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  • leçon - matière potentielle : skill
Collection 2: American Romanticism 1 Collection Readings: ü “American Romanticism 1800-1860” Gary Q. Arpin ü The Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne • “The Minister's Black Veil” Nathaniel Hawthorne • “The Pit and the Pendulum” Edgar Allan Poe • “Cross of Snow” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow • From Self-Reliance Ralph Waldo Emerson • From Resistance to Civil Government Henry David Thoreau Terms and Concepts: • Romanticism (167) • Transcendentalism (171) • Dark Romantics (172) • Sonnet • Paradox (234) • Logical Appeals (233) • Ethical Appeals (233) • Emotional Appeals (233) Vocabulary: • Alacrity
  • truths of life
  • self-reliance
  • nature of the crime
  • scythe on the pendulum
  • story of a man
  • permanent cross of snow on the side of a mountain
  • reliance
  • cross
  • story
  • nature

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Nombre de lectures 29
Langue English
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2
2
4
EFFECTIVE PRACTICES AND
PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING
AND RETEACHING
Aa Bb Cc

READING AND MATHEMATICS
Division of Teaching and Learning
Leon County Schools
Tallahassee, FloridaTable of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 5
“Whatever It Takes” Philosophy ................................................................................................. 7
Effective Learning Environment 8
READING & LANGUAGE ARTS
How We Teach Students to Read: the “Big Debate” .................................................................... 11
Effective Readers .......................................................................................................................... 12
I. Concepts of Print ................................................................................................................. 13
II. Phonemic Awareness ...........................................................................................................14
III. Letter Patterns and Sounds (Phonics) .................................................................................. 17
IV. Recoding .............................................................................................................................. 19
V. Fluency ...................................................................................................................... 22
VI. Vocabulary Development .................................................................................................... 26
VII. Comprehension .................................................................................................................... 28
VIII. Study Skills & Content Enhancements................................................................................ 30
IX. Writing ................................................................................................................................. 37
Instructional Resources
Reading Programs ............................................................................................................... 42
Vocabulary & Spelling......................................................................................................... 45
Writing ................................................................................................................................. 48
Study Skills & Enhancements ............................................................................................. 50
MATHEMATICS
Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 59
Elements of Mathematical Learning............................................................................................ 61
I. Diagnose and Prescribe ....................................................................................................... 63
Selected Diagnostic Math Tests ........................................................................................... 64
II. Concrete-Representation-Abstract (CRA)........................................................................... 67
III. Learning Strategies .............................................................................................................. 68
IV. Communicating Math .......................................................................................................... 70
V. Practice and Homework 71
VI. Equity / Success for All ....................................................................................................... 72
Instructional Resources
Mathematics Programs 73
Videos .................................................................................................................................. 79
Software ............................................................................................................................... 80
Selected Software for Algebra ............................................................................................. 83
Books ................................................................................................................................... 87Table of Contents
APPENDIX
I. Leon County Programs & Assessment Tools ...................................................................... 91
II. Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation 92
stIII. Phonic Generalizations for 1 Grade ................................................................................... 93
IV. Writing in Mathematics .......................................................................................................94
V. Leon County Writes Upon Request Rubrics (Grade 1) ....................................................... 97
Florida Writing Assessment – Holistic Rubrics (Grade 8) .................................................. 99
VI. Six-Trait Assessments for Beginning Writers.................................................................... 101
VII. Two samples of McREL masters for vocabulary development ......................................... 103
VIII. Math Manipulatives for Classrooms ................................................................................. 105
IX. Web sites ............................................................................................................................ 107
REFERENCES
Reading/Language Arts .............................................................................................................. 111
Math ........................................................................................................................................... 115Whatever It Takes
Effective Practices and Programs for Teaching and Reteaching
Reading and Mathematics
Purpose
The aim is to provide quality research and a sound educational guide for teachers, which sup-
ports a variety of programs and methods for remediating skill deficiencies. When provided with
effective, meaningful experiences and given enough time, students will become proficient in
reading, writing, and mathematics.
The Good Ones are Not at Home
Ready or not, here they are! In September, 3.6 million youngsters enter school; 25 percent of
these children live in poverty; for blacks, the figure is 50 percent, and for Hispanics, 40 percent.
Today, out of 80 million households in the nation, 9.5 million are headed by a single female
parent, 16 percent of whom are under age 25, 50 percent unemployed, 42 percent living in
central cities. In fact, every day in America, 40 teenage girls give birth to their third child. In
1955, 60 percent of households matched the traditional family image of one mother, one father,
and two children; today it’s 4 percent. The 1950’s family is gone. The family today is different,
maybe no better or no worse, but different. As Larry Lezotte said, “The parents are sending us
the best kids they have. They are not keeping the good ones at home.”
Larry A. Strong
“The Best Kids They Have”
Educational Leadership February 1989, p. 2.Effective Learning Environment
Physical Characteristics of the Classroom
• Organize furniture to be flexible for both individual and group work.
• Provide paper and spare pencils.
• Provide authentic (real-world) materials to facilitate learning and understanding.
• Establish learning stations/centers that are relevant to students’ needs.
• Display student work. Include work that shows improvement.
• Display visual aids around the room (formulas, writing process, rules, etc.).
• Provide independent workspace as needed.
• Create a “What we did yesterday” board.
Classroom Atmosphere
• Begin each class on a positive note.
• Establish a routine and be consistent.
• Set rules (few and to the point) and establish consequences.
• Establish a rapport with students by developing an atmosphere of trust and respect.
• Promote a student-centered classroom environment.
• Establish, teach, and ensure that realistic academic and social standards are met.
• Create an atmosphere that encourages risk-taking.
• Monitor by moving around the classroom.
• Provide opportunities for students to work effectively in peer and cooperative settings.
• Provide a variety of instructional activities during the class period to accommodate for atten-
tion spans (e.g., projects, games, and practice).
Methods of Motivation
• Establish achievable daily and long term goals.
• Teach students to set personal goals.
• Establish a reward system for behavior and academics.
• Offer genuine praise.
• Acknowledge growth. Measure success in terms of improvement.
• Recognize partial successes through partial credit or a rubric system.
• Have students chart their academic progress.
• Have frequent student-teacher conferences to discuss individual progress.
• Respect students’ rights to privacy with regards to grades, progress, and personal matters.
• Utilize prior knowledge to develop new skills.
• Give timely feedback to students on homework, quizzes, tests, and responses.
Instructional Management Strategies
• Teach to the strengths and remediate the weaknesses.
• Systematically review rules and goals.
• Maintain a balance between individual and group work/activities.
• Teach students organizational skills and time management.
• Address various learning styles/modalities by providing alternative strategies and assignments.Reading &
Language Arts