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L E S S O N O V E R V I E W F O R M meaning “shape, appearance, or arrangement” 30 Root Squares for FORM Each activity should take approximately 15 minutes. Day1 Magic Squares for FORM Day2 Day4 Day5 Stair Steps for FORM Day3 U N I T A T A G L A N C E Comprehension Booster for FORM Assessment for FORM O B J E C T I V E S • Understand the meaning of the root FORM • Build words in the root FORM family • Break Apart words in the root FORM family • Understand the meaning of words in the FORM family • Understand the
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Proceedings
2007 Postgraduate Symposium
Faculty of Social Science & Business
University of Plymouth

Edited By
Adrian Barton
Jonathan Lean
Malcolm Williams
Mel Wright























Proceedings
2007 Postgraduate Symposium
Faculty of Social Science & Business
University of Plymouth











Proceedings of the Faculty of Social Science & Business
(University of Plymouth)
Postgraduate Symposium (Online)

ISSN 1753-7061 (Online)


Proceedings
2007 Postgraduate Symposium
Faculty of Social Science & Business
University of Plymouth






Edited by
Adrian Barton
Jonathan Lean
Malcolm Williams
Mel Wright

Printed at the University of Plymouth

University of Plymouth
Faculty of Social Science & Business
Postgraduate Symposium, 2nd-3rd March 2007

Adrian Barton, Jonathan Lean, Malcolm Williams, and Mel Wright
Introduction

This set of papers marks the second Faculty of Social Science and Business
nd rdpost-graduate symposium, which was held over the 2 and 3 of March 2007.
Following the success of the 2006 event, the symposium has expanded to
include post-graduates from the School of Geography as well as those from
Plymouth Business School and the School of Law and Social Science as well as
inviting students from the post-graduate taught programmes across the Faculty.
The papers that follow are full versions of the presentations each contributor
gave at the symposium. The rationale behind the event is twofold: firstly to allow
students to present work in a supportive and familiar environment; and secondly
to allow fellow students and full time staff to see the breadth, diversity and quality
of post-graduate research in the Faculty. Based on those criteria the event was a
success, largely due to the quality of the academic work on show. However, as
with all such events there are people that work hard on the planning and
organisation. With that in mind, we would like to thank the following people: Mark
Pearson. Mel Wright, Donna Poade, Robyn Pyne, Jennie Winter and Abdou
Hussein.

The presentation sessions were divided into streams and it is to these this
introduction now turns.

Economic Development

Echoing a global concern over ‗green‘ policies, Sally Murrall examined Policy
learning as a Driver of Policy Change within the Renewable Energy Sector.
Current policy has been criticised for having failed to ‗learn‘ from previous
mistakes. UK Renewables policy will be used as a case study to examine the
processes of policy learning as a driver of policy change. Sarah Tuck provided a
stimulating paper looking at an Ecological Theory of Small Port Competition.
Using grounded theory methodology, a new ―ecological theory of port
competition‖ was generated. Keeping the EU theme running, Veit Bachmann
discussed conceptualising the EU as a Potential ―Development Superpower‖ This
research explored how the European Union as a geopolitical actor operates in
the field of development cooperation thorugh development policies in East Africa.

Urban and Rural Development

Given the increasing pressures on space in what is a relatively small island
nation this themes produced some paper that should be of interest to us all.
Claire Kelly presented a paper looking at her project which seeks to investigate
some of the changes in governance taking place within coastal communities
through a study of partnerships involved in marine nature-based tourism.

Jennie Winter provided a thought-provoking look at Teenagers, Lifestyles and
Environment. She suggested that the continuing emphasis on public participation in achieving sustainability demands new and innovative approaches to
understanding how different groups negotiate
environmentally significant behaviours. One emerging possibility proposes the
concept of ‗sustainable lifestyles‘ as a way to encapsulate more socially nuanced
understandings. Her paper explored this concept by applying it to empirical
research undertaken with teenagers. Osbourne Glover used the findings of his
research argued that dominant cultures of public and private sector bodies have
influenced the value of others, in order to avoid conflict from ready-made
prejudices by the inclusion and participation of Black residents. Daba Chowdhury
looked at Knowledge Transfer between Turkey‘s Small to Medium-Sized
Enterprises using a network approach, exploring the development of SMEs in
Turkey. Daba argued that Turkey lies in a unique geographical and cultural
position between Asia and Europe where knowledge transfer between the two
continents might reasonably be assumed to be channelled. However; evidence
suggests that SMEs in Turkey may be failing to take the advantage of this
situation.

Power and Empowerment

Mark Harron suggest to the symposium that as police forces struggle to attain
anything near to the official targets as to gender, race and ethnicity profiles, the
rhetoric of ‗policing diversity‘ and ‗organisational reform‘ do little, if anything, to
address community engagement and the growing problems of community
separation. In the same vein Karen Treasure examined Power and
Empowerment in Development Studies: Conceptualising Connections and
Disassociations. Her paper argued that redressing the power balance between
the powerful and marginalised groups in society is the function of development,
and thus demands scrutiny of the relationship between the concepts of power
and empowerment and the manner of their application.


Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods

All research is based around methodological approaches and this strand of the
symposium demonstrated the excellent work that is taking place in terms of
methods across the faculty. Steve Parkin examined Visual Methods within the
Addictions: the Pulp Fiction-alisation of Reality TV? HIs presentation provided a
concise history of visual research methods within the social science disciplines
with specific reference to the application of such methods within the field of
substance misuse in the UK. Mark Pearson looked at Evidence-Based Policy &
Practice and posed the question How can research be made more relevant to
practitioners and policymakers?

Daniel Buscombe provided an interesting piece on The Discrete State Markov
Chain: A General Tool for Categorical Data Analysis and Modelling. The Markov
chain is a statistical data analysis and modelling technique suitable for
categorical data. It is designed to analyse the transitional properties of
sequences or strings. He presented the method using examples including: ocean waves; financial returns; and DNA sequences. Faye Sutton, who is currently an
MSC Social research student looked at midwives and suggested that asking a
professional group to tell you whether they act professionally towards a
potentially vulnerable client group, is difficult; will they answer truthfully? She
suggested that collecting data through the use of an anonymised attitude
scale/questionnaire and semi-structured interviews could overcome some of the
methodological difficulties.

Susie Darlow looked at heritage, specifically, Constructing heritage geographies
in Devon and Cornwall. Susie‘s study examined the richness of heritage
resources in the South West and presented the case for, and the means being
employed in, the construction of the region's first comprehensive, searchable
database of heritage sites, designed to enable previously unavailable mapping
and detailed analyses to be undertaken.


International Business and Management

PBS‘s recognition of the increasingly global environment is clear in this set of
papers. Hussein Abdou‘s work examined the Evaluation of Alternative Credit
Scoring Models in the Egyptian Banking Sector. The paper identified the
currently used techniques in evaluating credit risk in Egyptian banks, then to
evaluate these techniques and to investigate the ability of neural nets, as well as
conventional techniques, as credit scoring statistical tools. Results so far have
revealed that neural nets give better average correct classification rates than the
other traditional techniques. Rossanna Guttilla looked at how Human Resource
Management policies and practices in a Finnish MNC operating in Italy: How has
the global/local dilemma been handled? This paper is part of a project aiming at
analysing how MNCs -originating from Countries ‗classed‘ as culturally and
institutionally very dissimilar or very similar to Italy are handling the global/local
dilemma in their use of HR policies and practices in Italy.

Ravi Saxena looked at the role of technology in retail supply chain management
which is important as retailers continuously strive to improve their supply chain
performance in order to maintain competitive advantage. Parul Goahit‘s paper
discussed the profile of the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry and analysed its
response to the implementation of the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
(TRIPS) agreement in terms of strategy choices. Finally, Rumbi Mukono offered
a paper looking at an empirical evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of
the optimal control theory model for dividend determination on the NYSE Banking
corporations.


Taken together, the papers that follow reflect the current state of post-graduate
study within the Faculty of Social Science and Business. As such, it is heartening
to be able to present a set of lively, informed and informative papers of which the
Faculty is justifiably proud.




























PART ONE



Economic Development













Policy Learning as a Driver of Policy Change
within the Renewable Energy Sector.
Sally Murrall

Abstract

The combination of spiralling energy demand, coupled with a potential decline in
supply and environmental degradation, has created a need for the re-
examination of energy policy. Despite the existence of UK and EU initiatives
designed to stimulate growth and several decades of policy-making experience
the current renewables policy package has not reached several installed capacity
targets and objectives. In particular, policy makers have been criticised for having
failed to „learn‟ from previous mistakes. This research proposes that policy
leaning is vital in the evolution of effective energy policy and that it extends past
policy makers into society. I argue that a greater analytical focus on how political,
market and social systems learn in response to problems like energy supply and
climate change is essential for two reasons: (1) for most economic and social
problems, we cannot assume that the best policies have already been found
(knowledge problem); and (2) dynamic development through technological
progress and social change implies the perennial emergence of new problems
and the qualitative change of old ones (Kerber and Eckardt, 2005). UK
Renewables policy will be used as a case study to examine the processes of,
and prospects for, policy learning by policy makers, markets and the general
public.


Introduction
The world faces major challenges in terms of climate change, peak oil, spiralling energy
demand and population growth. Renewable energy (RE) has the potential to provide a
partial solution to this situation and will play a vital role in a low carbon economy. The

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