Mémoire de fin d
128 pages
Français
Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres

Mémoire de fin d'études : Les librairies indépendantes et le marché numérique du livre

-

Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres
128 pages
Français

Informations

Publié par
Publié le 01 mars 2014
Nombre de lectures 281
Langue Français
Poids de l'ouvrage 10 Mo

Exrait

!
!
!!"#$%&'()!#*+%
%%
!
!
!
"#$!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$!/)0#!)1!
2)(03,!*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!
!
!
61%&)*#!",5741#!
!
!
!
"#$%&'(!)&'&*#!+,'!-$$,./(0!1,2%33&4!56,'*#!)(!5%$$/.&7,3&%.!)(!0,!8&00(!)(!
9,&.3!:.)'#!)/!5/;<,7!
!
!
891.#*1!%#!:!2)&!;<=>!
! !! !
61%&)*#!",5741#!?!@!"#$!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$!/)0#!)1!2)(03,!*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!A!?!;!
BCDE!>!!'(5$'&0(5A"5(3B%1A23(C( 2'8'27$'2(#'0(4'20A&&'0(-"$(8BA&5(%$3* '('5(4'28$0(3'(8'&'2(C(
1$'&(7'(52%+%$#('&(%77'45%&5(3'(8B%44A25'2(#'"2(7A&52$1"5$A&D(3'(8B%77A23'2("&(4'"(
3'(#'"2(5'840('5(3'(8'(3A&&'2(3'0(*#*8'&50 .7#*0(3%&0(#B*+A#"5$A&(3'(8 %(2*6#'E$A&(
-"%&5(%"(0"F'5(%1A23*(3%&0(7'( 8*8A$2' (G(
(
H'27$(C(;88%&"'#(I%JA55$D(4A"2(%+A$2(0"(3$2$K'2(8A&(0"F'5(3'(8%&$L2'(42*7$0'('5(
'66$7%7' (M(
(
N(O*#L&'()%1"00$L2'D(4A"2(8B%+A$2(%44A25*(1A&(&A812'(3B*#*8'&50(3'(2*6#'E $A&(
$&3$04'&0%1#'0(C(7'(8*8A$2' (M(
(
N(P%&7Q(>%2$0A55AD(%"E(@RS(4'20A&&'0(-"$(A&5( 42$0(#'(5'840(3'(2*4A&32'(%"(0A&3%K'(
-"'(FB%$(2*%#$0*(3%&0(#'(7%32'(7'(8*8A$2'D('5(C(I*2%23(>$7A5(-"$(%(7A&52$1"*(%"(0"77L0(
3'(7'55'( '&-" ,5'( '&(#%(4%25%K'%&5(%"42L0(3'(&A812'"E(#'75'"20 (M(
(
;5('&6$&D("&(K2%&3(8'27$(C (8A&(4%22%$&(3'(8*8A$2'(!*2*8$'(H%25$&('5(C(T*7$# '(UA2QD(
O'2+*(U$'&+%"#5D(<#A2$%&(V#$ +$'2 .WA'92'5D(="2*#$'(TA+'#$'20('5 (I"$##%"8'()'F'"&' (
4A"2(%+A$2(%77'45*(3'(8B%77A23'2(7'0($&5'2+$'X0(-"$(A&5(7A&52$1"*(C(7A&0 52"$2'(#'(
42A4A0(3'(7'(8*8A$2'D (C((8%(8L2'(T*7$#'(>2A7"2'"2(0%&0(-"$(7'25%$&'0($&5'2+$'X0 (
&B%"2%$'&5(4 "(,52'(8'&*'0 ('5(C(8A&(4L2'(T92$05A49'()*+,-"'(4A"2(0%(2'#'75"2'(
%+$0*'Y (
(
(
( (
!"#$%&'()*+,-"'(.(/()'0(#$12%$2$'0($&3*4'&3%&5'0(6%7'(%"(8%279*(&"8*2$-"'(3"(#$+2'(:(.( @(
;<=>(?(Table des matières
!
!
,-.(')*/.,'-% 0%
/'-.!+.!% 11%
,%2%3!%4#(/5!%)*%3,6(!% 17%
D!?!"D!FBGHB!IJ!"KFLB!M!DNHBJL8!BH!ODLPBHKGQ! =R!
S!?!"B!"KFLB!EDEKBL! ;<!
N!?!"B!"KFLB!GJOBLKTJB! ;R!
,,%2%3!%4#(/5!%)*%3,6(!%#%38!(!%)*%-*4!(,9*!% :;%
D!?!"D!LBFU"JHKUG!GJOBLKTJB!IJ!"KFLB!BG!CLDGNB! R<!
S!?!JGB!ELK8B!IB!NUG8NKBGNB!EU"KHKTJB! R:!
N!?!"B!EDEKBL!CDKH!IB!"D!LB8K8HDGNB! >>!
I!?!ODLNVB!IJ!"KFLB!GJOBLKTJB! >:!
B!?!NUGN"J8KUG!M!IB8!SB8UKG8!D!ELBGILB!BG!NUOEHB! :;!
4#(/5!%-*4!(,9*!%)*%3,6(!%<%)!=%,-,.,#.,6!=%/'-/(!.!=% 0>%
,%2%$3#/!%)!=%3,&(#,(!=%<%3!%(!?('*$!4!-.%-*4!(,9*!%-#.,'-#3%)!=%3,&(#,(!=% 0@%
D!?!VK8HULKTJB!M!D"KQD8HULBWNUOX!"YDGNBHLB!IB!E"DNB!IB8!"KSLDKLB8! ::!
S!?!E"DNB!IB8!"KSLDKLB8!DJ6UJLIYVJK! :Z!
,,%2%38!+!4$3!%)!%$#(,=%3,&(#,(,!=% A1%
D!?!JGB!8HLDHBQKB![BS!SKBG!DCCKLOBB! \=!
S!?!EDLK8!"KSLDKLKB8!OUSK"B! \;!
,,,%2%3,&(#,(,!%?!'(?!=%#%.#3!-/!%<%*-%!+!4$3!%#9*,.#,-%)8,-,.,#.,6!=%-*4!(,9*!=% A@%
D!?!"D!"KSLDKLKB!QBULQB8!BH!8B8!IBSJH8!8JL!"B!ODLNVB!GJOBLKTJB!M!NB!TJK!GB!HJB!ED8!LBGI!
E"J8!CULH! \:!
S!?!"D!8U"JHKUG!E"DNB!IB8!"KSLDKLB8! \\!
N!?!JG!IBFUKL!BH!IB8!UEEULHJGKHB8!IYDIDEHDHKUG!BH!IYKGGUFDHKUG! \]!
I!?!NUGN"J8KUG!M!IJ!LU"B!8UNKD"!BH!NJ"HJLB"!IB!"D!"KSLDKLKB!KGIBEBGIDGHB! Z=!
,6%2%/'-/3*=,'-%<%*-!%$('?(!==,'-%#%$'*(=*,6(!% B7%
%
61%&)*#!",5741#!?!@!"#$!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$!/)0#!)1!2)(03,!*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!A!?!>!
BCDE!>!$(!/'-,=#.,'-=% B:%
,%2%3!=%$('&3!4#.,9*!=%9*,%=!%$'=!-.% B>%
,,%2%$(!/'-,=#.,'-=% B>%
D!?!JGB!KIBGHKHB!CULHB! Z^!
S!?!DEELKFUK8BL!"B!GJOBLKTJB! Z\!
N!?!8B!LBQLUJEBL!EUJL!OKBJ_!CDKLB!CDNB!D!JG!ODLNVB!BG!BFU"JHKUG! ]R!
/'-/3*=,'-% C@%
#--!+!=% CA%
D1.9(&$).&9*$!+#!0&.).&9*W!
S)(92`.(#!8UCKDa8GBa8QI"!$1(!%#$!1$)b#$!+1!%&5(#!*12,(&41# !#*!C()*0#W!
N9221*&41,!+#!-(#$$#!M!,.1+#!+1!0)'&*#.!_BLCK! =!0,!)&>3'&;/3&%.!)(!0&?'(>!@,7(!,/A!
(.B(/A!)/!./$#'&C/( !DE!
I9$$&#(!+#!-(,$#*.).&9*!+#!F,+('/> !-91(!%#$!%&'()&(#$ W!
Bc.()&.!+1!()--9(.!$1(!%)!%&'()&(&#!&*+,-#*+)*.#!#*! E)d$!+#!%)!"9&(#!M!#c#2-%#!+#!
$.).1.$!-91(!%)!0(,).&9*!+Y)$$90&).&9*!+#!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$ W!
S&'%&9b()-3&# W!
!
!
! !
61%&)*#!",5741#!?!@!"#$!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$!/)0#!)1!2)(03,!*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!A!?! ^!
BCDE!>!!


Introduction
!
61%&)*#!",5741#!?!@!"#$!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$!/)0#!)1!2)(03,!*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!A!?!:!
BCDE!>!"#!;=`2#!$&`0%#!#$.!%Y`(#!+#!%)!01%.1(#! ,%#0.(9*&41#W!"#!G%'0)!G&)(!G(; X!0#..#!.9&%#!
&*5&$&'%#! (#%&)*.! )1e91(+Y31&! +)*$! %#! 29*+#! #*.&#(! 41)$&2#*.! .(9&$! 2&%%&)(+$!
+Y&*+&5&+1$X!)!)2#*,!+#!-(9/9*+$!03)*b#2#*.$!$.(10.1(#%$!+)*$!.91.#!&*$.&.1.&9*!
(#%).&9**#%%#!M! +1! -(&5,! )1! -1'%&0X! +#! %Y9(b)*&$).&9*! $90&)%#! f! %Y#*.(#-(&$#!
,09*92&41#X! *1%%#! #*.&.,! *Y#$.! $9(.&#! &*+#2*#! +#! 0#..#! *915#%%#! .#03*9%9b&#!
29*+&)%#! #.! 29*+&)%&$.#W! E91(.)*.X! 0#(.)&*$! $#0.#1($! 9*.! %9*b.#2-$! #1X! +)*$!
%Y&2)b&*)&(#!09221*X!1*#!-%)0#!29&*+(#!+)*$!%Y1*&5#($!+1!*12,(&41#!g!0Y#$.!%#!0)$!
*9.)22#*.!+1!%&5(#X!41&!+)*$!%Y3&$.9&(#!+#$!-(9+1&.$!01%.1(#%$!/)0#!f!%)!(,59%1.&9*!
*12,(&41#!$#2'%#!)59&(!-(&$!%,b`(#2#*.!-%1$!+#!.#2-$!41#!+Y)1.(#$W!O)&$!$ &!%)!
21$&41#!#.!%#$!/&%2$!$9*.!%#$!-(#2&#($!-(9+1&.$!01%.1(#%$!f!#*5)3&(!%)!.9&%#X!%#!%&5(#!
*Y)!-)$!,03)--,!f!0#!-3,*92`*#W !
!
"9($41#!%Y9*!)'9(+#!%)!-(9'%,2).&41# !+#$!-(9+1&.$!01%.1(#%$X!%#!2)(03,!*12,(&41#!
-#1.!7.(#!51!$91$!+#1c!)*b%#$!+&//,(#*.$!M!+Y1*!0h.,X!9*!.(915#!%Y,59%1.&9*!$1(!1*!
.#((&.9&(#! *12,(&41#! +1! 2)(03,! +Y1*! -(9+1&.! -3d$&41#!g! +#! %Y)1.(#X! %)!
2)(03)*+&$).&9*!+Y1*!-(9+1&.!+,2).,(&)%&$,!M!OERX!I&5_X!6EBQ!#.!)1e91(+Y31&!#E1'!
41&!$9*.!)1.)*.!+Y)%b9(&.32#$!#.!/9(2).$!*12,(&41#$X!-)(2&!.)*.!+Y)1.(#$X!41#!%)!
-#*$,#!#.!%#!%)*b)b#!091()*.$!9*.!)+9-.,$!-91(!(#-(,$#*.#(!%)!21$&41#X!%#!0&*,2)X!
%#$!)(.$!b()-3&41#$!#.!%#!%&5(#W!
!
D1$$&X!%Y)((&5,#!+Y1*!*915#)1!0)*)%!+#!5#*.#X!.91.!0922#!%)!2&$#!$1(!%#!2)(03,!
+Y1*! -(9+1&.! *95).#1(X! 2`*#! &*,%10.)'%#2#*.! f! 1*#! (#+,/&*&.&9*! +#$! (h%#$! +#$!
)0.#1($!+#!0#!2)(03,!g!%)!03)i*#!+1!%&5(#X!+#!%Y)1.#1(!)1!+&$.(&'1.#1(!#*!-)$$)*.!-)(!
%Y,+&.#1(X! )! -)(! 09*$,41#*.! 09**1! +#! -(9/9*+$! 03)*b#2#*.$! $.(10.1(#%$! )5#0!
%Y)((&5,#!+)*$!0#!$#0.#1(!+1!*12,(&41#W!
!
E)(!)&%%#1($X!-91(!+#(*&#(X!%)!2&b().&9*!5#($!%#!*12,(&41#!)!#1!%&#1!#*!+#1c!.#2-$!M!
+Y)'9(+!-)(!%Y&*.(9+10.&9*!$1(!%#!2)(03,!+1!09*0#-.!+#!%&'()&(&#!#*! %&b*#!$91$!
%Y&2-1%$&9*!+#!6#//!S#j9$X!1*!5&$&9**)&(#!-91(!41&!%#!$#0.#1(!+1!%&5(#!(#-(,$#*.)&.!)1!
+,'1.! +#$! )**,#$! ]< ! 1*#! 9--9(.1*&.,! &*0(9d)'%#! +1! /)&.! +#! %)! 21%.&.1+#! +#!
@!-(9+1&.$!A!41#!0#%)!(#-(,$#*.#W!NY#$.!0#!09*$.).!41&!%Y)2`*#()X!#*!=]]^X!f!&*5#*.#( !
0#..#!#?%&'()&(&#!41&!#//()&#!)1e91(+Y31&!%)!-%1-)(.!+#$!)0.#1($!+#!%)!03)i*#!+1!%&5(#!#.!
272#! %#$! -9159&($! -1'%&0$ X! *9.)22#*.! #*! C()*0#!M! D2)j9*W! E1&$! %Y&*5)$&9*!
61%&)*#!",5741#!?!@!"#$!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$!/)0#!)1!2)(03,!*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!A!?! \!
BCDE!>!`2#*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!$Y#$.!09*0(,.&$,#X!f!%Y)1'#!+1!;= !$&`0%#X!-)(!%Y)((&5,#!+#!0#!
*915#)1!/9(2).!+#!%&5(#!M!%Y(;%%HW!
!
"Y(;%%H4!91!%&5(#!*12,(&41#X!#c&$.#!+#!2)*&`(#!b%9')%#!+#-1&$!+#!*92'(#1$#$! $1(!%)!
.9&%#W!I1!$&2-%#!.#c.#!#*!%&b*#!)1!/&03&#(!EIC!k%#!%&5(#!#*!/9(2).!*12,(&41#!#$.!
9//&0&#%%#2#*.!)--)(1!#*!=]\=!-)(!%Y&*&.&).&5#!+#!O&03)#%!V)(.X!5&)!%#!0,%`'(#! +'%B(3!
1/3(.;('* lX! +#$! '%9b$ ?SI! )1c! @!$0)*$!A! +#! 2)*b)$X! K*.#(*#.! (#0#*$#! +#-1&$!
%9*b.#2-$! *92'(#! +#! (#$$91(0#$! %&..,()&(#$! #*! %&b*#W! O)&$! ;<<>! )! 2)(41,! 1*!
.91(*)*.!&*09*.#$.)'%#!-91(!0#. .#!3&$.9&(#!+1!%&5(#!*12,(&41#W!D5#0!%Y)((&5,#!+1!
9%.I!J&;'&# !#.!+1!5I;%%HX!$1&5&$!-)(!%#!K&.)0(!#.!%#!K%;%X!%#!%&5(#!+,2).,(&)%&$,!$Y#$.!
.(915,!1*!$1--9(.!M!%)!%&$#1$#W!!
!
")!%&$#1$#!.#%%#!41#!*91$!%)!09**)&$$9*$!)1e91(+Y31&!)!/)&.!$9*!#*.(,#!$1(!%#!2)(03,!
#*! ;<<>X! )1! 6)-9*!M! (,59%1.&9*! .#03*9%9b&41#X! %#! 9%.I! J&;'&# ! )! ,.,! %)! -(#2&`(#!
2)03&*#! f! 1.&%&$#(! %)! .#03*9%9b&#! =!(L+,+(' !DX! -)-&#(! ,%#0.(9*&41#! -#(2#..)*.! 1*!
09*/9(.!+#!%#0.1(#!092-)()'%#!f!0#%1&!41Y9//(#!1*!%&5(#!/)&.!+Y#*0(#X!+#!09%%#!#.!+#!
-)-&#(W!I#!;<<:!f!;<<ZX!+&5#($#$!#*.(#-(&$#$X!+9*.!*9.)22#*.!89*d!#.!D2)j9*X!
%)*0#(9*.!(#$-#0.&5#2#*.!+&//,(#*.#$!5#($&9*$!+1!9%.I!M(,)('! #.!+1!K&.)0(X!.)'%#..#$!
+#$.&*,#$!f!%)!%#0.1(#!+#!%&5(#$!,%#0.(9*&41#$W!E)()%%`%#2#*.X!%#$!2)(41#$!$-,0&)%&$,#$!
+)*$!%#!*12,(&41#!%)*0#*.!.91(!f!.91(!+#$!%&'()&(&#$!#*!%&b*#X!-91(!)0 3#.#(!%#$!(;%%H>!
$91$!%#$!/9(2).$!$1--9(.,$!-)(!%#$!%&$#1$#$W!!
!
`2#B*! 0#! +,'1.! +#! ;= ! $&`0%#X! %)! -%1-)(.! +#$! %&'()&(#$ ! *#! 59d)&#*.! )%9($! #*! 0#..#!
*915#%%#!.#03*9%9b&#!(&#*!+Y&*41&,.)*.!-91(!%#1(!)5#*&(!#.!-91(!0#%1&!+#$!%&5(#$!@!
.()+&.&9**#%$!AW!"Y9+#1(!+1!-)-&#(X!%#$!-)b#$!41#!%Y9*!.91(*#X!%#!-%)&$&(!+Y9//(&(!1*!
'#%!915()b#WWW! .91$!0#$!)(b12#*.$!(#-(,$#*.)&#*.!-91(!#1cX!-(9/#$$&9**#%$!+1!%&5(#X!
1*!-9&+$!0#(.)&*!+)*$!%#!039&c!+#$!09*$922).#1($W!
!
")! *12,(&$).&9*! +1! %&5(#X! +#! -(&2#! )'9(+ ! $1$0#-.&'%#! +Y#*.()i*# (! %#$! 272#$!
-(9'%,2).&41#$!41#!0#%%#$!41Y9*.!$1'& #$!%#$!&*+1$.(&#$!+#!%)!21$&41#!#.!+1!0&*,2)X!
*Y#$.!#*!#//#.!-)$!$&!$&2-%#!#.!)*9+&*#!41Y&%!-91(()&.!-)()i.(#W!D1!/&%!+1!.#2-$X!%#$!
,59%1.&9*$!.#03*9%9b&41#$!9*.!)--9(.,!)1c!-(9+1&.$!01%.1(#%$!+#$!)2,%&9().&9*$!
&*+,*&)'%#$ !g!$&!%#$!09*$922).#1($!(#5&#**#*.!)1e91(+Y31&!)1!5&*d%#X!-91(!%#!-%)&$&(!
61%&)*#!",5741#!?!@!"#$!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$!/)0#!)1!2)(03,!*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!A!?!Z!
BCDE!>!+Yd!(#.(915#(!1*!$9*!$)00)+,!#.!)1.3#*.&41#X!9*!*#!-#1.!.91.#/9&$!&b*9(#(!41#!%)!
0)$$#..#!)1+&9!/1.!f!$9*!3#1(#!1*!9'e#.!'#)1091-!-%1$!.()*$-9(.)'%#!#.!(,$&$.)*.X!#.!
41#! %#! NI! )! )--9(.,! 1*#! 41)%&.,! +#! $9*! e)2)&$! ,b)%,#!e1$41Yf! %Y)--)(&.&9*! +#$!
%#0.#1($!#.!/&03&#($!OERX!-#(2#..)*.!+#!-9$$,+#(!#.!+Y,091.#(!+#$!2&%%&#($!+#!-&$.#$!
)1+&9!+#!'9**#!41)%&., X!$)*$!e)2)&$!0()&*+(#!%)!29&*+(#!)%.,().&9*!+1#!f!%Y1$1(#W!U*!
(#.(915#!%#!272#!#c#2-%#!-91(!%#!0&*,2)!#.!%)!5&+,9!g!#.!-91(!/&*&(X!%Y&2)b#(&#!
*12,(&41#!#$.!+#5#*1#!*9*!$#1%#2#*.!1*!)(.!f!-)(.!#*.&`(#X!2)&$!,b)%#2#*.!%#!
29d#*! +#! -9$$,+#(! #.! +&//1$#(! +#$! 2&%%&#($! +Ym15(#$! -&0.1()%#$! 0%)$$&41#$! )1!
29&*+(#!09n.!#.!#*!V)1.#!I,/&*&.&9*W!
!
B*!0#%)X!%)!-(9'%,2).&41#!+1 !%&5(#!$Y)--(903#()&.!-%1$!#c)0.#2#*.!+#!0#%%#!+#$!
m15(#$! -&0.1()%#$W! ")! 21$&41#! #.! %)! 5&+,9X! +#-1&$! %#1(! &*.(9+10.&9*! )1! b()*+!
-1'%&0X!*Y9*.!e)2)&$!-1!$#!+&//1$#(!) 1.(#2#*.!41#!-)(!%#!'&)&$!+Y1*#!2)03&*# !g!2)&$!
%#!%&5(#X!+#-1&$!$)!0(,).&9*X!)!.91e91($!,.,!+)*$!%Y#$-(&.!09221*!f!%)!/9&$!1*#!m15(#!
%&..,()&(#!#.!1*!9'e#.!f!-)(.!#*.&`(#X!092-9$,! *9.)22#*.!+#!-)-&#(W!N9*.()&(#2#*.!f!
%)! 0)$$#..#X! )1! +&$41#! #.! )1! %#0.#1(! -9(.)'%#! -91(! %)! 21$&41#! #.! %#$! /&%2$X!
%Y)5`*#2#*.! +#! %)! %&$#1$#! &*+1&.! 1*! 03)*b#2#*.! 092-%#.! +1! ()--9(.! +1!
09*$922).#1(! )1! %&5(#! #*! .)*.! 41#! .#%X! #*! 0#! $#*$! 41Y&%! &*.(9+1&.! 1*! 9'e#.!
,%#0.(9*&41#!#*.(#!%#!%#0.#1(!#.!%Ym15(#!%1#W!!
!
O)%b(,!0#!09*$.).X!/9(0#!#$.!+#!(#2)(41#(!41#!%#!%&5(#!*12,(&41#!)((&5#!)1e91(+Y31&!
f!09*5)&*0(#!%#$!09*$922).#1($X!)1.)*.!#*!D2,(&41#!41Y#*!D$&#!#.!#*!B1(9-#W!")!
C()*0#X!)..)03,#!f!1*!29+`%#!0%)$$&41#!+#!%)!03)i*#!+1!%&5(#X!)! 0#(.#$!29*.(,!1*#!
0#(.)&*#!(,$&$.)*.#!f!%Y)((&5,#!+1!*12,(&41#!+)*$!0#!$#0.#1(!g!#%%#!*Y)!-91(!)1.)*.!
-)$!-1!(,$&$.#(!.(9-!%9*b.#2-$!f!%Y&2-)0.!+#$!*915#%%#$!.#03*9%9b&#$X!#.!$1(.91.!+#$!
%&'()&(#$!#*!%&b*#!.#%%#$!41YD2)j9*W !B*!;<=RX!%#!%&5(#!(#-(,$#*.#!;<o!+1!03&//(#!
+Y)//)&(#$!+YD2)j9*!g!2)&$X!0922#!*91$!%#!5#((9*$!-%1$!#*!+,.)&%!&0&X!$9*!&*/%1#*0#!
$1(!%#!$#0.#1(!+1!%&5(#!*#!$Y)((7.#!-)$!%fW!")!%&'()&(&#!#*!%&b*#!+#!6#//!S#j9$ X!+9*.!
%Y)2'&.&9*!$#!(,$12#!#*!$9*!$%9b)*! =!)#>%'$,&>!+0/>!)N&.3('$#)&,&'(!(.3'(!0(>!,/3(/'>!(3!
0(>!0(73(/'> !DX!#$.!,b)%#2#*.!)1e91(+Y31&!%#!-(#2&#(!+&$.(&'1.#1(! )1!29*+#!+#!%&5(#$X!
=#.!%#!-(#2&#(!/91(*&$$#1(!+#!%&$#1$#$!)1c!B.).$?J*&$W !J*#!-(9'%,2).&41#!29*+&)%#!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!
=!N3&//(#$!M!O)b)j&*#!O%%H>!*p>\!M!=!JN(@@(3!:$,<%.!DX!90.9'(#!;<=R W!
61%&)*#!",5741#!?!@!"#$!%&'()&(&#$!&*+,-#*+)*.#$!/)0#!)1!2)(03,!*12,(&41#!+1!%&5(#!A!?! ]!
BCDE!>!