Edgar Morin, aux risques d’une pensée libre (fr-ang) / La question de l’opinion

Edgar Morin, aux risques d’une pensée libre (fr-ang) / La question de l’opinion

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Edgar Morin is a thinker who, in word and deed, tends towards the very limits of knowledge and experience. But this is not out of a love of transgression or subversion; rather, it is the price he pays in searching for meaning and what he has referred to for many years as « reliance ». Bridging the gap between concept and experience, thinking and acting with the ebb and flow of the spirit of the times, Edgar Morin’s method follows many highways and byways and this issue of Hermès marks a staging post along the way.
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La question de l’opinion, Lundi 11 février 2013, 14h30 à 18h30, ISCC
9 février 2013
Parhistoiredemode
Séance 8. La question de l’opinion
Lundi 11 février 2013, 14h30 à 18h30, ISCC
Huitième séance du séminaire de formation par la recherche organisé par l’ISCC en coopération avec l’École doctorale EDITE, avec les interventions de Renaud Meltz et Samuel Lepastier.
Communication et opinion : une démarche pluridisciplinaire Renaud MELTZ, maître de conférences à l’Université de Polynésie Française, en délégation à l’ISCC
e L’opinion publique est une notion récente, apparue au cours du XVIII siècle, en même temps que l’émergence d’une bourgeoisie éclairée par l’augmentation du marché du livre et le développement de la presse. D’où la question fondamentale, qui appelle une approche pluridisciplinaire : l’opinion publique est-elle une réalité sociale, qui doit mobiliser des analyses sociologiques, ou relève-t-elle de l’idéologie politique ? En tout état de cause, la notion exige de multiplier les points de vue et de comparer les déïnitions disciplinaires, depuis les sciences politiques jusqu’à l’industrie des sondages.
Les inquiétudes collectives contemporaines Samuel LEPASTIER, directeur de recherche à l’Université Paris Diderot, chercheur associé à l’ISCC
Il est souvent constaté au sein des groupes des modiïcations aectives marquées par l’accentuation de l’anxiété vis-à-vis de l’extérieur. Ces réactions sont plus vives dans les foules. Dans ses origines, la recherche dans ce domaine n’était pas dénuée d’arrière-pensées politiques car elle permettait de rabattre des mouvements révolutionnaires sur la psychopathologie. Néanmoins, en intégrant des données issues de la psychanalyse, il a été possible d’anticiper les caractéristiques les mouvements de masse constatés dans les régimes totalitaires de l’entre-deux-guerres (Freud, 1921). L’apparition d’inquiétudes collectives de très grande ampleur ont été relevées ces dernières années. Sans doute, assistons-nous aux débuts de phénomènes dont l’intensité pourrait s’accroître. Fait nouveau, les moyens modernes de communication permettent la constitution de foules innombrables dont les membres n’ont plus de contact physique les uns avec les autres, reliés seulement par la perception d’une menace commune. Sous couvert de scientiïcité et avec l’alibi de la transparence, ressurgissent des angoisses millénaires. Ainsi, l’abus des rituels sataniques, le syndrome du bâtiment malsain ou encore l’enlèvement par des extraterrestres,
transposent la crainte des sorcières, des maisons hantées, ou des rencontres avec fées et magiciens.
La question de l’opinion
http://www.iscc.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article1685
Edgar Morin, aux risques d’une pensée libre
Ce numéro, coordonné par Alfredo Pena Vega et Stéphanie Proutheau, est disponible en librairie et sur le site web deCNRS Éditions.
Présentation
Si l’œuvre et les actions d’Edgar Morin bousculent les frontières des connaissances et de l’expérience, ce n’est pas par goût de la transgression ou de la subversion ; c’est plutôt le prix de sa recherche de sens et de ce que, depuis longtemps, il appelle la reliance. Jeter des ponts entre ce que l’on conçoit et vit séparément ; penser et agir avec l’esprit du temps qui est ux et reux. La méthode d’Edgar Morin est le cheminement, cette livraison d’Hermès, un point d’étape.
Qu’on ne s’y trompe pas : ce numéro n’est pas une hagiographie, mais un recueil de contributions intellectuelles originales d’auteurs dont les chemins ont croisé le sien à divers degrés et époques. Des témoignages qui l’installent déïnitivement comme l’un des pères fondateurs des sciences de la communication. Car la notion de communication traverse son œuvre et sa vie : non seulement elle transforme et relie les sciences aux côtés des concepts d’information et d’organisation, mais elle permet également de penser les rapports entre techniques, langages et imaginaires qui sont aux fondements des cultures. En
somme, une conception de la communication telle que l’entend la rédaction d’Hermèsdepuis plus de vingt ans, valorisant la complexité, non pas comme recette, mais comme une incitation à penser.
Heureuse concidence : ce numéro 60 de la revue Hermès célèbre les 90 ans d’Edgar Morin et ses 60 ans de CNRS. Une occasion pour lui, pour nous, de souligner la force de la diversité, des allers-retours entre racines et bourgeons, traditions et innovations.
Edgar Morin, aux risques d’une . pensée libre
July 2011 - Coordinated by Alfredo Pena Vega and Stéphanie Proutheau, supervised by Bernard Valade and Dominique Wolton
Online bookshopCNRS Éditions
Presentation
Edgar Morin is a thinker who, in word and deed, tends towards the very limits of knowledge and experience. But this is not out of a love of transgression or subversion; rather, it is the price he pays in searching for meaning and what he has referred to for many years as « reliance ». Bridging the gap between concept and experience, thinking and acting with the ebb and ow of the spirit of the times, Edgar Morin’s method follows many highways and byways and this issue ofHermèsmarks a staging post along the way.
This is no hagiography, however: what we oer here is a collection of original contributions from authors whose paths have crossed Edgar Morin’s, at various
times and in various ways, and whose writings have deïnitively established him as one of the founding fathers of the communication sciences. The idea of communication in omnipresent in Edgar Morin’s life and work: not only does it transform and link up the sciences with the concepts of information and organisation, it also makes thinking possible on the relationships between the techniques, languages and imagination that are the foundations of culture. All in all, a conception of communication that fully concords with the view held by theHermèseditorial board for some twenty years, where complexity is valued not as a recipe, but as an incentive to thought.
By a happy coincidence, in this 60th issue ofHermèswe celebrate Edgar Morin’s 90th birthday at the same time as the 60th anniversary of the CNRS - an opportunity for Edgar Morin, and for all of us, to underline the power of diversity and the continuous ow of ideas between roots and shoots, between tradition and innovation.
Contents
Dominique Wolton Introduction
Publications by Edgar Morin cited in this issue
Acknowledgements
Michel Rocard Happy Birthday, Edgar
I. COMPARATIVE EPISTEMOLOGY
A. The role of information and communication concepts in science
Michel Cassé Cosmology
Didier Dacunha-Castelle The logical intuitions of Edgar Morin Edgar Morin’s logical intuitions
Boris Cyrulnik Nothing is simpler than a complex thought
B. The unity and diversity of human experience
Edgar Morin Books that matter
Sergio Manghi Living matrices: subjects, societies and the planet
Juremir Machado da Silva Simply complex (box)
Gianluca Bocchi and Mauro Ceruti Humanity’s destiny in the making
Bernard Dagenais From movie stars to living cells
Thierry Paquot In praise of cinema (box)
Françoise Tristani-Potteaux The eternal youthfulness ofThe Stars(box)
C. Thought at work: action through interdisciplinarity
Laurent Greilsamer Non-conformism pathway to journalism
Pierre-Henri Gouyon The “Science & Citizens” approach at the CNRS: encompassing Edgarian researchers
Jean Foyer California’s mutation (box)
Alfredo Pena-Vega Emergence of a new pattern of thinking
Cécile Rougier-Vidal Edgar Morin and José Vidal-Beneyto (box)
II. FROM INTERDISCIPLINARITY TO COMPLEXITY
A. For a reform of knowledge
Alfredo Pena-Vega The genesis ofMethod(box)
Éric Letonturier Networks, communication and complexity
Christoph Wulf Education in Europe – an intercultural task in a globalized world
Jacques Perriault Complex thinking, Chinese thinking and globalisation
Claudia Fadel Edgar Morin travels southwards
Shengli Ma Edgar Morin in China (box)
Hervé Sérieyx The transformation of productive organisations
B. The epistemology of complexity
Jacques Ardoino The terms of complexity (box)
Alexandre Coutant An ecology of the intellect (box)
Auguste Nsonsissa In defence of “crisisology”
Éric Bertin, Guillaume Beslon, Olivier Gandrillon, Sébastian Grauwin, Pablo Jensen and Nicolas Schabanel Complexities: viewpoints from an institute of complex systems
Leonardo Rodríguez Zoya et Pascal Roggero On the links between complex thought and systems
Jean-Louis Le Moigne Exercising complex thought to make complex systems intelligible. Interview with Jacques Perriault, Stéphanie Proutheau, Édouard Kleinpeter and Alfredo Pena-Vega.
III. INTELLECTUAL DISPUTE AND POLITICAL CONFLICT
A. Quarrels and controversies
Edgar Morin A man of reviews. Interview by Bernard Valade
François Bordes and Pascale Skrzyszowski-Butel The Edgar Morin collection at the IMEC
Bernard Paillard The “Plozévet aair”. New light on an academic controversy
Jean Foyer Liberating and “ecologizing” the social sciences: on the role of context and researchers viewpoints in science
B. Resistance and the spirit of resistance
Florence Malraux Memories of daring and fraternity. Interview with Julie Pion
Philippe Dechartre A Compagnon de la Libération remembers… (box)
Vera Gravier Toulouse in the 1940s. Girlhood memories
András Bíró The Hungarian uprising: lessons of emancipation (box)
Éric Dacheux Rethinking Europe to build a European democracy
C. Concepts are not reality
Emmanuel Banywesize Complex thinking and governance: the case of the Democratic Republic of Congo
Pierre Zémor « Complexity doesn’t have to be complicated » (box)
Ana Sánchez Feminine-masculine: an unïnished dialogic
Edgar Morin and Sabah Abouessalam Linking North and South through an experience of Morocco
Sara Bonomo On the language of Edgar Morin
Marius Mukungu Kakangu Glossary
IV. BY WAY OF AN OPEN-ENDED CONCLUSION
Edgar Morin and Dominique Wolton Feature interview
VARIA
Laura Maxim Chemistry: facing up to the communication challenge
TRIBUTE
Jean-Marc Léger (by Didier Oillo)
RECOMMENDED READING
Marcel Gauchet,L’Avènement de la démocratie, t. III. À l’épreuve des totalitarismes, 1914-1974, Paris, Gallimard, coll. « Bibliothèque des sciences humaines », 2010 (by Éric Dacheux)
Étienne Klein,Discours sur l’origine de l’univers, Paris, Flammarion, coll. « Nouvelle Bibliothèque Scientiïque », 2010 (by Édouard Kleinpeter)
ABSTRACTS
AUTHORS
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED
Abstracts
Michel CASSÉCosmology
Every one of us on the planet, once we have been converted to the reductionism that reverberates incessantly in our ears, drones on about the idea that objects are made of microscopic elementary particles whose overall pattern makes up the universe. But this view is wrong, because it disregards everything to do with quantum magic. Particles can be interferentially superimposed, but sentient beings cannot. The connection between macroscopic objects as deïned by physical theory in accordance with our experience is more subtle and has more to do with the idea of “connectedness”. “When I talk about complexity, I’m referring to the basic Latin meaning of complexus, ‘that which is bound together’. The constituent parts are dierent, but like a tapestry, it is the whole that should be seen” (Morin, 1995).
Keywords: cosmology, Big bang, astronomy, relativity, gravitation, quantum physics.
Didier DACUNHA-CASTELLEThe logical intuitions of Edgar Morin Edgar Morin’s logical intuitions
Mathematics as they developed from 1935 to 1970 play a very important role inLa Méthode. This role is explicit in the ïeld of logic, but less so in the area of control theory, uncertainty and other concepts viewed from outside the ïeld of mathematics and probabilistics in particular (entropy, information, uncertainty). Using an example from recent work on mathematical logic, the correspondence of Curry-Howard and the works of Jean-Louis Krivine show the relevance of Edgar Morin’s ideas and intuitions on logic, reality and the human brain.
Keywords:La Méthode, logic, Jean-Louis Krivine, mathematics, informatics, programmes, brain.
Boris CYRULNIKNothing is simpler than a complex thought
Academic knowledge is a fragmented kind of knowledge that spontaneously evolves into dogma that leads to power. The knowledge of a practitioner has to cut across and incorporate dierent kinds of information that function within an indivisible system. A convergence of causes of dierent kinds can, or not, trigger the same eect.
Keywords: biology or psychoanalysis, linear causality or systemic thinking, context and the attribution of cause, scientiïc reductionism or ontological reductionism.
Sergio MANGHILiving matrices: subjects, societies and the planet
The planetary society, which has no single organising epicentre or new planetary noosphere, is an entirely new societal form for humanity, whose advent is radically renewing and recharging our subjectivity. Edgar Morin’s valuable work,La Méthode, helps us to reect on these dizzying individual and collective processes in terms of a living, unitary matrix.
Keywords:La Méthode, planetary society, subject, autos, noosphere.
Gianluca BOCCHI and Mauro CERUTIHumanity’s destiny in the making
After centuries of parallel development, a watershed in the history of human communities occurred in 1492, as expansion to other continents made societies ever more interdependent. Now that interaction has become planetary, globalised humanity has to evolve once more if it is to survive, by establishing a non-destructive relationship with the natural world.
Keywords: humanity, evolution, environment, anthropolitics.
Bernard DAGENAISFrom movie stars to living cells
How did Edgar Morin’s thinking move from the world of ïlm stars to the biological world of single-cell organisms? Having explored the world of popular culture (Les Stars, 1957), Morin then moved on to the study of particular events (La Rumeur d’Orléans, 1969). Discovering the world of biology after a stay at the Salt Institute, his interest became centred on the anthropo-socio-biological thread that he would audaciously explore inLa Méthode, in which he depicts the nature of society.
Keywords: mass culture, biological sciences, chance.
Laurent GREILSAMERNon-conformism pathway to journalism
To Edgar Morin, being “undisciplined” was the breath of life. With his continual desire to learn, to open up new ground without regard for established codes or
boundaries between academic disciplines, Edgar Morin was a master of the “undisciplined”, an embodiment of curiosity to whom labels were an irrelevance. This article explores his editorial career, atLe Mondein particular, in which he invented a style that combines reporting, sociological enquiry and analysis, as exempliïed in 1997, when he agreed to chair the panel for the «Le MondeAward for Academic Research » in the human sciences - provided that the appointment would promote the idea of interdisciplinarity.
Keywords: sociological reporting, interdisciplinarity, independence, Le Monde, University.
Pierre-Henri GOUYONThe “Science & Citizens” approach at the CNRS: encompassing Edgarian researchers
The “Science & Citizens” encounters at the CNRS, launched twenty years ago by Edgar Morin, are a real-life experiment in interdisciplinarity and interaction in the debate between scientists and citizens – an approach that has become increasingly necessary at a time when exchanges between the natural and human sciences are becoming vital to the future of human society.
Keywords: science and society, complexity, genetics, interdisciplinarity, CNRS.
Alfredo PENA-VEGAEmergence of a new pattern of thinking
The work of Edgar Morin is not only that of a researcher working alone. For some twenty years, a continuous process of exchanging knowledge and points of view in dierent seminars revolved around the idea of bringing out the dimensions of an epistemology of complexity. In the context of these “Morin seminars”, what was this process of interaction, of osmosis, of intense dialogue between the thinker and those who attended the various sessions that took place? This article truth”. (Morin, 1984).
Keywords: knowledge, epistemology, complexity, paradigm, evolution, biology, system, self-organisation, society, culture, nature.
Éric LETONTURIERNetworks, communication and complexity
This article sets out to reconstruct the network concept as it appears in the dierent stages of Edgar Morin’s multidisciplinary thinking. The project he builds up inLa Méthodearound the idea of complexity requires, at the outset, the abandon, in epistemological terms, of the dominant disjunctive conception of scientiïc knowledge in favour of a more reticulated pattern. A network is then
understood as a particular pattern of organisation that applies to the physical world but also, in the same terms, to life and society. Hinging on concepts such as “society as a super-brain” where the individual functions as a “ ashing light”, the sociology of networks that Morin developed to track the evolution of society towards complexity brings him to a analysis of globalisation that concludes with the worrying paradox of its incompleteness.
Keywords: Network, complexity, unitas multiplex, order/disorder.
Christoph WULFEducation in Europe – an intercultural task in a globalized world
FollowingPenser l’Europe(Morin, 1987), this article puts forward the following argument: in Europe today, cultural education (Bildung) is not only a mission for each nation but also an intercultural mission. Only if it adopts this mission will Europe’s cultural systems ensure that the next generation is capable of productive thought on the two fundamental trends of globalisation: homogenisation and cultural diversity. The need above all is to learn to confront foreignness, or otherness. What has to be understood is that European forms of logocentrism, egocentrism and ethnocentrism carry a threat, which is the danger of reducing encounters with foreignness to something that is known, instead of learning from these encounters, learning to cope with a certain amount of incomprehension of foreignness and non-identity, learning to think heterologically. The process of intercultural education involves uncertainties and complexity, dierence and transgression, the goal being to live with increasingly numerous forms of hybrid culture.
Keywords: unitas multiplex, La Tête bien faite, Terre-Patrie, foreignness, heterological thinking, hybridity.
Jacques PERRIAULTComplex thinking, Chinese thinking and globalisation
Analyses of globalisation often derive from thinking processes that rule out the principle of non-contradiction and lead to rigid assumptions on the way globalisation evolves. Complex thinking, according to Edgar Morin, is not constrained in this way and acknowledges, as in Chinese thinking in the strict sense, the coexistence of opposites, including their dynamics, which in Taoist philosophy should lead to harmony. This, in a sense, gives a margin for manoeuvre and thus opens the way to multiple possibilities. This article describes some of the kinships between complex thinking and patterns of Chinese thinking. It also examines the particular touch brought by Edgar Morin, a legacy of the Greek thinkers. This concerns the way cognitive and communicational democracy accompanies the play of opposites, an idea that Chinese thinking does not address. A bridge thus forms between Western and Far Eastern thinking.