CHILD ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

CHILD ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

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Department of Development Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering Department of Development Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering Child Road Safety Audit 2004 1 ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk Department of Development Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering Section Contents Page 1Introduction3 2 Data4 3 Location of Child Casualties 5 4 Deprivation and Child Casualties 6 5 Gender 6 6 Pedestrian Casualties 6 - 7 7 Car Occupant Casualties 7 8 Pedal Cycle Casualties 7 - 8 9 Motorcycle Casualties 8 10 Other Modes of Casualty 8 11 Causes of child casualties 9 - 10 12 Age Groups 11 13 Time of Casualties 12 14 Introduction to Child Casualty Reduction 13 Action Plan 15 Child Casualty Reduction Targets 14 16 Child Casualty Reduction Action Plan 15 - 17 17 Bibliography 18 18 Glossary of Terms 18 Appendix 1 Schools in CRSA Areas and School 19 Travel Plans Appendix 2 Child Cycle and Pedestrian Cluster Sites 20 Appendix 3 Local Safety Schemes (including safety 21 - 22 improvements for child pedestrians) Appendix 4 Map of Child Casualties 2004 23 2 ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk Department of Development Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering 1.0 Introduction 1.1 The Child Road Safety Audit is an annual audit of child casualties that occur on the highway, ...

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Department of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering











Department of Development

Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



Child Road Safety Audit 2004









1

ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk Department of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering








Section Contents Page

1Introduction3
2 Data4
3 Location of Child Casualties 5
4 Deprivation and Child Casualties 6
5 Gender 6
6 Pedestrian Casualties 6 - 7
7 Car Occupant Casualties 7
8 Pedal Cycle Casualties 7 - 8
9 Motorcycle Casualties 8
10 Other Modes of Casualty 8
11 Causes of child casualties 9 - 10
12 Age Groups 11
13 Time of Casualties 12
14 Introduction to Child Casualty Reduction 13
Action Plan
15 Child Casualty Reduction Targets 14
16 Child Casualty Reduction Action Plan 15 - 17
17 Bibliography 18
18 Glossary of Terms 18
Appendix 1 Schools in CRSA Areas and School 19
Travel Plans
Appendix 2 Child Cycle and Pedestrian Cluster Sites
20
Appendix 3 Local Safety Schemes (including safety 21 - 22
improvements for child pedestrians)
Appendix 4 Map of Child Casualties 2004 23














2

ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk Department of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



1.0 Introduction

1.1 The Child Road Safety Audit is an annual audit of child casualties that occur
on the highway, based on data supplied by the Devon & Cornwall
Constabulary regarding children killed, seriously injured or slightly injured.
The age group considered for the purposes of the audit is 0 – 16 years of age,
over the period of a calendar year. The audit is an important tool as it provides
a baseline from which interventions can be assessed. It also provides
intelligence of locations with a propensity for child casualties and of particular
child road user groups at risk.

1.2 The Government recognises the importance and the duty it has to ensure that
the safety of vulnerable road users, particularly children, is a priority. The
Department for Transport (DfT) strategy ‘Tomorrow’s Roads: Safer For
Everyone’ set targets for Highway Authorities to reduce the number of
casualties on the roads for which they are responsible. The specific child
casualty target is: ‘a 50% reduction in child Killed and Seriously Injured
casualties (KSIs) by the year 2010, based on the 1994/98 averages’. In
Plymouth this means a reduction from 29 (based on the 1994 / 98 average) to
15 by the year 2010.

1.3 Britain has an good overall road safety record compared to other European
countries, but a poor child road safety record in comparison to the same
European countries. The exposure to road traffic of British children and
children in European countries is broadly similar, so we have much to do to
improve the safety of our children. ‘The environment in which children live
and play is a key area for consideration as research shows that Dutch children
spend half their pedestrian time in traffic calmed areas whereas only 10% of
1English children are so protected’ . The responsibility for the safety of
children is that of all road users and of those in a position to improve child
safety through measured interventions such as education, engineering and
enforcement – it is very much a partnership activity.

1.4 Plymouth has made excellent progress towards the 2010 child KSI target,
which has already been achieved through a combination of road safety
education, training, publicity, enforcement and engineering measures. We
have exceeded the Government’s target and have stretched the target even
further to a reduction of 7 casualties or less representing an 80% reduction by
the same date (See section 1.2).

1.5 Whilst the reduction in KSIs is encouraging there are difficulties in reducing
the number of slight injuries sustained, with the overall trend showing no
significant movement since 2000. The Council is investigating ways to tackle
this issue as a matter of urgency to improve safety in targeted areas.





1 ‘Facts and Figures to Support School Travel Initiatives’ Safe Routes to School – Sustrans.
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ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk Department of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



2.0 Data

2.1 The table below shows the data for all the child casualties in 2004. It is
broken down into mode of travel to highlight the groups who are most at risk.

All Child Casualties 2004
Motor Total child KSI Pedal Other
Table 1 Pedestrians Car Occupants cycle rider and slight
Cyclists modes / pass. casualties 2004
KSI , Slight
Child
76 42 32 20 2 172 Casualties
2004

2.2 To put the Child Road Safety Audit (CRSA) casualty figures in context, the
table below shows the numbers of children killed and seriously injured from
1999 to 2004 compared to all KSI and slight casualties. This makes it
apparent that the bulk of child casualties are represented by slight injuries.
For example in 2004 there were 13 child KSIs, compared to 159 slight injuries
to children.

Targets for All Casualties and Child Casualties
1994-1998 2007 2010
Table 2 Average 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 targets targets
All KSI Casualties 141 95 99 100 106 89 77 67 56
Child KSI 29 20 13 18 26 16 13 10 7
Casualties
Child Slight
157 158 157 162 149 161 159 142 126 Injuries
All Slight 1116 1062 1042 1050 964 1031 1011 950 890
Casualties

2.3 Whilst the value of every life is incalculable, the costs of each casualty to the
economy, the National Health Service (NHS) and to individuals have been
calculated by the DfT in the document ‘2003 Valuation of the Benefits of
Prevention of Road Accidents and Casualties.’ (Table 3)

Table 3 Lost Output Medical Costs Human Costs Total Costs
Fatal £ 451,000 £ 770 £ 860,380 £ 1,312,260
Serious £ 17,380 £ 10,530 £ 119,550 £ 147,460
Slight £ 1,840 £ 1,910 £ 8,750 £ 11,370

2.4 The calculated medical costs borne by the NHS according to the table above
are: £303,690 for all the slight child casualties in the city (£ 1910 x 159). The
cost for the NHS for all serious child casualties (there were no fatalities) is
£136,890 (£ 10,530 x 13). The total costs for the NHS in Plymouth for all child
casualties in 2004 were: £440,580 (£ 303,690 + £ 136,890).

2.5 The sum of these costs related to 2004’s child casualties are: £3,724,810
(£ 147, 460 x 13 = £1,916, 980) + (£ 11, 370 x 159 = £ 1, 807, 830)

4

ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk Department of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



3.0 Location of child casualties

3.1 Whilst each child casualty is a focus for attention, there are significant benefits
in identifying areas with a higher propensity for child casualties, resources, as
a result, can be targeted and allocated in the most cost effective manner.
Analysis of data shows that there are a number of wards in the City with a
disproportionate number of child casualties.

3.2 Chart 1 is a graphic representation of 2004 casualties shown in comparison to
the 2002–04 average that provides a better analysis from which to identify
progress and trends.

3.3 The Following wards were identified as having 10 or more child casualties:
• Budshead,
• Honicknowle
• St. Budeaux
• Compton
• Efford and Lipson
• St Peter and the Waterfront
• Plymstock Radford

3.4 These 7 wards make up 35% of the city’s wards and account for 56% of child
casualties, with the remaining13 wards accounting for 44% of the child
casualties.

Chart 1

25 Child Casualties 2002-04 average and 2004

20 2002-04 Average
2004
15

10

5


0





Ward






5

ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk
Southway
Budshead
Honicknowle
Moorview
St Budeaux
Ham
Peverell
Eggbuckland
Plympton St. Mary
Plympton Chaddlewood
Devonport
Stoke
Drake
Compton
Efford and Lipson
Plympton Erle
St Peter and the Waterfront
Sutton and Mount Gould
Plymstock Radford
Plymstock Dunstone
NumberDepartment of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



4.0 Deprivation and child casualties

4.1 Five wards have been designated as suffering deprivation as determined by
‘The English Indices of Deprivation 2004’ (a report by the Office of the Deputy
Prime Minister). Two wards - Plymstock Radford and Compton -do not fall
into this category. The Indices of Deprivation measure income, employment,
health deprivation & disability, education, skills & training, barriers to housing
and services, crime & disorder and living environment.

4.2 Research from the DfT has shown that in areas of deprivation children are five
times more likely to become road casualties.
4.3 Whilst the average for each ward should be 8.65 casualties in 2004, more
than 11 have above average and necessitate further investigation into
causation and remedial action.


5.0 Child user casualties by road user group and gender

5.1 There is a definite bias regarding child casualties and gender, in 2004 there
were 105 males as opposed to 65 females involved in injury related crashes.


6.0 Child Pedestrian Casualties - 76 in 2004 compared to 87 in 2003

6.1 Chart 2 below shows that child pedestrians make up the bulk of the child
casualties accounting for almost 50% of all child casualties.

Chart 2
Travel Mode and Child Casualties 2001 - 04 average
0%4%
Pedestrian Casualties
10%
Pedal Cycle Casualties
Car Occupant Casualties
Motorcycle Passenger47%
PCV passenger28%
L/HGV Passenger
Tax i
Horse11%





6

ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk Department of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



6.2 Chart 3 re-enforces the data displayed in Chart 1 of all child casualties 2002-
04 average. Examining the data more closely shows that some wards have a
higher child pedestrian casualty rate than others, these are the same wards
identified in Chart 1 as having 10 or more child casualties. The wards below
have the highest child pedestrian casualties in 2004:

• Budshead,
• Honicknowle
• Efford and Lipson
• St Peter and the Waterfront

It should be noted that St Peter and the Waterfront, as host to the city’s
business and shopping centre, is subject to higher degrees of conflict
regarding road user groups.

Chart 3
10 Child Pedestrian and Pedal Cycle Casualties
9
8
Pedestrians 7
Cyclists6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Ward


7.0 Child car occupant casualties - 42 in 2004 – compared to 50 in 2003

7.1 Child car occupant casualties do not show significant differences between one
ward and another. The one exception to this is the St Peter and the
Waterfront ward where there is a significantly higher number of child car
occupant casualties. (Refer to section 6.2 and chart 3 above)






7

ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk
Southway
Budshead
Honicknowle
Moorview
St Budeaux
Ham
Peverell
Eggbuckland
Plympton St. Mary
Plympton Chaddlewood
Devonport
Stoke
Drake
Compton
Efford and Lipson
Plympton Erle
St Peter and the Waterfront
Sutton and Mount Gould
Plymstock Radford
Plymstock Dunstone
NumberDepartment of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



8.0 Child pedal cycle casualties - 20 in 2004 – compared to 19 in 2003

8.2 The three year average (2002-04) does show that three wards have more
child pedal cycle casualties than other wards:

• St Budeaux (3 child pedal cycle casualties average over 3 years)
• Ham (2 child pedal cycle casualties over 3 years)
• Plymstock Radford (2 child pedal cycle casualties over 3 years).

8.2 It is important to note that these wards also have higher child pedestrian
casualties. Refer to Chart 3 for child pedal cycle casualties in 2004.

9.0 Motorcycle casualties - 32 in 2004 – compared to 22 in 2003

9.1 There is a noted increase in the share of children who are motorcycle
casualties. Chart 4 overleaf illustrates this. All of the child motorcycle
casualties are aged 16 years with the exception of one 14 year old. It is clear
that child motorcycle casualties are the only mode to have increased in share
over the last four years, whilst all other modes have remained relatively stable
in their share of casualties.



Chart 4
60
Mode share of child casualties 2002-2004
50
2002
40
2003
30
2004
20
10
0
Travel Mode


10.0 Other modes involving child casualties - 2 in 2004 – compared to 10 in
2003

There are very few child casualties that occur in other modes of transport,
such as Passenger Carrying Vehicles (PCVs), Light / Heavy Goods Vehicles
(L/HGVs), taxis and on horse back. The data on these will be monitored
continuously.


8

ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk
Pedestrian Casualties
Pedal Cycle Casualties
Car Occupant Casualties
Motorcyclists
PCV Passengers
L/HGV Passenger
Taxi
Horse
NumberDepartment of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



11.0 Causes of child casualties

11.1 Chart 5 below shows that the main cause of child casualties are vehicle driver
error.

Chart 5
Causation Factor - Child Casualties 2004
1%
3%
Driver/Rider Error
34% Passenger Error
Pedestrian Error
Adverse Weather Conditions 61%
Animal on Highway
1%




























9

ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk Department of Development
Transportation, Infrastructure & Engineering



11.2 Chart 6 below shows in more detail the reasons why the collisions involving
children occurred. Over 50% of collisions involving children are caused by
drivers performing a negligent manoeuvre, going to fast for the circumstances,
inexperience, driver and rider distraction, contravention of signs or signals and
alcohol suspected. 26% of collisions involving children are actually caused by
child pedestrians, the main qualifier being crossing heedless of traffic.

Chart 6
Qualifiers - Child Casualties 2004
1%
10%
15%1%
1%
8%1%
1%
4%
1%
23%
32%
1%
1%
Suspected Contravention of sign/signal Going Too fast for Circumstances
Learner/Inexperienced Driver/Rider Driver/Rider Distracted
Alcohol Suspected Negligent Manoeuvre
Dark Clothing: Rider or Pedestrian Pedestrian Dark Clothing
Pedestrian Crossing Road Heedless of Traffic Slippery Road Surface
Opening Door Negligently Alcohol Suspected: Driver/Rider or Pedestrian
Suspected Contravention of Statutory Speed Limit Not Coded

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ROAD SAFETY TEAM 307730 roadsafety@plymouth.gov.uk