Rapport de mission à Cuba 2013
44 pages
Français
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Tout savoir sur nos offres

Rapport de mission à Cuba 2013

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Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres
44 pages
Français

Description

Cuba, pays dont l’image est souvent déformée par les médias, est réputé pour avoir développé l’agroécologie sur son territoire. En 2013, nous avons missionné un ingénieur agronome pour explorer le mouvement agroécologique cubain. Cette étude a confirmé le haut niveau de connaissances et d’innovation des pratiques agroécologiques de la paysannerie cubaine ; elle a également permis d’observer le mode de transmission horizontale de paysan à paysan qui est mis en œuvre.

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Publié le 03 juillet 2014
Nombre de lectures 13
Langue Français
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Exrait

           
 
 
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!   +;  "      6 +,, 6        4  ( ) " +,, 6  - 4# #5 6  -
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  B ##! # ?  A  E B   0  04     ?  A  *H +     ##2  ! ,,: #5 *B #    B #. 5:     #      ! 2: : 2,: #. ! !:  #   ##2  <!  C ?  I !B  4# ,,:  +@       #5 :B ! : E+! E6 ! I    B + 0   ! ,,: J #5 6 #5 K  $<! ,L,  #  #B <& :  24 + 04B #0      +M    2 0   #5 #   #  ##2 !  5.   #:  00  4 ! :  ! +2  !  ! J '! ,,: K B :   <B  2   #    #5 B  :  ,#2:  +,, 6  : E+ #  B    6 ! +H : # #  ##2 !  !B  # , ! +   : N! #  !##  +,, 6   E0      6  0   ##2  00   ! ,,: B  !   !0  #    #5   5. ,  #5  +0 +! #  ! # ?  A 6 #     2    #B + # +#  +4#    !##   2, J  #5 6 #5 K   0 #0  # B      #5  C  B # !  ! ,,  ?  A  +#,   J !,,: KB #  !  ## *   ##2 # , O  4 #  6 ##  6 !  ##  +  00 #    : E+ 00  %   B     ##, : E+ #  #  4# #!,  !   #    !   +2 ,  #   !.    4 # ,B !  #   #:    !   ! #   : #,  00  +,,  +M  ,  ! #5    #      #  !  ## #: ,,:   N!  +M   0  00 #    ?  A   # +!B 6 #   ## 04B   !  00      ! " P    !  !  ##  , #, + ) : ,#     #2 #       4  , P6  6 #.  # 
"   +;"   )D # #    , 00    B   P  
    
     !       +  +  B  #     , ##B         6 1 E "   +H #B    # # B #0    ## #  ##    # 0 ,: #!   #    !  !  B   #  # +5  #0  ! ,,:     +  B     ! 00 #  ,  0  +  
)  
' ?!  Tableau 1 : Calendrier de la mission, août-décembre 2013
  
#
     !"#  ##        #B ,# ! ! # :+  #  #0   #   3 * C52.,#2:   #   * ##0    ?  A  !  # + #.  #  * "# #  #  ?  A    ! #     ! * "  !    )  !B #,  ! ##! #    +;"B ,  . #!  ! #5   . !  : #.  :  2  #0 #7  :  0 #   00   #5 0## #   :  0 : #: 6  0   $#2:  &   # $  ,  #  B % !  !2  &
 $     !"#  #    #    #  #,   ! !    # B  . 6   # # #        #,  !    00     +;"     #  !  0 00 6  #!B  * ! H #,   6 +! #   #  , #!4 I #4  B ## 6   . 22B  0  # # !B  :  +;"B  : #  +!, +!  0      #5B  !  #! :+ # #.*# E    # : E + # ,  #  # +;" # #,  !B : E+ # # # +?  #  " $;*!& 4*  :*H  6 00   + #.  +;"    !  # ,#B    # #  # # ;   ! +;"   ! #Q       #, #   ##! #  #  !  0 4 4 ! ; !  2 : #!#  4 ! #   !B  ,     + # 2  #! $!  &  #.B E+ #  6  +  #:   ! ,,: B  +?B  "B  ;FB +    +R;> R40  +,  # C  $! 2# &  +  0 0  ! 0 ! : E+    #5  ! +2, #.  !  ,B ! +  +;"
" %  & !"#  #2   + #  !  0  - E  ! $ 6  0 # E&B  #  + 6 : 2  2: 0 # !  # +2, !  #5B +##0  #: ,B +,   ,   0B  0 #0B  #  6  0  6  7  24  0     # !   4B     . ! 3 -!  4 #: -!  0 +, $CB "B ="B ,#:B7& -!  # -!  #: ,,: ! -00 !4    N!  +,, C  #B 00  + #, #  #,     !   3 -;"  $C &B #! $C B A,  C C#&  # $C B A,  C C#&B -,   .  +,  2,  +,   #* $C B A,&B Visite dun paysan avec les coordinateurs -"B !  0 +, $ ?&B nationaux et provinciaux du MACAC, -? $A,&Bprovince de Villa Clara #.  ,   ! #, ! +;"B E+ #  #  +,   !   4#  #S  0,  A5 $<@&B . #:  +,,   # ,*!,B  : :: 0  B # +;? $C,   ),B #!   A!&B .,  #, +,   B  0  0    $,,  6 &   #! + 4   ,  $)   C C#&  4   ,  $ ?  A,&  +MB  ,  $<5:B B  A!  "  '&   #  !             ! (
+E0     #5 #:B 6 00 !4B   ! ,,: B  #  !B +!  #:B  #,     #     #5B       ##!    ,      !   #5 :  !  #  ,  6  #2      B  #  N!   E4 B ! #  #5 4*H Paysan expliquant ses pratiques agricoles ' (  ) !&*  !"#  ! # 4 B +;" ,       +,,   # 6  0      00 2:    4 ,    +,, 6  T    ##  00 #5 $,:B B B 2B B B B <4:&B   2,  #*. 2  2  !  B           0  +;" ; "@ 6 >  <B #! + Le groupe du cours international  #,   0  ! 3 dagroécologie lors dune visite à une ferme productrice de café (qui sèche devant nous) -3 #  B ! 2  !   #   ;  0   5.  0  +;" -  ! 3 o/2*12 3 " :B #:     o2*2 3 +;"  ,   #5 B  #          6  #  + o2*-2 3 ,,  !  6 -<  ! 3  o#!     C! $C&/2*2 3 )      #!  " , $"&  B #!  o2*-2 3  Q   0  +,    !  -<  ! 3 o/2*2 3":  2, #  ,   Q  +,,   #      +! o2*-2 3 )  0 ,,:  ,0B #! <5: -F  ! 3 o/2*2 3 > ,,:   o> ,,:    2*2 3 # o2*-2 3)  0 ,,:B #! + -)  ! 3 o)  0  +,  /2*2 3 *   A! o2*-2 3 )  +,#:   ro Visite dune lombriculture, CCS 1de mayo -C ( ! 3     Q
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 B  B <  # R, # +;" ! +   )D #B  ! # E0  #, +4#  <  +2,   4#  ,,  # #    R  # +0 ## #  0   4#  : $  ##   #  #5 B 4#   2 #7&B    +   .  !  , !  4 #5 ##   # E   6  !   ,   ,# #    #!  #5 F+ #  # !  0   #!   "  'B , #     #5*!,    , 0:   0 0  # #   # ,*!, "  E  E     #   ,# #   2: +,,B ,  #! "  ! # !  0  +;"  Visite de ferme (compostage de déchets dun+,, 6          <;>  biodigesteur à biogaz)  0   +,   !   B #.  0     !   )D #B    #  (  $4#  !    +,,B 2, !  ,,B #      +!B 0 4    +, B ,B #!& ?  A  #  4#   #.  0 +4#:  !      #5  CB  :  E0      6  0  B #.  0  ?<   E4 + , ! ,      22 0:   #   ! ,,: B      Q  #  ,. 6  A! Conférence de la Vía Campesina
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* .  +&/  !"# "*P !    :: E 0  #!   !  00   ! ,,:  ! :    +00  ##2   E   +    ! +;"B +?B +;?  R<B   !  0 ,0.   #!  <5:B +,#: +   0    $,,   &  #   , #        !   :  # #!   :  ! # !   E $  & # Visite de lorganoponique dAlamar
 ,  )0      #  !, +B +,,  #  #     ,     6  0 + 0 4 2 4 $#  #   #   ,B  B ,  #B + B 7&B  ! B   #:   #  +!B   # +,,   E0 , #  , #   #   ;  !  :  + # E   B   B   +A    #5 6  !    #: , Ferme agroécologique, Pinard el Rio
()0  1        )2 !  !   11B +,   ## (    . 0 B 2,   #  , # #  H : *  #B  B  :*4!  ! +4# ! +#    = -$ B B 0B !,! 407&  # #5  !!    +4H #!B  :  ,    H ,        ##B !  0   ,  E+2   #  ,  &   #: E+2 ! La Havane
 ,  +4#    6      # +   .  +,       6   #: 6 , 2  B  :  00  # ,:   : 6     B   :   0 #  # #. 00 6      . 7   +4#B ,: # + B  # 00 6 0 !B H + 4  #, ! 6 !##  #: ,:   # (  -X  ## 6 X  ## 0  #, *  -  +2  B  X     #5 $ 1-& -+ . # /X  4#  #5  X  !  #5 $C 3 ;"& 1
 !  #B   # #B  2,  #   +,   0   :   #!  0 ,   / N! . 11  :  . 0   #   4 # #5B  E  # 4   +  0  ,   # # 1  . !: <2   +4#B H     :: # !0 $ #  , # +,   (&B + #    :B ! H #Q , #  2, Une des rares usines sucrières encore en fonctionnement à Cuba!   !:  B #!   !  !      # +, # #   =B 2, 6  #4 :     . #.   # ,   #  !     < $ + < :B ! :   /X   2, 4&B    0 # !*6*!   4B :  0  H 0  ! !   #. #   4   !  +='CC 4#  #: 2,: ! B   0  0:  4 0  +, 2:   !  !    #B  #.B    # + !     22  + 2: $! 2# &   0 + ,  Champ de canne à sucre présentant les 2 , :B +    # #  6  00 nombreuses variétés  2:   ! !B   E  , Q   #  développées par la    0 .     /B  :   22recherche scientifique cubaine +!
(  .  2 , 
          !         ""     #        #  $    %   #  ! "  &        #      '    !($ )   *    "   % +       # #     " "$       %   "  ! "            '    !(   &     ,-.  #  / % -0   &   .      "$ 1'  '$ --2$
La «libreta», le carnet de rationnement cubain
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,   =B : ! 6 +##     , B  #0 #  +, 0 +00  ##  #  :   #  #5 6 22   # #   #  . :B  #.  . , ( 2  .     1B  #5B # #  #  #  # ,  B  6 !  , # 0 0 6 +H   #  #B +,B  # #25B     #.  2,B 7    ##  #5B  2 ,   0:     !  6 +!   #: ,,:  $ B 2B !0B B B 2 !!B !  7&  #B #B ###B +  !   $#,B B  ,:B 0B #7& 0  B ! +,  # , + #Q  !0    !  #   ! #  ##  +:    B    Organoponique enzone urbaine B   #    @    6  # #   R  H    6 O  +5  ! # !  ,#:B # M2.  @ B     6 #  #B 2    0 R 22 6 #0  4  # ,*!,B       $&!      6     # #.    00 ! !    ! #!    #5     1  !4  ,   # +  22   , $<&   0,    0 # # 4 #5   6 !  #:  !   $2 !!  Labour avec traction animale   !B B !    47&  , # +  C *   J "5,  C K  # #  +MB   0*. 2 #       # , # 00  2:  !B !  !   +2, , # +  0   $ !    &   , ,: Compost dans un organoponique, Sta Clara 6     B   2B 0B #7  , $:B & Evolution de laproduction Evolutionde la productionEvolution dans lemploi de produits Type de culture de 1988à 1994de 1988à 2007agrochimiques de 1988 à 2007 Légumes en général-65 %+145 %-72 % Haricots -77% +351% -55% Racines et tubercules-42 %+145 %-85 % Tableau 2. Evolutions de la production végétale et de lemploi de produits agrochimiques (Source : Rosset et Al, 2011)
   , !  0 :       # # #! $ # J  KB 6  ## #&B  ,  2   +!  B !  #    +! 4 ! ,    +# 4 