Brotherhood Comment August 2006
16 pages

Brotherhood Comment August 2006


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ISSN 320 8632A regul Ar upd Ate from Soci Al Action And r e Se ArchAugust 2006Could the era of the common good be upon us?The Brotherhood’s winter appeal are involved. Our instincts are Australians are more than happy to has just finished, and I’ve just spent offended by such meanness. make moderate personal sacrifices the last few days signing more for the wider good when they than a thousand letters thanking And then there’s the strange case are moved by the right spirit and donors. You can’t sit through such of the recent federal budget. The convinced their money is being an exercise without being struck by public were showered with crisp well-spent—a position confirmed the enormous generosity of spirit fifty-dollar notes but remained consistently by the opinion polls. of the Australian people—from the indifferent. It’s becoming very wealthy to those who in fact obvious that people today want They’re also beginning to need occasional help themselves. more from their leaders than understand something incredibly hand-outs for themselves. important about their private and It’s been a real eye-opener. At a public generosity: it’s good for the time when we’re being encouraged In short, recent claims that economy. If we’re to be all that from some quarters to look after Australians have become addicted to we can be, we need to invest in ‘number one’, and criticised from individualism and materialism have the capacities of all our people other quarters ...



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Nombre de lectures 35
Langue English


A r e gul A r u p d Ate f rom Soci A l Ac t ion A nd r e S e A rch
ISSN 1320 8632 August 2006
Could the era of the common good be upon us? The Brotherhood’s winter appeal are involved. Our instincts are Australians are more than happy to has just finished, and I’ve just spent offended by such meanness. make moderate personal sacrifices the last few days signing more for the wider good when they than a thousand letters thanking And then there’s the strange case are moved by the right spirit and donors. You can’t sit through such of the recent federal budget. The convinced their money is being an exercise without being struck by public were showered with crisp well-spent—a position confirmed the enormous generosity of spirit fifty-dollar notes but remained consistently by the opinion polls. of the Australian people—from the indifferent. It’s becoming very wealthy to those who in fact obvious that people today want They’re also beginning to need occasional help themselves. more from their leaders than understand something incredibly hand-outs for themselves. important about their private and It’s been a real eye-opener. At a public generosity: it’s good for the time when we’re being encouraged In short, recent claims that economy. If we’re to be all that from some quarters to look after Australians have become addicted to we can be, we need to invest in ‘number one’, and criticised from individualism and materialism have the capacities of all our people other quarters for being increasingly been overstated. Australia’s people to contribute to wealth creation selfish and overly interested in real are responding to the consequences and share in its benefits. Having estate, gifts to the Brotherhood of excessive individualism by many do well while a sizeable are up 30 per cent on last year emphasising the common good. minority rot won’t maximise alone, and colleague organisations economic performance. are reporting similar increases. But this ‘common good’ is about more than donating to organisations So an era in which the common What’s driving this spurt like the Brotherhood, important good could once again be of generosity? though that is. The public good is championed is upon us. Ordinary about strengthening institutions people are showing the way. Now Perhaps it’s a vote of confidence that build a more just society: life- we look to the nation’s decision in our great care organisations? enhancing services for toddlers; makers to show decisive leadership. Perhaps it’s rising GDP? We’re better public and low-fee schools; on average getting richer and are constructive not punitive welfare Tony Nicholson more able to give. But this alone programs; affordable housing; Executive Director can’t account for a rise of nearly support for the lonely and confused (03) 9483 1327 one-third in just one year. aged and their carers; and well- funded public services to help From my discussions with donors, people who are injured, ill or I think a more profound change addicted back into the mainstream. in our thinking is taking place. There’s a deep and widespread Contents concern about what’s happening to the least well-off. People are uneasy about the potential impact Challenges facing Australian young people: the Brotherhood’s youth barometer of our new workplace laws on Supporting young people through new transitions: maximising opportunities those with few skills and little Building pathways: addressing youth and employment issues bargaining power, and they’re not happy about draconian To their credit: learning about personal loans for people on low incomes restrictions now being placed on Stepping into aged care: evaluating a training program for disadvantaged job seekers recipients of welfare payments, especially where young children, Risk and reality: investigating access to insurance for people on low incomes the homeless and the mentally ill Business and human rights: applying the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises Outcomes for older people: how well is community care working?
August  2006 ww.wsb.lro
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Upcoming Brotherhood conferences
New transitions Challenges facing Australian youth Richmond Town Hall 333 Bridge Rad Richmd VIC 3121 Friday 18 August 2006 9.00am – 1.00pm (regisrai 8.30 am) KEynotE SPEAKER Richard Sweet Chair Ieraial Cere fr Career Develpme ad Public Plic Launch  The Brotherhood’s Social Barometer: challenges facing Australia’s young people
$77; $55 students/concession (icludig GSt)
Other diary dates Watch the Brotherhood website for further details of these future events: Anti-Poverty Week 15–21 October In and out of work conference See <> Dallas Brooks Centre, Thursday 30 November, 9.00am – 5.00pm Brotherhood of St Laurence Annual General Meeting Dallas Brooks Centre, Wednesday 29 November, 6.00pm – 8.30pm
Regiser via Phe: ( 03) 9483 1364   Fax: ( 03) 9417 2691
$110; $77 students/concession (icludig GSt)
and responsibilities The new politics of welfare Dallas Brooks Centre 300 Alber Sree Eas Melbure VIC 3002 Wednesday 30 August 2006 9.00am – 4.30pm (regisrai 8.30 am) KEynotE SPEAKER Hon. Dr Geoff Gallop Prfessr ad Direcr, Graduae Schl f Gverme, Uiversi f Sde deliverig he 2006 Sambell orai Criburs iclude Prfessr Ia Aders, tm Bele, Prfessr terr Care, t nichls
Brotherhood Comment is published three times a year by the Social Published in August 2006 by Brotherhood of St Laurence Action and Research Division of the Brotherhood of St Laurence. 67 Brunswick Street The Brotherhood of St Laurence works for the well-being of Australians tzroy, Victoria, 3065 Australia Fi on low incomes to improve their economic, social and personal circumstances. ABN 24 603 467 024 It does this by providing a wide range of services and activities for families, the unemployed and the aged. It also researches the causes of poverty, FTelcespihmoilnee: :( (0033) ) 9944187 32 1619813  undertakes community education and lobbies government for a better deal Ea-mailu for people on low incomes. : p
From the General Manager, Social Action and Research
Winter 2006 has been a time of barometer, Challenges facing BSL researchers are also closely intense activity in Social Action and Australian young people , while engaged with the Centre for Research (SAR). Externally we are Sarina Greco shows how we are Public Policy at the University engaged with a rapidly changing developing our services to respond of Melbourne in developing the and deeply conflicted social policy to the changed risk profile faced by new Master of Social Policy environment, while internally Australian youth. Daniel Perkins subject ‘Risks, Transitions and we are completing a strategic outlines some of the key youth Social Policy’, coordinated by integration of our research with employment issues identified Brian Howe and Paul Smyth. BSL services in order to maximise in a local study of Kingston. the considerable synergies. New associations have been Social rights and responsibilities formed with the academic sector. Our external engagement is taking It is one thing to demonstrate Rosanna Scutella is the inaugural two very different forms. On one need, but another to secure an Ronald Henderson Fellow, a joint hand, major changes in welfare and effective policy response. At the position with the Melbourne industrial relations practices are BSL we are acutely conscious of Institute of Applied Economic creating deep concern about the the need to renew what Kanishka and Social Research, University of well-being of already disadvantaged Jayasuriya recently called the Melbourne. From February 2007, Australians. SAR is working closely ‘politics of social inclusion’. For Gerry Naughtin will take up the with the Australian Council of some time an emphasis on ‘mutual new appointment of Associate Social Services and other agencies obligation’ has been used in ways Professor, Ageing and Social to monitor the effects of the July 1st that undermine people’s rights. On Policy, a joint position with the welfare changes on sole parents and August 30, former WA Premier, La Trobe University School of on people with a disability. The Geoff Gallop, will address this Social Work and Social Policy. BSL has also presented to the Fair topic in the 2006 Sambell Oration. Pay Commission, arguing for IR How to generate a new social Janet Stanley’s work on social reforms that balance fairness with contract which acknowledges exclusion and transport has borne flexibility and that do not produce responsibilities while securing fruit in an ARC Linkage Grant an American-style working poor. investment in capabilities will be the with an Australian and British central concern of this conference. research team, also including Paul On the other hand, we have been Smyth, led by Professor Graham heartened by the response to the Other research developments Currie of Monash University. first issue of the Brotherhood’s The Brotherhood’s aged care Social Barometer, Children’s research is reported in articles by Paul Smyth chances . We have received research Victoria Johnson about community (03) 9483 1177 support from the Australian care and by Kemran Mestan about Research Alliance for Children and traineeships in residential care. Two Youth (ARACY), as well as practical other pieces outline research related support from other agencies, the to financial exclusion: the evaluation Sydney Rotary Club in particular. of a promising personal loans pilot by Rosanna Scutella and Genevieve Measuring youth capabilities Sheehan and the investigation of The Social Barometer, which barriers to general insurance by focuses on the capabilities people Sheehan and Gordon Renouf. need to negotiate key life stages, has struck a chord with politicians Serena Lillywhite was invited to and policy makers. The idea of Paris to report on the successful social policy being an investment case brought under the OECD in this sense is gaining widespread Guidelines for Multinational support. In this issue of Comment  Enterprises, involving the we show how we are extending management of Australia’s detention this framework to the school to centres, and travelled to Ghana work transition. Martina Boese as part of a team to train African and Rosanna Scutella explain NGOs in using the guidelines. the thinking which has informed the data collection for the second
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Challenges facing Australian young people The Brotherhood’s youth barometer The Brotherhood of St Laurence viewed as problems or ignored (reflected in body mass index) is particularly concerned that as citizens in their own right, and overuse of alcohol or drugs Australia lacks agreed standards facing particular challenges and deserve careful consideration. for action on social problems. For opportunities. The youth barometer Mental health problems, often this reason we have established draws attention to important first observed at this stage of the BSL Social Barometer. It will issues in the lives of young life, are of particular concern, be a regular report and deal with Australians, particularly those especially when young people key phases in people’s life cycle: who are socially disadvantaged. are unable to access appropriate the early years, the transition from treatment or the problem is severe school to work, periods in and out It presents indicators of young enough to lead to suicide. of work and finally, ageing and people’s capabilities covering seven retirement. It will show how well key dimensions of life, from physical Also of interest is physical equipped its citizens are (or are not) and mental health to education safety, for which the incidences to negotiate each phase successfully. and employment (see Table 1). of assault, bullying and racism Sections of the report are introduced are useful, though probably The Brotherhood’s Social by individual case studies, such under-reported, indicators. barometer: challenges facing as Andy’s story (see panel). Australian young people is Lack of secure housing may the second report in the Social Seven key youth dimensions prevent young Australians from Barometer series (after Monitoring As with the earlier children’s attending school or workplaces children’s chances published barometer, the choice of indicators or from achieving educational in 2005). It focuses on young is shaped by the availability of success. While some young Australians aged 12 to 24, recent reliable data (especially people face homelessness alone, a critical stage. The transition reflecting change over time) others are part of families who from school to work is one of and by the relative importance experience dislocation due to the stages in the life cycle that of different factors in shaping domestic violence or to inability involve particular risks. young people’s opportunities to to keep up rent payments. lead full and rewarding lives. The ‘youth barometer’ aims to Educational achievement is assess the capabilities of Australian Fortunately, most young Australians increasingly important in a youth to cope with this transition enjoy relatively good physical knowledge-based economy. effectively. Young people are often health, but levels of obesity Youth with lower levels of school
Table 1: Indicators of youth capability and disadvantage Physical Mental Housing Education Physical Economic Social health health training safety resources and civic employment participation Bidd emxass Meal healhHmelessessLierac ad Vicims f Surces f Cmpuer ad  umerac crime icme iere access Suabbsuasece yuh suicidecSesmcchpledial r Bulrlaiig ad icHmues ephvledr iM sepmbrers sahipd   c sm leisure clubs Pess ieaari 12 Vlueerig d Emplme/ Pliical uemplme par icipai/ egageme
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attainment have greatest difficulty in the transition from school to work, facing a higher risk of unemployment and socioeconomic disadvantage (OECD & Canadian Policy Research Networks 2005). Important measures include literacy and numeracy skills, secondary school completion and post-school destinations. After leaving school, young people most at risk are those who are neither full-time employment nor in full-time education, as they struggle to move into the workforce without vocational and personal support. Household incomes are an incomplete indication of young people’s economic resources, since they do not necessarily reflect how income is used within the household. Nevertheless, young people in low income households are more likely to struggle to pay for educational items such as textbooks and excursions (typically more expensive for this age-group), for transport and for leisure activities. Social and civic participation at this stage of life may set the foundations for adult involvement. Home access to computers (and especially to the Internet) is vital for tapping into information and career opportunities, as well as providing social interaction with peers. At a more organised level, memberships of sports teams and social clubs, and rates of volunteering, are positive measures of social inclusion. Information about levels of youth political engagement is largely anecdotal or qualitative. Within these dimensions, the youth barometer pays special attention to disadvantaged groups of young people, including young refugees and Indigenous youth. Policy responses The Brotherhood will be calling for policy initiatives that address
the key concerns raised by the Social Barometer to make sure that all Australian young people have the opportunity to lead healthy, safe and rewarding lives. Martina Boese (03) 9483 1377 Rosanna Scutella (03) 9483 1324 Reference Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) & Canadian Policy Networks 2005, From education to work: a difficult transition for young adults with low levels of education , OECD, Paris.
Andy’s story* Ad is he s f refugees wh fled  Ausralia frm suh-eas Asia 18 ears ag. His faher is uempled ad lkig fr wrk ad his mher, wh has  schlig, cares fr he uges f her five childre. Ad fids class wrk ad hmewrk a bi challegig. His mher is  sure hw he’s gig a schl because she ca’ read his repr; she akes he childre  pare–eacher ierviews  ierpre fr her. Her mai ccer is ha she ca’ affrd a ur fr Ad, wh sruggles i mahs. Ad sas he has missed u  swimmig ad excursis. He explais he prblem: Like afer u g  c ’ amp u ve g  d a assessme ask  i, ad u d’ kw because u did’ g  he camp. S smeimes u ge a reall bad mark. Asked wheher his famil has eugh me fr heir eeds, he sas: I d’ hik we have eugh me ’cs like we’ve g big famil
ad like elecrici, gas, bills … we d’ eve have a hme phe. new exbks place mre srai  he budge: Sice we had all hse bills, like durig Chrismas, we have  bu ex bks ad suff. Ad he higher he grade he mre he bks cs. Ad sice he chaged all he bks, like i’s gig  cs mre. S eah, I hik we’ll be srugglig his ear. ’Cs m brher’s gig  be i year 9 ad he chaged he bks s he ca’ use mie … I ca’ use ise ’ m s r s bks sice she fiished year 12. Ad wuld like a ew cmpuer, because he famil’s is ld ad slw. Smeimes he feels lef u because he ca affrd  g u i he ci wih his frieds. Ad sas ‘If u d’ fiish ear 12 i’s ga be hard  fid a jb’, s he was  g  ui laer r, if ,  sar a appreiceship. *Ad is a pseudm fr a par icipa i he Brherhd’s Life Chaces sud.
Within these dimensions, the ‘youth barometer’ pays special attention to disadvantaged groups of young people, including young refugees and Indigenous youth.
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Supporting young people through new transitions Maximising opportunities Young Australians currently face a between low-paid, insecure jobs transition between school and work and labour market programs or that is likely to be quite different disengagement (OECD 2000). from previous generations. Changes in the external environment include Young people, parents and supports the demand for higher skilled Other research suggests that workers and the related trend parents occupy a unique and for young people to stay on at critical place in the transition school longer. This has important networks of young people—a role implications, not least for those that is often unrecognised by both young people who leave school parents themselves and policy early and lack the required skills makers. Kracke (1997) found in for a globalising labour market. a study of German ninth-grade students that parental involvement Changing risk profile in career-related issues led to While most Australian young young people engaging in more people are studying or working, effective information seeking. 14.9 per cent of 15–19 year olds are neither engaged in education Young et al. (1997) argued for nor in full-time employment. transition decision making to be Among 20–24 year olds, the rate seen as something undertaken is even higher (24 per cent) (Long within the parent–child relationship, 2005). Of particular concern are and advocated support for joint those with limited education. as well as individual action. Taylor, Harris and Taylor (2004) A recent study by the OECD concluded that parents often feel and Canadian Policy Research unqualified to help or reluctant Networks showed that experience to be dictatorial or interfering, so in the labour market does not appropriate training is needed. make up for an initial deficit of Trusty (1998) argued that such educational credentials among support is particularly desirable for young adults aged 20–24 low socio-economic status parents. (OECD & CPRN 2005, p 74). Putting youth on the agenda Moreover, the labour market Evidence of the changing risk into which young people are profile of young people’s school moving is increasingly marked by to work transition has informed uncertainty and insecurity (Beck the Brotherhood’s new School to 2000, Bauman 2001). In this Work Action Plan and renewed its context transitions are less linear, determination to put youth priorities more fragmented and longer than back on the social policy agenda. for previous generations (see, for example, Bynner et al. 2002). There To develop the Plan, a review was is evidence of ‘churning’ in this undertaken to clarify the strengths transition: Landt and Scott (1998) of the Brotherhood’s work with found that 30 per cent of Australian the most vulnerable young people 15–19 year olds changed their main and to build on successes, while activity (education, employment, being alert to unmet or changing outside the labour force, etc) at least needs. Input was sought within the once in any 6-month period (cited organisation and beyond, especially in OECD 2000). Such changes are from staff who work closely not necessarily negative, if young with young people experiencing people are ‘shopping’ for the most less successful transitions. appropriate job, but are of greater concern if they represent moves
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Learning from experience The Brotherhood has built up considerable expertise in delivering increased work and training options especially for vulnerable youth, backed by research to identify key challenges. It is vital to address student disengagement from school, since those who leave school early are at greater risk of ongoing disadvantage. This led to the BSL’s Transition Project, employing transition workers to support youth both at school and in community settings, as an early intervention. Recently, the Doing It Differently project (with Anglicare Victoria and the Centre for Adolescent Health) has begun to explore strategies to keep students engaged during the ‘middle years’ (years 5 to 8). The BSL devised the Parents as Career Transition Supports (PACTS) program to equip parents to contribute positively to their transition choices. Evaluation showed that parents participating in the interactive workshops felt more confident to address career pathways with their children (Bedson & Perkins 2006). Recognising, however, that not all young Australians have supportive parents, the BSL has committed to work both with disadvantaged families and with young people who lack home or peer support, to optimise work and study pathways. There is also a need to focus preventive effort earlier in the lives of young people who seem to be disengaging from school and community. This will involve not only years 5 to 8 but also the critical middle primary years. The Furniture Works program in Frankston, the Jobs Placement, Employment and Training (JPET) program and the Given the
A recent study by the OECD and Canadian Policy Research Networks showed that experience in the labour market does not make up for an initial deficit of educational credentials among young adults aged 20–24
Chance Refugee Project are other examples of the Brotherhood’s employment and training responses to vulnerable young people. The BSL has identified barriers to employment and better ways to involve and retain young people in quality work environments (see pages 8–9; and Tresize-Brown 2004). It may be, for example, that the generation gap now manifests itself more in the workplace than in the home. How then can employers contribute to better transitions for young people while also addressing skills shortages? Priorities The Brotherhood will concentrate on: • extending proven initiatives to other disadvantaged groups • establishing more community strengthening strategies which increase the role of parents or other youth supports • initiating place-based demonstration responses to complex youth needs • strengthening links between research and services. One important component of the plan is to extend successful service models to specified groups of vulnerable youth. For example, many recent young refugees have had severely limited or disrupted formal education. This is primarily due to the increase in refugees from Africa, who have on average completed one year of schooling, compared with those from the Middle East (four years) and from Asia (five years). The BSL will explore initiatives to improve learning outcomes for refugee students, including intensive language and skills development programs; modifying the PACTS
program to suit refugee parents; support for continued learning by refugee students too old to attend school; and enlisting home tutors/community workers to support parents’ role in encouraging their children’s education. Building on experience with parents of younger children, opportunities will be explored to equip home tutors to work with families to engage with their older children’s learning and to work cooperatively with teachers. The BSL school to work transition approach has developed in Frankston, an area with relatively low school retention and high youth unemployment. This will be consolidated, while considering how to apply learnings to other Victorian communities. This should foster sustainable job and education/ training futures for young people, increased re-entry to suitable schooling and active partnerships with local governments. Research and evaluation will monitor trends and track progress, while paying attention to potential barriers, such as transport, affordable housing and income. Changed outcomes for young people The new Action Plan aims to enhance BSL services to young people and their families or supports in school to work transitions. As we rethink the transitions faced by Australian young people, the youth barometer (see pages 4–5) will provide insights into other emerging issues, in areas of mental health, housing affordability and social and civic participation. This will inform services and advocacy to respond to the needs of particular disadvantaged groups including homeless, Indigenous and refugee youth.
Acknowledgment Thanks to Jim Williamson and Peter Kellock for their contribution to the plan and this article. Sarina Greco (03) 9483 2430 References Bauman, Z 2001, The individualized society , Polity Press, Cambridge, U.K. Beck, Y 2000, The brave new world of work , Polity Press, Cambridge, U.K. Bedson, L & Perkins, D 2006, A positive influence: equipping parents to support young people’s career transitions: evaluation of the PACTS program , Brotherhood of St Laurence, Fitzroy. Bynner, J, McKnight, A, Pan, H & Pierre, G 2002, Young people’s changing routes to independence , Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York, U.K. Kracke, B 1997, ‘Parental behaviors and adolescents’ career exploration’, The Career Development Quarterly , vol.45, no.4, pp.341–50. Long, M 2005, How young people are faring: key indicators 2005 , Dusseldorp Skills Forum, Glebe, N.S.W. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2000, From initial education to working life , OECD, Paris. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development & Canadian Policy Research Networks 2005, From education to work: a difficult transition for young adults with low levels of education , OECD, Paris. Taylor, J Harris, M & Taylor, S 2004, Parents have their say … about their college-age children’s career decisions , National Association of Colleges and Employers, viewed 11 November 2004, < Parents/Parents Have Their 242 01.htm>. _ _ _ _ Tresize-Brown, M 2004, Employing young workers: how well are we managing them? , Brotherhood of St Laurence, Melbourne. Trusty, J 1998, ‘Family influences on educational expectations of late adolescents’, Journal of Educational Research , vol.91, no.5, pp.260–74. Young, R, Valach, L, Paseluikho, M & Dover, C 1997, ‘The joint action of parents and adolescents in conversation about career’, The Career Development Quarterly , vol.46, no.1, pp.72–87.
The labour market into which young people are moving is increasingly marked by uncertainty and insecurity
August 2006    7
Building pathways Addressing youth and employment issues in Kingston With the improvement in official As other research has also found, Barriers to youth employment unemployment figures, attention has young people with low levels of The study identified three broad shifted somewhat to the paradox of education were far more likely groups of barriers faced by apparent skills shortages existing to be ‘at risk’ (see Table 2). young people in the transition to alongside worrying levels of youth employment: gaps in access to unemployment. A recent BSL study Research indicates that these young careers/employment information, of youth and unemployment in the people are likely to experience lack of skills (or opportunities City of Kingston, in Melbourne’s long-term disadvantage, including to gain them) and employers’ unemployment, job instability and reluctance to take on and train tshoeu trhe-aesaosnts,  tfhorropwers ssisotemnet  liygohutt ho n lower incomes. Non-employment inexperienced workers.  impacts can include increased sutnreumggplleo tyom elnl t enwthriyl-el eevmelp lpooyseitriso ns. levels of depression, living in I C n o f n o s r u m lt a a t t i i o o n ns indica d that lower quality housing and te tThhee  Kstiungdsyt owna sC citoy mCmoiussnicoiln, edw hbiyc h (among young women) a greater lciomuintesedl lcianrge earnsd e jdoubc saetiaornc,h  csaurpeperos likelihood of early parenting.had made the transition to work rt ywoaunnteg dp teoo ipdlee natcifcye ssst rqautealgiiteys  ctaor eheerlsp,  Employers’ recruitment difficulties difficult for many young people. In spite of a potential ‘pool’ of and to enable employers to attract young workers, Kingston employers Schools lack adequate resources young people to become skilled and were hard-pressed to ll vacancies. to provide carege,r sa nindf osormmea tyioonu ng ivcneaclnlusuaudbse ledd  eatmna ,  yTo foh fe A erBemsSp elaorycehr s 4A3m poenr gc eenmt prleopyoerrst esdu rdvifeyecdu,l ty apnedo pcloe ulenasvelel isnchool early, before a a s recruiting for entry-level positions taking part in careers classes and work experience. Further, iewnm itKphil nygosutnogna ,n paedon ldop lccea,o l nppsaruroletvnaittdsi,eo rnss  i(rne tqhuei rlianstg  1m2i nimatl hqs,u awliithc atthioosnes ) schools and parents often of edouyceartsi on, employndin manufacturminogn (Kingstons promote university pathways and professional careers and provide ment a largest sector) reporting the little information about—or even support services to young people. greatest difficulty (see Table 3). direct young people away from— Yo c ut o h d i a n t g r  i t s o k  the last census (2001), Em loyers felt that recruitm vocational pathways and trades. p ent Ac r problems were largely due to jobs Services such as the Job Network more than 2,400 young people aged not being attractive to (or indeed, also face funding obstacles to 15 rteo 2at4  riins kth: et hCaitt yis ,o ft hKeiyn gwsetroen  well understood by) young people supporting young people out we or to wages not being competitive. of school. In addition, both Innostt iena de dtuhceay tiwoenr eo rw fourllk-itnigm pe awrto-rikm. e nAostk ebde ewn hsyu iytoaublneg f pore oenplter yh-laedv el fragmentation of services and t inadequate referrals make it difficult or casually (often in low-skilled positions, most employers listed a for young people to access those and low-paid jobs), looking for lack of skills, particularly soft skills supports that are available. work, or not in the labour force at such as the right attitude or interest all (see Table 1). Several suburbs in in the job. They also commented Skills Kingston had rates of ‘at risk’ youth on young people’s limited Young people face the barrier of higher than the Melbourne average. technical skills and experience. inexperience and lack of work
Table 1: Young people at risk, Kingston, 2001 Working part-time Unemployed Not in the Total ‘at risk’ labour force % No. % No. % No. % No. 15–19 years 4 295 3 199 3 238 9 732 20–24 years 10 817 5 397 6 485 21 1699 Source: ABS customised census data
8    August 2006
Both the fragmentation of services and inadequate referrals make it difficult for young people out of school to access those supports that are available.
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