favor?
Do you have vegetarian dishes? ¿Tienen platillos vegetarianos?
Can I get this to go? ¿Me lo pone para llevar, por favor?

Pay the Bill
The bill, please. La cuenta, por favor.
Do you take US dollars? ¿Aceptan dólares americanos?
What is the exchange rate? ¿A cuánto toman el dólar?
Do you take credit cards? ¿Aceptan tarjetas de crédito?
Is the tip included? ¿Está incluida la propina?
Here you go. Aqui tiene

Shopping
I am looking for _______. Estoy buscando _______
How much does it cost? ¿Cuánto cuesta?
I’m just looking. Solo estoy mirando
No, thanks. No, gracias
Can you show me that one? ¿Me enseña ese, por favor?
I’ll take it. Me lo llevo
How much do I owe you? ¿Cuánto le debo?

Getting Places
Can you take me to the airport, please ¿Me lleva al aeropuerto, por favor?
How can I get to ….? ¿Dónde está… or ¿Cómo llego a…..?
Can you tell where are we on the map? ¿Me enseña dónde estamos en el mapa?
Go straight ahead, then turn right Vaya todo derecho, luego dé vuelta a la derecha
My car doesn’t start. Mi carro no arranca
I need help. Necesito ayuda
I need a mechanic. Necesito un mecánico
I help changing a tire. Necesito ayuda para cambiar la llanta
Page 7
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya Making Your Own Phrases

Word Order
Spanish, like English, is a Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) language, so that means that by
putting words together in SVO order you come up with generally understandable sentences.
However, there are differences in the placing of some types of words, for example adjectives,
words like grande (large) or caro (expensive), usually come after the noun they describe:

The large room El cuarto grande
The expensive china La vajilla cara
A great week Una semana maravillosa
Noun Gender
Adjectives have different endings depending on what they are describing. Usually with
masculine nouns, adjectives tend to end with –o; for feminine nouns they tend to end with –
a. Adjectives that end with –e can be used with either male or female nouns. Conspicous
exceptions: El día (the day), el clima (the weather), la noche (the night), el agua (the water),
la suerte (luck), la gente (people). Articles must also match the gender of the noun. Also,
remember that articles must match noun number, i.e., for plural nouns, el turns into los and la
into las.

The yellow cars Los carros amarillos
Some good (female) friends Unas buenas amigas
The intelligent girl La chica inteligente
About Verbs
One of the main difficulties with making Spanish sentences is that Verb tenses have endings
that indicate who is performing the action. Most verbs follow regular patterns, for example, in
the present tense, the ending corresponding to the pronoun I, is –o:
Travel. Viajar. Yo Viajo. Live. Vivir. Yo Vivo Run. Correr. Yo Corro
Since the verb tells you who is doing what, it is not necessary to mention the pronoun when
speaking (in fact, for the pronoun I, (Yo), doing so is often regarded as a sign of conceit!).
We want to go to the beach I am looking for the Degollado theather
Queremos ir a la playa Busco el Teatro Degollado
I travel with family I need to make a phonecall
Viajo con mi familia Necesito hacer una llamada
We are staying ‘til monday ¿Tiene nieves de limón?
Nos quedamos hasta el Lunes Do you have lemon ice cream?

Page 8
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya To Be (Ser) or to Be (Estar)
Spanish has two verbs meaning ‘to be’: Ser and Estar, so, there are two ways of saying ‘I
am’, Estoy and Soy. To ask or talk about current, transitory states, such as how you feel or
where you are right now, you use estar. The main exception to this guideline is talking about
your marital status (hopefully), for which you also use estar. i.e.:
¿Estás casado? Are you married?
¿Estás listo? Are you ready?
Estoy en el mercado. I am at the market.
To talk about who you are or where you are from, your profession, your physical or moral
qualities or otherwise long-lasting states of being you use ser.
Ésta es mi esposa. This is my wife.
Soy maestra. I am a teacher
Soy alta. I am tall
Also you use ser to express judgements or opinions, or talk about facts like the current time
of day, the place where an event will be held or the price of an item, also, it is used to
comunicate possesion of something. For example:
Ella es muy bonita. She is very pretty.
¿Dónde es la boda? Where will the wedding be held?
Estos libros son de David. These are David’s books.

Choosing the apropriate form of ‘to be’ is key to making yourself understood: ‘Soy libre’
means ‘I am free’, I am a free man; ‘Estoy libre’; means ‘I am free for the time being’ as in, I
am free for the afternoon, so let’s go out! As a side note, Soy will frequently be followed by
adjectives:
Soy honesto. I am honest
Soy bueno. I am (a) good (person)
Soy listo. I am smart

while Estoy will frequently be followed by verbs in past participle, or followed by gerunds to
form the progressive present. (For help with these see Other Resources).

Estoy cansado. I am tired
Estoy bailando. I am dancing
Estoy aburrido. I am bored
Think you’ve got it? Try and figure out what is the difference between saying “Estoy
borracho” and “Soy Borracho”.

Page 9
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya Usted and Tú
In México, we have two ways of saying you. Usted is formal. It is used with people you don't
know very well, in business or commercial relationships, or with people who are older than
you. When you use Usted the verb has the él/ella endings:
¿Cómo se llama usted? What is your name?
¿Cuántas personas vienen con usted? How many people are there in yor party?
Tú, on the other hand, is informal, it is used amongst friends and family members or
when speaking to people your own age, to your peers or to children.
¿Cómo te fue de viaje? How was your trip? ¡No te preocupes! Don’t worry!

Useful Verbs
Present Tense
Verb (Infinitive) I You We He/She
Be Ser Soy Eres Somos Es
Estar Estoy Estás Estamos Está
Want Querer Quiero Quieres Queremos Quiere
Can/Be able Poder Puedo Puedes PodemosPuede
Talk/Speak Hablar Hablo Hablas Hablamos Hable
Say Decir Digo Dice Decimos Dice

Have Tener Tengo Tienes Tenemos Tiene
Seek Buscar Busco Buscas Buscamos Busca
Understand Entender Entiendo Entiendes Entendemos Entiende
Go Ir Voy Vas Vamos Va
Need Necesitar Necesito Necesitas Necesitamos Necesita

Travel Viajar Viajo Viajas Viajamos Viaja
Call Llamar Llamo Llamas Llamamos Llama
See Ver Veo Ves Vemos Ve
Eat Comer Como Comes Comemos Come
Take/Drink Tomar Tomo TomasTomamosToma

Loose Perder Pierdo Pierdes Perdimos Pierde
Know Saber Sé Sabes Sabemos Sabe
Think Pensar Pienso Piensas Pensamos Piensa
Do/Make Hacer Hago Haces Hacemos Hace
Change Cambiar Cambio Cambias Cambiamos Cambia

Give Dar Doy Das Damos Da
Put Poner Pongo Pones Ponemos Pone
Bring Traer Traigo Traes Traemos Trae
Page 10
Quick Spanish Lesson. September 2006. Yasmin Escobedo Lozoya

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