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The environmental goods and services sector - A data collection handbook. 2009 edition.

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200 pages
Ce manuel constitue un outil de référence complet pour développer un système de collecte de données harmonisées et comparables dans tous les pays membres du système statistique européen.
Il inclut les activités de protection de l'environnement et de gestion des ressources naturelles. Il fournit des orientations pour étudier la contribution des éco-produits et des éco-activités à la croissance économique, leur évolution, leur importance, leur potentiel en matière d'innovation, les barrières à la concurrence internationale, les opportunités de travail, le rôle des gouvernements.
Luxembourg. http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0067177
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M e t h o d o l o g i e s a n d W o r k i n g p a p e r s
The environmental goods and services sector
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Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009
ISBN 978-92-79-13180-6 ISSN 1977-0375 doi 10.2785/31117 Cat. No. KS-RA-09-012-EN-N  Theme: Environment and energy Collection: Methodologies and working papers
© European Communities, 2009
 
THEENVIRONMENTAL GOODS ANDS ESCIVRESTOECR 
ADATA COLLECTIONHANDBOOK 
Unit E3 — Environmental statistics and accounts
 1
Detailed table of contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................................... 7 
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................. 8 
Glossary...................................................................................................................................................9 
Abbreviations and Acronyms List .......................................................................................................... 16 
1. ..............n.oitcudortnI................................................................................................................1.9.... 
1.1. Policy context ..................................................................................................................................... 19 1.2. Purpose and scope............................................................................................................................. 23 1.3. Structure and organisation of the handbook....................................................................................... 25 2. The environmental goods and services sector ............................................................................. 29 2.1. Overview of the environmental sector ................................................................................................ 29 2.2. Delimitation of EGSS.......................................................................................................................... 31 2.2.1. What is included and excluded in the environmental sector? .......................................................................... 31 2.2.2. What kind of environmental technologies, goods and services?...................................................................... 33 2.2.3. roduP andcers........3.9........................................................................................................................ies.ivit act 2.3. Classification of the environmental sector .......................................................................................... 43 Annex 1. Details on goods/services/technologies, General Government and principal/secondary/ancillary activities .................................................................................................. 46 Goods, services and technologies ................................................................................................................... 46 General Government versus Corporations ...................................................................................................... 46 Ancillary activities versus principal and secondary activities............................................................................ 47 Annex 2. Details on the classification of environmental technologies and products and examples by environmental domain ........................................................................................................................... 49 Environmental protection group: CEPA 2000 .................................................................................................. 49 Resource management group: CReMA 2008 .................................................................................................. 60 3. Practical approaches and methods for the identification and classification of the EGSS............. 71 3.1. Identifying the population.................................................................................................................... 71 3.1.1.  .......................................................................................................... 73Identification of environmental activities 3.1.2. Identification of environmental technologies, goods and services.................................................................... 76 3.1.3. Link between technologies, goods, services, activities and the producers....................................................... 80 3.1.4. hTil e pSSduro ostEGf 28.....................................................................cers........................................................ 3.2.  82 ................................Recommendations for the classification of activities by environmental domains 
Annex 3. Correspondence tables between NACE rev 1.1 and NACE rev.2 ......................................... 86 Annex 4. Sources of information to be used for identifying the population: national examples............ 89 The Netherlands .............................................................................................................................................. 89 Sweden ............................................................................................................................................................ 89 Canada ............................................................................................................................................................ 90 
Annex 5. Identification of integrated technologies and adapted goods: some examples ..................... 91 
 
Integrated technologies in the manufacturing industry..................................................................................... 91 Sustainable agriculture and organic farming .................................................................................................... 95 Renewable energy ........................................................................................................................................... 97 
Eco-labels, a way to identify adapted goods .................................................................................................... 99 
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Annex 6. The WTO list of environmental goods.................................................................................. 102 
Annex 7. The German list of environmental goods and services........................................................ 107 Annex 8. Examples of the classification of ‘sustainable activities’ ...................................................... 114 4.  118A framework for EGSS data collection ........................................................................................ 4.1. Existing approaches to gathering EGSS statistics............................................................................ 118 4.2. Sources for data compilation 119 ............................................................................................................ 4.2.1. Estimating variables using existing statistics 119 ................................................................................................. 4.2.2. Estimating variables using surveys ............................................................................................................... 124 4.3. Turnover of EGSS ............................................................................................................................ 124 4.3.1. Definition ...................................................................................................................................................... 124 4.3.2. Intermediate consumption and turnover as a basis for the estimate of other variables .................................. 125 4.3.3. 215........................ ehTnrutrevof  orpCoatornsio................................................................................................ 4.3.4. Turnover of General Government ................................................................................................................. 127 4.3.5. ................................................................................21..8skAsurv in ....eys.of rni gvoreutnr................................ 4.4. Value added of EGSS ...................................................................................................................... 129 4.4.1. Definition ...................................................................................................................................................... 129 4.4.2. Value added within Corporations .................................................................................................................. 130 4.4.3. Value added within General Government...................................................................................................... 131 4.4.4. Asking for value added in surveys................................................................................................................. 131 4.5. Employment within EGSS ................................................................................................................ 132 4.5.1. Definition ...................................................................................................................................................... 132 4.5.2. Employment within Corporations................................................................................................................... 132 4.5.3. 1.53........................................................................t.en............................mployment withinG nerelaG voremnE 4.5.4. Asking for employment in surveys................................................................................................................. 135 4.6. Exports by the EGSS........................................................................................................................ 135 4.6.1. Definition ...................................................................................................................................................... 135 4.6.2. Exports by Corporations ............................................................................................................................... 136 4.6.3. ....................................................................1.04................................................rveys...ts in sue roropxiksAf gn 4.7.  ...................................................................................................... 140Assessing the quality of the data Annex 10. Demand-side approach ...................................................................................................... 142 Annex 11. Estimating variables using surveys .................................................................................... 145 
Annex 12. The double-counting problem ............................................................................................ 151 
Annex 13. National examples.............................................................................................................. 153 Turnover ........................................................................................................................................................ 153 The Netherlands............................................................................................................................................................ 153 Sweden.........................................................................................................................................................................154 Belgium.........................................................................................................................................................................154 Austria...........................................................................................................................................................................155 
 
Employment ................................................................................................................................................... 158 Austria...........................................................................................................................................................................158 Belgium.........................................................................................................................................................................158 France...........................................................................................................................................................................158 The Netherlands............................................................................................................................................................ 159 Sweden.........................................................................................................................................................................160 
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Canada ......................................................................................................................................................................... 161 Exports........................................................................................................................................................... 163 The Netherlands............................................................................................................................................................ 163 Sweden.........................................................................................................................................................................164 Germany.......................................................................................................................................................................165 ECOTEC (2002) and Ernst and Young (2006)............................................................................................................... 166 5. The standard tables..................................................................................................................... 169 5.1. Organisation of the standard tables.................................................................................................. 169 5.1.1. General description of the introductory sheets .............................................................................................. 170 5.1.2. General description of the datasheets........................................................................................................... 174 5.1.3. description of the datasheets for CorporationsSpecific  175 ................................................................................. 5.1.4. Specific description of the datasheets for General Government .................................................................... 176 5.2. complete the standard tables? ............................................................................................. 176How to  5.2.1. General recommendations............................................................................................................................ 176 5.2.2. ................................eesh..tss ontadaoproitarTC eh................................................................................7..71.... 5.2.3. The General Government datasheets ........................................................................................................... 178 5.3.  178 .....................................................................................................How to print the standard tables? 6. Presentation and interpretation of data ....................................................................................... 182 6.1. Analysis by economic variable ......................................................................................................... 183 6.1.1. Turnover ....................................................................................................................................................... 183 6.1.2. 1.48................................................................................................................................................ aueedddalV 6.1.3. ................................................................................................................................oyment..................185mElp 6.1.4. Exports ......................................................................................................................................................... 185 6.2. Analysis by economic sector ............................................................................................................ 186 6.2.1. .........1..87................................oC......nsioatorrp................................................................................................ 6.2.2. General Government sector.......................................................................................................................... 189 6.3. Analysis by environmental domains ................................................................................................. 189 6.4. Analysis of time series...................................................................................................................... 192 6.5. Analysis by type of output................................................................................................................. 192 6.6. Comparison among countries........................................................................................................... 194 
Index .................................................................................................................................................... 195 
List of figures
Figure 2.1 : Environmental technologies, goods and services within the scope of the EGSS...............33 Figure 2.2 : Nomenclature of the environmental technologies, goods and services .............................38 Figure 2.3 : Classification of producers .................................................................................................40 
Figure 2.4 : Classification of environmental technologies and products by category ............................43 
Figure A2.1 : Recycling activities: environmental protection and natural Resources Management ......54 
Figure A2.2 : Incineration activities: waste management and production of renewable energy ............54 Figure A2.3: Definition and classification of forest activities………………………………………….……61 Figure 3.1 : How to identify and build a database of the population of the EGSS .................................72 
Figure 3.2 : Links between the different classifications of activities, technologies and products...........81 
 
 4
Figure 3.3 : Recycling activities: distinction between environmental protection and natural Resources Management .................................................................................................84 Figure 4.1 : Relationship between EGSS and SERIEE Accounts (Source: Istat, 2007, Internal note of the Task Force on EGSS). ................................................................................123 Figure A10.1 : Supply versus Demand- side approaches....................................................................142 Figure A11.1: Hungarian survey on EGSS………………………… ………………………………………149 Figure A11.2: German survey on EGSS……………………………………………………………………150 Figure 5.1 : The coverage of the Standard Tables...............................................................................170 
Figure 5.2 : Overview of Standard Tables............................................................................................172 
Figure 5.3 : Overview of natural environmental protection CEPA classes (ST columns) ....................173 Figure 5.4: Overview of natural resource management CReMA classes(ST columns)……………….173 Figure 5.5: Overview of type of activity and output breakdowns(ST rows) …………………………….173 Figure 5.6: Footnotes area of the ST……………………………………………………………………….175 Figure 6.1 : Different levels of details for presenting the data on the EGSS........................................183 
Figure 6.2 : EP and RM turnover, percentage of total turnover (left), EGSS turnover by environmental domain, millions of euro (right) ..............................................................184 Figure 6.3 : Value Added of the EGSS, percentage of total GDP (left), value added in the EP and RM sector, percentage of total EGSS value added (right) .....................................184 Figure 6.4 : Employment in the EP and RM sector, thousands of full time equivalents (left) and in particular in the EP sector, thousands of full time equivalents and percentage  of total EP employment (right).......................................................................................185 Figure 6.5 : Exports by type of output, Corporations, percentage of total exports...............................186 
Figure 6.6 : Value added of the EGSS, Corporations and General Government, millions of euro ......186 Figure 6.7 : Value added of the EGSS, Market and non-market activities (corporations non-market and general government), percentage of total EGSS .......................................187 Figure 6.8 : EGSS employment in the manufacturing sector, thousands of full-time equivalent……………………………………………………………………………188 Figure 6.9 : EGSS employment in the manufacturing sector, percentage of total manufacturing. ......188 
Figure 6.10 : The EGSS by environmental domain, millions of euro. ..................................................190 Figure 6.11 : Detail for the CReMA 13 (management of fossil energy resources), percentage of total CReMA 13 .............................................................................................................190 Figure 6.12 : Environmental employment related to fighting climate change ......................................191 
Figure 6.13 : Environmental employment related to production of new final goods and secondary raw materials from waste.............................................................................191 Figure 6.14 Evolution of the environmental employment for environmental protection and Resource Management activities, 2005-2008, millions of euro ....................................192 
Figure 6.15 The EGSS by type of environmental output, millions of euro. .........................................193 Figure 6.16 Details on employment in the adapted goods production, percentage of total adapted good employment ............................................................................................194 
 
 
 
5
List of tables
         ........4....2..............................................         ................7.2..............................................................................  !      "  #$% "     "    ..................................................96.................  &  '"   "     (  !&     )! *   )! * ........................87................................ 
 !&    +",   )! *   )! * ..........8.8................  !-&  .   / 01  !21  " /   3# 1...40..........................................................................................  !4-  "   /  " ................................1.11...........................................  !42  "      " ........................................11.1................2  !44  "     " ................................................2....11...................3 
 !(     " " "....................................................................11..4  1  5       ...............................................................................210  1  "  .........................................................8....31..................................  1&  6 7 8   "  9  :! 7 *; "  ' ! < " 9........931...................................  !    " "   '    7;9.152.......................................  !&  = ""   " = "   /     " 7   >>19....................................................61..2  !&       !  " /  #= >>7..16.........................  2   = ""=    '  )!     ........18......7.......  2   = ""     "     "..............189 
 
 
6
Preface
We are pleased to present this handbook on how to collect, interpret and present data on the environmental goods and services sector. It has been elaborated because there is a need to produce and compile comparable statistics on the environmental sector in order to respond to current policy interests and to help implement future policy measures directed at the environmental sector.
As this data collection must be harmonised and comparable, the solution was to develop standard tables for the collection of statistics and a handbook to explain the main concepts, how to fill in the tables and how to handle the data compilation.
The aim of the standard tables is essentially to separately identify employment, turnover, value added and exports according to different sectors and activities in the environmental sector. These standard tables are the main means by which environmental sector statistics are reported by the Member States to Eurostat.
This handbook proves a description and analysis of the concepts related to the environmental goods and services sector, supplemented by a definition and a classification of the sector, practical hands-on and detailed methodological guidance. The handbook is intended to function as a complete reference tool for developing a new data collection system for the environmental sector at national level.
It aims to provide a step-by-step recipe for those involved in compiling data on the environmental sector and to ensure the comparability of methods for compiling, analysing and interpreting data on the environmental sector. Its purpose is to facilitate the development and production of harmonised data and to enable more rigorous and improved cross-country comparison of data. It provides users of the handbook with supportive recommendations. Full implementation of these recommendations should help to ensure that data compiled and maintained on a consistent basis in all Member States of the European Statistical System (ESS) improves in comparability and in quality.
 
 
 
Gilles Decand Head of Unit, E3 Environmental statistics and accounts, Eurostat
 7
 Acknowledgements 
Special thanks are due to members of the Working Group on Environmental Expenditures Statistics and of the Task Force on the Environmental Goods and Services Sector, who have made this publication possible. Eurostat is particularly grateful for contributions from1: - Sacha Baud and Alexandra Wegscheider-Pichler (Statistics Austria) -Michel David (IFEN)  -Maja Cederlund, Mats Eberhardson and Nancy Steinbach (Statistics Sweden) Brolinson,  Hanna - Maria Luisa Egido (Statistics Spain) -Federico Falcitelli (ISTAT)  - Jeffrey Fritzsche (Statistics Canada)
-Marina-Anda Georgescu (Statistics Romania)  - Rocky Harris (DEFRA) -Sarah Kleine (Statistics Germany)  - Kulig, Maarten van  AnnaRossum, and Sjoerd Schenau (Statistics Netherlands) - Ute Roewer (Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik) - Eila Salomaa and Annika Miettinen (Statistics Finland) - Smith and Julie L. Hass (Statistics Norway) Tone - Tachfint (IFEN) Karim - Dean Thomas (DTI UK) Eurostat would also like to thank the Directorate-General Environment, the Directorate-General Enterprise, the Environmental Accounts team and M. Ulf Johansson from Eurostat for their extensive help and expert knowledge.
Nancy Steinbach, Ute Roewer and Marina-Anda Georgescu at different points in time were responsible for managing this project at Eurostat level. Together with Pepa Lopez, Celine Martin and Marco Orsini (ICEDD, Belgium) they contributed significantly to its success.
                                                 !  " "
 
8