INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN INTAKE ON CARCASS COMPOSITION OF CALVES INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS PLACEI(INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR PROTÉICO DA DIETA NA COMPOSIÇÃO DA CARCAÇA DE BEZERROS INFECTADOS COM HAEMONCHUS PLACEI)

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Abstract
Thirty, 2-3-month-old worm free male Holstein calves, were assigned to three groups each containing ten animals. Each group was offered one of three diets: High (HP), Medium (MP) and Low (LP) protein groups with 426, 257 and 91 g kg-1 dry matter, respectively, balanced for energy and minerals. After an initial period of 4 weeks on the diets, the calves from each group were subdivided into two groups of four and six calves. A trickle infection of 5,000 Haemonchus placei L3 was given twice a week for nine weeks to the sub group of six calves (I). The remaining four calves from each dietary group were used as non-infected control (C). Four weeks after the last infection, all calves were slaughtered and the 7th and 10th rib joint was dissected to evaluate carcass composition and worm burdens. Faecal samples for egg counts and body weights were recorded once a week. The MP group had significantly higher mean adult worm burdens (11,900 ± 7,660) when compared with LP (5,450 ± 7,895) and both are similar to HP group (8,260 ± 2,847). As expected, calves that received more protein on diet had better food utilization efficiency and gained more weight, but when comparing uninfected with infected groups for the same diet no significant differences were observed. Chemical analysis of the carcass showed higher protein and lower fat deposition in the HP (C and I) and MP (C and I) than LP (C and I), but no influence on mineral composition was observed between all groups. Feeding calves infected with H. placei and high protein diet tended to increase live gain weight and influence body composition including less water loss with more protein and less fat deposition despite showing a higher degree of infection.
Resumo
Trinta bezerros holandeses com 2 a 3 meses de idade, machos criados livres de vermes foram divididos em 3 grupos de dez animais. Em cada grupo foi oferecido um concentrado distinto: Alto (HP), Médio (MP) e Baixo (LP) valor proteico com os seguintes teores de proteína 426, 257 and 91 g kg-1 na matéria seca, respectivamente. A dieta foi balanceada em energia e minerais. Após 4 semanas recebendo esta dieta, cada grupo foi subdividido em 2 subgrupos com 4 e 6 bezerros. O subgrupo que continha 6 animais foi infectado (I) com 5.000 L3 de Haemonchus placei duas fezes por semana durante nove semanas. Os outros quatro bezerros restantes não foram infectados compondo o grupo controle (C). Quatro semanas após a última infecção todos os animais foram sacrificados e retirada as costelas (7a a 10a) para avaliação da composição da carcaça, bem como contagem dos vermes. Durante todo o período experimental foram feitas as contagens de ovos por grama de fezes e pesagem dos animais uma vez por semana. O grupo MP apresentou maior número de vermes adultos (11.900 ± 7.660) em relação ao grupo de BP (5.450 ± 7.895), mas não houve diferença significativa com o grupo HP (8.260 ± 2.847). Como esperado, os bezerros que receberam maiores níveis de proteína na dieta apresentaram melhor eficiência alimentar e ganho de peso, mas quando foi comparado os grupos infectados e controles sob mesma dieta não houve diferença significativa entre eles. Na análise de composição química da carcaça os grupos HP (C e I) e MP (C and I) demonstraram maior teor de proteína e menor de gordura em relação aos grupos LP (C and I), mas não houve influência na composição mineral da carcaça entre todos os grupos. Bezerros alimentados com teores de proteína mais elevados e infectados com H. placei tendem a aumentar o ganho de peso com menor perda de água e apresentam maior teor de proteína e menor de gordura na carcaça, mesmo tendo maior grau de infecção.

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INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN INTAKE ON CARCASS COMPOSITION
OF CALVES INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS PLACEI
INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR PROTÉICO DA DIETA NA COMPOSIÇÃO DA CARCAÇA DE
BEZERROS INFECTADOS COM
1 2 3 1Louvandini, H. , S.M. Gennari , A.L. Abdalla and C.M. Mc Manus
1Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária. Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Campus Universitário
Darcy Ribeiro. CP 04508, CEP70910-900. E-mail: hlouvand@unb.br
2Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo. Brazil.
3Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura. USP. Piracicaba. SP, Brazil.
ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS PALAVRAS CHAVE ADICIONAIS
Cattle. Nutrition. Growth. Parasite. Nematode. Bovino. Nutrição. Crescimento. Parasita. Nematoide.
SUMMARY
diet had better food utilization efficiency and gainedThirty, 2-3-month-old worm free male Holstein
calves, were assigned to three groups each more weight, but when comparing uninfected with
containing ten animals. Each group was offered infected groups for the same diet no significant
one of three diets: High (HP), Medium (MP) and differences were observed. Chemical analysis of
the carcass showed higher protein and lower fatLow (LP) protein groups with 426, 257 and 91 g
-1kg dry matter, respectively, balanced for energy deposition in the HP (C and I) and MP (C and I)
than LP (C and I), but no influence on mineraland minerals. After an initial period of 4 weeks on
the diets, the calves from each group were composition was observed between all groups.
subdivided into two groups of four and six calves. Feeding calves infected with H. placei and high
A trickle infection of 5,000 Haemonchus placei L3 protein diet tended to increase live gain weight
and influence body composition including lesswas given twice a week for nine weeks to the sub
group of six calves (I). The remaining four calves water loss with more protein and less fat deposition
despite showing a higher degree of infection.from each dietary group were used as non-infected
control (C). Four weeks after the last infection, all
th thcalves were slaughtered and the 7 and 10 rib
joint was dissected to evaluate carcass RESUMO
composition and worm burdens. Faecal samples
for egg counts and body weights were recorded Trinta bezerros holandeses com 2 a 3 meses
de idade, machos criados livres de vermes foramonce a week. The MP group had significantly
higher mean adult worm burdens (11,900 ± 7,660) divididos em 3 grupos de dez animais. Em cada
when compared with LP (5,450 ± 7,895) and both grupo foi oferecido um concentrado distinto: Alto
are similar to HP group (8,260 ± 2,847). As (HP), Médio (MP) e Baixo (LP) valor proteico com
os seguintes teores de proteína 426, 257 and 91expected, calves that received more protein on
Arch. Zootec. 52: 305-314. 2003.LOUVANDINI, GENNARI, ABDALLA AND MC MANUS
-1g kg na matéria seca, respectivamente. A dieta This situation becomes worse when
foi balanceada em energia e minerais. Após 4 the animals present parasite infections.
semanas recebendo esta dieta, cada grupo foi The young animal is more affected by
subdividido em 2 subgrupos com 4 e 6 bezerros. parasite infection because their
O subgrupo que continha 6 animais foi infectado immune system is still in development
(I) com 5.000 L3 de Haemonchus placei duas (Adams, 1988). The effective control
fezes por semana durante nove semanas. Os of parasites can improve bovine
outros quatro bezerros restantes não foram infec- production by up to 15 percent
tados compondo o grupo controle (C). Quatro (Cherrett et al., 1971). The fact that
semanas após a última infecção todos os animais nutrition status of the host can influence
aforam sacrificados e retirada as costelas (7 a the acquisition of immunity in rumi-
a10 ) para avaliação da composição da carcaça, nants, and that dietary protein is of
bem como contagem dos vermes. Durante todo o particular importance, is well known
período experimental foram feitas as contagens (Coop and Holmes, 1996). Wallace et
de ovos por grama de fezes e pesagem dos al. (1995) observed that sheep that
animais uma vez por semana. O grupo MP received supplementation with soya-
apresentou maior número de vermes adultos bean and were infected with H.
(11.900 ± 7.660) em relação ao grupo de BP contortus had more protein, mineral
(5.450 ± 7.895), mas não houve diferença signi- and water in their carcarss than those
ficativa com o grupo HP (8.260 ± 2.847). Como
that received no supplementation. The
esperado, os bezerros que receberam maiores
infection with H. placei effected water
níveis de proteína na dieta apresentaram melhor
metabolism in calves (Vieira Bressan
eficiência alimentar e ganho de peso, mas quando
et al., 1992 and Gennari et al., 1997).
foi comparado os grupos infectados e controles
The changes in the body composition
sob mesma dieta não houve diferença significati-
of calves suffering from chronicva entre eles. Na análise de composição química
haemoncosis (trickle infection of H.da carcaça os grupos HP (C e I) e MP (C and I)
placei larvae) have not previously beendemonstraram maior teor de proteína e menor de
investigated. This experiment inves-gordura em relação aos grupos LP (C and I), mas
tigated whether the provision of anão houve influência na composição mineral da
moderate to high protein diet wouldcarcaça entre todos os grupos. Bezerros ali-
improve the live weight and carcassmentados com teores de proteína mais elevados
characteristic of young growing calvese infectados com H. placei tendem a aumentar o
subjected to a trickle challenge with H.ganho de peso com menor perda de água e
placei which more closely resemblesapresentam maior teor de proteína e menor de
the field situation.gordura na carcaça, mesmo tendo maior grau de
infecção.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
INTRODUCTION
ANIMALS AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Thirty, 2-3-month-old, male Hols-Nutrition fluctuations (quantity and
tein calves, which had been rearedquality) throughout the year, especially
indoors, worm-free from birth, werethat of protein, form major constraint,
assigned to three groups, each contai-for cattle production in tropical areas.
Archivos de zootecnia vol. 52, núm. 199, p. 306.HAEMONCHUS PLACEI, PROTEIN AND CARCASS COMPOSITION
ning ten animals, to provide uniformity 26 percent CP (MP group) and 9 percent
of body-weight (weight range for the CP (LP group) with 11, 11 and 10 MJ
-1groups at week 0; 60.6 to 65.9 kg). All metabolisable energy kg DM respec-
animals were housed in individual pens tively. The HP diet was prepared using
on a slatted floor. Each group was 100 percent soyabean meal (a rumen
offered one of three diets, which by-pass protein); the MP diet used 50
differed in protein content: high (HP), percent soyabean meal and 50 percent
medium (MP) and low protein (LP) ground corn and the LP diet comprised
groups, which were balanced for 100 percent ground corn.
energy and mineral content. After an At the beginning of the experiment
initial acclimatisation period of 4 the calves were offered 1.0 kg of
weeks on the diets, the animals from concentrate, five weeks later 1.3 kg
each dietary group were sub-divided and from week 10 until the end of the
into two groups comprising four and trial 1.5 kg calf-1 day-1, in accordance
six calves. A trickle infection of 5,000 with their increase in bodyweight. Hay
Haemonchus placei L3 was given twice was offered ad libitum throughout the
a week for nine weeks (HP-I, MP-I and experimental period (1.0 to 1.5 kg)
LP-I) to the larger sub-group (n=6). and water was freely available.
This regimen was designed to establish Food refusals were collected daily,
a moderate number of worms, which pooled weekly for each group and dry
reflects the field situation of haemon- matter determined by drying a sample
chosis in cattle in Brazil. The remaining at 60°C for 48 h followed by 100°C for
four calves from each dietary group 24 h. Food utilization efficiency was
were used as non-infected control (HP- calculated by dividing total weight gain
C, MP-C and LP-C). Four weeks after by total food intake.
the last infection with larvae, all calves
were slaughtered and their worm PARASITOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
th thburdens determined. The 7 and 10 Infective larvae were harvested
rib joint was dissected to evaluate using a standard Baerman technique
carcass composition. Faecal samples from faecal cultures from calves with
and bodyweights were taken or a monospecific infection of H. placei.
recorded weekly. Throughout the trial, the number of
Haemonchus eggs per gram (EPG) of
DIETS AND DIETARY ANALYSES fresh faeces was estimated weekly,
Samples of the diets were analysed according to the standard modified
for dry matter (DM), crude protein, McMaster method. Following slaugh-
fibre and mineral content (Association ter, the abomasum was removed,
of Official Analytical Chemists, opened and the digesta recovered and
AOAC, 1995) and their composition the mucosa incubated to liberate any
and mean analysis are given in table I. larvae. Total worm burden was
The diets consisted of Coast Cross estimated from 10 percent of the sub-
grass (Cynodon dactilon) hay (basal sample content (1 percent of total
diet) and concentrates with 43 percent volume) and from the total abomasal
crude protein (CP) for the HP group, digest fixed with 10 percent formalin
Archivos de zootecnia vol. 52, núm. 199, p. 307.LOUVANDINI, GENNARI, ABDALLA AND MC MANUS
Table I. Chemical analyses of hay and the high protein (HP), medium protein (MP) and low
protein (LP) concentrates offered to the calves. (Análise química do feno e dos concentrados com
alta proteína (AP), média proteína (MP) e baixa proteína (BP), oferecidos aos bezerros (Controle e
Infectado)).
Dietary components
HAY HP MP LP
-1Dry matter (g kg ) 922 929 932 937
Crude protein* 65 426 257 91
Crude fiber* 361 75 52 28
Ether extract* 27 16 31 46
-1Metabolisable energy (MJ kg DM) 6 11 11 10
Ash* 58 100 69 54
Ca* 1.7 13.2 13.5 13.7
P* 1.1 7.6 7.6 8.6
-1*(g kg DM).
(Gennari et al., 1995). their interaction as the main effects
utilizing the general linear models
CARCASS EVALUATION (GLM) procedure of SAS (Statistical
The calves were slaughtered by Analysis System Institute Inc. 1996).
exsanguination via jugular vessel. The Mean comparisons were carried out
carcases were dressed, and the viscera, using the Student's t test. EPG data
head and skin removed for weighting, was analysed using a univariate
after which the carcasses were divided repeated measures analysis. The EPG
th thinto two parts. The 7 to 10 rib were data and worm burdens were logarith-
removed from the left side and weighed mically transformed using log (x+1).
(Ledger and Hutchison, 1962), and P values less than 0.05 were considered
each was sealed in a polythene bag and significant.
stored at -20°C. For chemical analysis
(protein, ether extract, ash, phosphorus
thand calcium) the 10 rib was dissected RESULTS
into muscle, fat and bone. It was then
During the experimental period, twoweighed, finely chopped and dried to a
calves either died or were sacrificed.constant weight in high vacuum freeze
One calf (group HP-C) accidentallydrier (AOAC, 1995).
broke a leg at week 9 and was
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS sacrificed. The other calf (group HP-I)
Data were analysed as a 3 X 2 showed signs of clinical haemonchosis
factorial with 3 protein levels and 2 from week 9 (high faecal egg counts,
infection levels (with or without) and low PCV and haemoglobin concen-
Archivos de zootecnia vol. 52, núm. 199, p. 308.HAEMONCHUS PLACEI, PROTEIN AND CARCASS COMPOSITION
4000
High protein (HP-I --¦-),
Medium protein (MP-I -?) and
Low protein (LP-I --)
3000
2000
1000
0
1 357 9 11 13
Weeks after infection
Figure 1. Mean faecal egg counts (geometric mean ± SE) of calves infected with H.placei
under different dietary protein intake (HP-I square, MP-I circle and LP-I triangle). (Valores
médios do número de ovos nas fezes e desvio padrão dos bezerros infectados com Haemonchus placei
e submetidos a suplementação protéica distintas (AP-I quadrado, MP-I círculo e LP-I triângulo).
significantly lower than those fromtration and decreased food intake) and
the other infected groups (p<0.05)died at week 10. As the death occurred
through the trial.in the last phase of the trial, the data
The mean worm burdens are shownwere excluded. The effect of diet was
in table II. There were no significantobserved compared the groups con-
differences between the groups introl, the infection was verified when
either total worms or L4 populations;compared the group infected with your
the number of L5 + adults weregroup control. The interaction between
significantly higher in MP-I calves thanProtein and infection was observed
in LP-I animals (p<0.05). The highestwhen compared all groups infected.
percentage of L4 larvae (36.5 percent)
were recovered from group LP-I.PARASITOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
Mean faecal egg counts for the HP,
MP and LP infected groups are shown LIVE WEIGHT, EFFICIENCY FOOD
in figure 1. Infections were patent in UTILIZATION AND TOTAL WEIGHT GAIN
all groups by four weeks after the Table III presents live weight, food
beginning of trickle dosing. The mean utilization efficiency and the total
egg counts for group LP-I were weight gain in the six different groups.
Archivos de zootecnia vol. 52, núm. 199, p. 309.
Faecal Egg count (epg)LOUVANDINI, GENNARI, ABDALLA AND MC MANUS
The significant effect of infection wasTable II. Mean worm burdens for HP, MP
observed in the killing out percentagesand LP infected groups (n=6). (Médias do
only for LP-C, which higher values
número de vermes encontrados nos bezerros
than LP-I, but there were no significant
infectados (n=6) nos diferentes tratamentos AP,
differences between the other treat-
MP e BP).
ments when compared the group C
with I (table III). The mean values ofWorm burden (mean ± SD)
water were similar between HP-C and
L4 L5 + Adult Total
HP-I groups, but it was greater in MP-
a ab a C and LP-C than the respective infectedHP-I 786±1242 8260±2847 9046±4938
a a a groups (p<0.05). The calves on theMP-I 1537±1754 11900±7660 1343±9194
a b a increased dietary protein HP (C and I)LP-I 3100±5017 5450±7895 8500±8430
had proportionally more protein and
Values within columns without a superscript letter less fat deposition (rib and muscle)
in common are significantly different (p<0.05). than the LP groups (p<0.05). However,
there were no effects on muscle, bone
and mineral (either Ca or P levels)
composition due to diet, infection or
At the beginning of the pre-infection diet X infection status.
period (allocation to diets) all calves
showed similar body weights (p>0.05).
However, at the end of the trial the DISCUSSION
calves received protein supplemen-
tation were more heavier than calves This study suggests that calves
with low protein diet, but this differen- received additional protein supplement
ces were no significant (p>0.05). had no effect on the rate of worm
Infected calves that received more establishment. However, the patho-
protein in their diet had better food physiological consequences are usually
utilization efficiency. The MP-I group more severe in animals on lower pla-
had higher efficiency than the LP-I nes of protein intake. This is in
group (p<0.05) and HP-I tended to be agreement with the general consensus
higher than LP- I (P=0,0657). The to- from studies (Abbott et al., 1985, 1986;
tal live weight gain was higher in HP- Wallace et al., 1995; Gennari et al.,
C (31,7 kg) and MP (C 34.1 kg and I 1995; Coop and Holmes, 1996). The
31.0 kg) when compared with LP (C animals offered the LP diet had higher
23.4Kg and I 23.2 kg) (p<0.05), but no numbers of immature worms (L4),
difference significant with HP I (29.9 lower numbers of L5 and adult stages
kg) (p>0.05). and lower faecal egg counts. It is
difficult to interpret this result. One
CARCASS WEIGHT AND COMPOSITION explanation may be that not only the
The MP-C group showed carcass quantity of protein, but the composition
weight higher than LP (C and I) groups of the food may have adverse effects
(p<0.05), but there were no significant on the parasites development, such as
difference between the others groups. alterations in rumen fermentation,
Archivos de zootecnia vol. 52, núm. 199, p. 310.HAEMONCHUS PLACEI, PROTEIN AND CARCASS COMPOSITION
Table III. Mean efficiency of food utilization, total weight gain and carcass composition in
infected (n=6) and control (n=4) calves. (Valores médios da eficiência alimentar, ganho de peso
total e composição da carcaça em bezerros infectados (n=6) e controle (n=4)).
HP - C HP - I MP - C MP - I LP - C LP - I SED
a a a a a aLive weight (kg) 86.6 84.0 88.0 85.3 77.1 76.3 5.9
ab ab a a ab bEfficiency of food utilization* 10.9 11.3 12.6 11.8 9.1 8.1 1.3
a ab a a b bTotal weight gain (kg) 31.7 29.9 34.1 31.0 23.4 23.2 4.3
ab ab a ab b bCarcass weight (kg) 33.5 34.6 42.3 34.0 32.8 28.8 3.9
ab ab a ab a bKilling out* 42.0 44.0 46.0 44.6 46.0 41.2 2.1
ab ab a b a bRib water* 58.2 57.3 61.5 56.2 60.1 55.7 1.5
a a a a a aRib muscle* 65.75 66.25 71.9 71.5 72.4 68.5 3.5
a a a a a aRib bone* 32.2 30.8 26.2 25.6 24.7 29.3 3.1
a a ab a b bRib fat* 4.2 3.9 5.7 4.9 8.0 7.3 1.75
a a a a a aRib ash** 6.3 6.3 5.8 5.6 5.0 6.4 0.8
a a a ab b bMuscle: Crude protein** 72.5 72.4 71.7 64.7 60.5 60.5 3.9
ab a abc bc c c Ether extract** 15.4 10.2 19.2 19.8 28.4 24.7 4.2
a a a a a aBone: Ca** 17.1 16.8 16.6 18.1 16.1 18.1 1.0
a a a a a a P** 10.3 10.5 10.3 10.5 10.3 10.4 0.2
HP, high protein diet; MP, medium protein diet; LP, low protein diet; I, infected; C, control; values within
rows without a superscript letter in common are significantly different (p<0.05).
*p.100; **p.100 DM.
availability of amino acids, changes in result presented here where protein
flow rates and pH of the digest. had a beneficial effect on these
Most of the studies found in the parameters in both control and infected
literature evaluating nutrition and animals. Nonetheless the result for
endoparasites were carried out on sheep animals from groups HP (C and I) and
with few on cattle. Young animals are MP(C and I) were similar, despite
more susceptible to parasites and differences in the amount of crude
nutritional deficiency than older ones protein offered, but the MP-I groups
and any problem in this phase may had higher total live weight and
have a lasting effect throughout the efficiency of food utilization than LP-
productive life of the animal. Various I group. The amount of energy fed to
authors have shown that the principal the HP groups was insufficient to allow
effect of haemonchosis on production the animals to fully utilise the increased
of ruminants is the reduction in the amount of protein.
efficiency of use of the ration (Sykes, Abdalla et al. (1996) showed that
1983 and Entrocasso et al., 1986). calves fed two levels of protein (97.8
It should be noted that total weight and 175.3 g of crude protein per kg of
gain is associated with efficiency of dry matter) and infected with 100,000
use of the ration and is similar to the Haemochus L3 (single dose), showed
Archivos de zootecnia vol. 52, núm. 199, p. 311.LOUVANDINI, GENNARI, ABDALLA AND MC MANUS
a lower nitrogen balance for the LP (Wallace et al., 1995), thus confirming
group and the urine excretion was that protein exercises a positive effect
increased by infection. Armour et al. on water loss during the infection
(1987) showed inappetence, weight process caused by these parasites.
loss, impaired nitrogen retention and a The proportion of muscle and bone
loss of plasma proteins into the gut on on the ribs was not significantly
calves which had received daily different between groups due to the
infection of Cooperia oncophora. large individual differences between
These findings are in general animals, although fat (of rib and
agreement with haemonchosis in sheep muscle) was higher and amount of
offered a moderate/high protein diet protein in the muscle less in low protein
(Holmes, 1993) and contrast with ration animals, when only the diet
Ostertagia infection in sheep and cattle effect was examined. This suggests
were the main contributor to reduced that protein limitation in the diet of
live weight gain is a reduction in these animals reduces their growth,
appetite (Sykes and Coop, 1977; Fox with low protein deposition in the
et al., 1989). muscle, thereby accumulating excess
A further problem due to haemon- energy as fat in the carcass.
chosis has been the interference in Wallace et al. (1999) demonstrated
water metabolism in the infected host that the lambs infected with H.
(Vieira Bressan et al., 1992). In the contortus on the increased dietary
present study, the infection caused a allowance had more muscle and fat on
reduction in the water content of the carcass, but in this case, the lambs
carcass, for treatments MP-I and LP-I received more protein and energy too.
compared to the control but there was In conclusion, the results of this trial
no difference between groups HP-C indicate that feeding calves a high protein
and HP-I, showing that high levels of diet have influenced the body compo-
protein may help in reducing water sition, reducing water loss, with more
loss. It should also be noted that the protein and less fat deposition despite
infection of animals in the low protein showing a higher degree of infection.
group was less severe (fewer adult
worms) but this group still showed
significant water loss. This result is in ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
agreement with Gennari et al., 1997,
The authors thank the staff ofwho studied water metabolism in calves
fed high and low protein diets before Preventive Veterinary Medicine
and after acute infection with 100,000 Department - Faculty of Veterinary
L3 in tritiated water and found that Medicine - USP, for their excellent
calves infected with Haemonchus and management with the calves. We also
received low protein showed and thank FAPESP and FINATEC for the
increase in water turnover and loss. financial support. S.M.Gennari and
Higher water retention was noticed H.Louvandini are in receipt of a
in carcasses of sheep supplemented scholarship from Brazilian Research
with soy and infected by Haemonchus Council (CNPq).
Archivos de zootecnia vol. 52, núm. 199, p. 312.HAEMONCHUS PLACEI, PROTEIN AND CARCASS COMPOSITION
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Recibido: 24-5-02. Aceptado: 12-12-02.
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