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Nombre de lectures 18
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Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Exrait

Polyphase Meter Theory and History Course 223
Landis + Gyr Inc. Randy Riley
Principles of Polyphase Metering
Primary Objectives What is polyphase metering Why does the customer need this type of metering Evolution of polyphase metering Polyphase meter forms and wiring Blondel’s Theorem How do they work Functions they perform
MDGRID METERING, POWER QUALITY, RTP, DIRECT ACCESS FUNCTIONS, EMS FUNCTIONS, CURTAILABLE LOAD RATES
POWER QUALITY, TIMEOFUSE, MULTIACCESS, AGGREGATE BILLING, REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS
WATTS, VARS, Time ofUse, Power Quality, DEMAND, Communications
WATTS, DEMAND, TIMEOFUSE, AMR
WATTS, DEMAND, TIMEOFUSE, AMR
WATTS
/ SS POLY 0 MULTI FUNCTION PRECISION
/ SS POLY 0 MULTIFUNCTION
POLYPHASE Mechanical and Solid State
MI M
SINGLE PHASE  SOLID STATE
SINGLE PHASE (Hybrid)  EM + SS MODULE SINGLE PHASE  ELECTROMECHANICAL
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223 Polyphase (MultiStator) Meter Theory Discussion of the development of the polyphase electromechanical meter and how it works. The basic design of electronic watthour meters and the principles they operate on are introduced. Meter forms are also discussed
MM
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4
Why does the customer need this type of metering?
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Evolution of Polyphase Metering and Increased Functionality in Meters
Single phase Meter Components and Assemblies
L+G
The Watthour Meter
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9
Basically, the watthour meter consists of a MOTOR (commutator, flux field, & rotor) whose torque is proportional to the power flowing through it,
a MAGNETIC BRAKE (damping magnet) is present to retard/restrain the speed of the motor in such a way that it is proportion to power by making the braking effect proportional to the speed of the rotor (disk),
and a REGISTER to count the number of revolutions the rotor (disk) makes.
th This definition is taken from the 9 edition of the “Handbook for Watthour Metering”, chapter 7, The Watthour Meter, page 117.
11
The Single Phase/Single Function Meter
Electromechanical Nonprogrammable Good accuracy Reliable Inexpensive
SBase
Mounting Considerations
Basic Electricity
ABase
Equations & Measurements
Power: The Rate of Doing Work
Switchboard
One horsepower is equivalent to 745.7 watts.
Power (Watts) = Voltage X Current X Cos
Power generated in the stator assembly is the driving force that spins the disk.
Energy: The Capacity for Doing Work
The work done by one watt acting for one hour
Energy = Power X Time
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10
The counteractive flux field generated by the damping magnet (drag magnet) introduces time control to the disk.
Note: In solidstate meters, the disk is not present, but the end measurements are still the same. 12
2
What makes the disk turn?
*Magnetic flux generated within the potential coil, when energized by line voltage, passes through the potential core and is directed to the disk.
*Magnetic flux is also generated around the current coils, as load is applied, passes through the current core and is also directed to the disk.
*The interaction of these magnetic fluxes and eddy currents developed, produce a force within the disk to push or drive it in a specific direction.
*The net effect of all the forces acting together on the disk causes rotation at a speed proportional to line voltage and current load.
Voltage Sensing  Electromechanical Meters  Use a voltage coil (a.k.a. potential coil, or “pot coil”) – Rated for operation at a specific voltage (120, 240/277, 480) – Converts voltage into magnetic flux that helps drive the disk  Solid State Meters  Modern Meters – Voltage input from “voltage divider” resistor circuit – No isolation from voltage source – Able to operate over a wide voltage range (120V~480V)  Voltage converted into a digital value using A/D converter
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Current Ratings  For loads up to 480 Amps, meters can handle load amps directly – Called a “selfcontained” meter – Most common usage is Class 200 (200A) – Modern meters can operate up to 320A and 480A.  For loads above 200A or 320A or 480A use Current Transformers – Called a “transformerrated” meter – Class 20 (20A) or Class 10 (10A)
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Voltage (Flux) Indicator
 Important indication that all voltage inputs are present and contributing to registration.  Standard on all solid state meters and electromechanical transformer rated meters.  Could be lamps or LED’s.  Solid state meters often use part of the LCD display.
Current Sensing  Electromechanical Meters – Use current coils – Converts current into magnetic flux that helps drive the disk  Solid State Meters – Use current sensors – Converts current into a digital value using A/D converter – Much better accuracy over the operating range  Accurately captures small current signals
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Meter Rating Summary
 Voltage Ratings – 120, 240, 277, 480 Volts for selfcontained and transformerrated installations – Some solid state meters operate over wide voltage range: 120~480V (57~120V available)  Current Ratings  Test Am s Max Am s (TA) (Class)  15 100 SelfContained 30 200  50 320/480  2.5 10 TransformerRated 2.5 20
Electromechanical Adjustments
Solid State Adjustments
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 Modern Solid State Meters – All calibration adjustments set at factory using special software. – Manufacturer may or may not allow utility to adjust meter calibration
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Electromechanical Adjustments  Full Load – One per meter and influences amount of permanent magnet flux seen by the disk.  Light Load – Normally one per stator (some meters have only one per meter). Produces force on rotor proportional to voltage flux.  Lag Load – One per stator and allows setting of the phase angle between applied voltage and voltage flux.
102.0 101.5 101.0 100.5 100.0 99.5 99.0 98.5 98.0
Solid State Meter Load Curves
0.5
Focus 2S Load Performance Curve
1
Meter 1
2
3
6
Meter 2
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20 30 60 100 150 180 200 225 Amps
Meter 3
Meter 4
ANSI
ANSI
4
Form Numbers
th Handbook for Electricity Metering, 10 Ed, p. 142
25
29
Line to Line = 208v
Or 480v line to line
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30
5
31
33
35
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Digital Multiplication
A  D
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Solid State Polyphase Meter of Today
ANSI approved Consumption and Instantaneous Quantities (Watts and Vars) Per Phase Quantities Delivered and Received Metering (Four Quadrant Metering) AC or DC Auxiliary Power Demand/TOU plus PF Multichannel Recording Power Quality & Event Monitoring Direct Access Meter (Modem, Cellular, RS232, Internet, etc.) Multiple Protocol options including DNP3.0, Cooper 2179, MODbus, etc. Transformer, Line & Instrument Transformer Loss 39 Compensation
Solid State Polyphase Meter Enhancements
Customer’s investment protected Flash memory *Allows upgrades and feature enhancements 128k ram – On board (15 LP channels) Firmware versions available for DGCOM protocol or ANSI tables Net metering
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SDSPT
Registers
kVA “RMS” Apparent
M MC
Sample rate 3.33MHz/ph to converters 3.34 kHz toDSPto. Accurate 26thharmonic of 60Hz.
Vrms
Irms
kWh kW
kVAR “ Vector”
kQ “Vector”
kVA “Vector”
PF
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Solid State Polyphase Meter of Today Cont’d Build a meter concept Software upgrade: kWh to Active Demand/TOU to Reactive Demand/TOU Demand or TOU(just add btry) Output relay flexibility  4 out, 2 in 128k+ ram with up to 15 programmable channels of load profile and up to 6 SelfReads Modem, RS232, RS485, AMR module Realtime Rate activation
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MainProcessor and Display Board
Front
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Demand Reset  Infrared Calibration LED’s  Visual LED’s  16 Character Display  Test Switch  Scroll Switch  Optical Port
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PM Measurement Board with Digital Signal Processor ( DSP )
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HI TRIP POINT
LOW TRIP POINT 1 SECOND
 1 second data for display, recorder channels, analog, and output relays  Power Quality  Transformer Loss Compensation ( TLC )
DURATION 1 CYCLE RMS
1 SECOND
RMS PHASE VOLTAGE
CURRENT MONITORING
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223 Polyphase (MultiStator) Meter Theory Discussion of the development of the polyphase electromechanical meter and how it works. The basic design of electronic watthour meters and the principles they operate on are introduced. Meter forms are also discussed
47
Polyphase Meter  Power Quality Monitoring
Outage Reporting
Loss of Phase
Record voltage events (sags and swells)
Record current
Store daily highs and lows
Service diagnostic
44
Principles of Polyphase Metering
Primary Objectives What is polyphase metering Why does the customer need this type of metering Evolution of polyphase metering Polyphase meter forms and wiring Blondel’s Theorem How do they work Functions they perform
46
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