HOFSTEDE: Cultures And Organizations - Software of the Mind ...
7 pages
English

HOFSTEDE: Cultures And Organizations - Software of the Mind ...

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7 pages
English
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Tout savoir sur nos offres

Description

1 HOFSTEDE: Cultures And Organizations - Software of the Mind Culture as mental programming In Western languages 'culture' commonly means 'civilization' or 'refinement of the mind' and in particular the results of such refinement, like education, art, and literature. This is 'culture in the narrow sense; 'culture one' Culture as mental software, however, corresponds to a much broader use of the word which is common among social anthropologists: this is ‘culture two'.
  • social anthropology
  • values for 50 countries
  • south korea 18 17 finland 63 44 taiwan 17 18 austria 55 45 peru 16 19 israel
  • key differences
  • chile 63 51 denmark
  • task task
  • societies
  • values
  • culture

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Nombre de lectures 36
Langue English

Exrait

Metso Yankee Dryer and The ™ ™  Advantage AirCap
The unbeatable drying system
Optimized drying package in balance
The heart of your tissue machine The Yankee dryer and hood are the heart of your tissue machine. The quality of your tissue depends on their performance. Their design and manufacture play an important part in creating a safe working environment in your mill. Your profitability depends on their efficiency, durability and availability – unplanned stoppages and the need for frequent servicing are expensive. And how well you sleep depends on how much con-fidence you can place in your supplier. No other supplier beats Metso Paper when it comes to experience in developing, designing and manufacturing Yankee dry-ers and hoods and their related processes. During our long and dynamic histo-ry in the paper industry we have continu-ously developed and delivered more than 500 Yankee dryers, including world’s larg-est ones measuring 5500 mm in diameter x 8324 mm in face length for tissue paper and 7000 mm x 5100 mm for paper board, and more than 500 Yankee hoods, most recently the innovative Advantage™ Air-Cap™ hood. Metso Paper offers tissue makers the opportunity of taking advantage of the time-tested technology behind the Met-so Yankee dryer and the new but proven technology of the Metso Advantage Air-Cap hood, supplied either separately or as a package which ensures that the equipment is optimally dimensioned and designed for the specific process.
We understand and control the whole process A reliable, trustworthy tissue machin-ery supplier understands the entire tissue making process. Metso Paper is the world’s leading supplier of paper and tissue mak-ing machinery and processes.With our own foundry, workshops and even our own har-bor with a crane for shipping Yankee dry-ers, we have complete control of the manu-facturing chain offering our customers very high and unique delivery assurance. Metso Paper supplies the Metso Yan-kee dryer and the Advantage AirCap hood as a package ensuring equipment dimen-
sioned and designed to optimize a specific process.
Full scale pilot machines The Metso Paper Tissue Technology Cen-ter is located in Karlstad, Sweden. New technology and processes are developed, evaluated and optimized on two full-scale ultra-modern pilot machines, complete with all auxiliary equipment and an exten-sive paper laboratory. Equipment such as the Yankee dryer and AirCap are under con-stant evaluation.
More than 500 Yankee dryers have been produced in Karlstad, Sweden since 1895. The picture is from 1928, showing some of our predecessors with a Yankee shell measuring 4200 mm in diameter, which at that time was the largest ever cast.
Tissue making equipment and processes are developed and optimized on the TM1 pilot machine at the Metso Paper Tissue Technology Center. The state- of-the-art machine is equipped with the Advantage AirCap and a 15’ Yankee dryer.
The flange connections, especially between the shell and heads, have been subject to many detailed studies. Ample, through-going bolting allows for high and controlled pre-stress without threading in the shell, and consequently minimizes unwanted stress on the shell. Rigid yet compact flanges, benefiting from very precise machining and the absence of a gasket, provide for an unmatched tight fit that eliminates the risk of steam leaks and crevice corrosion even after many years of service. Hundreds of Metso Yankee dryers in operation are proof of this.
Journals are equipped with single wall stainless steel insulating sleeves to prevent the bearings from overheating. Expansions are handled via a stuffing box at the outer flange. The insulating air core is ventilated to the atmosphere, al-lowing for immediate notification of possible steam leakage. Ex-cellent function, robust design and easy maintenance – perfectly in line with the overall Metso Yankee dryer design philosophy. Curved riser pipes connecting the condensate removal head-ers with the drive side journal outlet eliminate the need for sliding joints and reduce the required amount of blow-through steam. Both heads as well as the through-going journal are equipped with manholes for easy access to the whole interior of the Yankee dryer.
Superior solutions
The Yankee dryer is a complex mechani-cal structure with extremely high demands on safety and operational availability. The Metso Yankee dryer has been and continues to be developed and optimized for safe, reliable and high performance op-eration in every detail – not least due to feedback from skilled customers. Over the years, the dryer has been subjected to em-pirical optimization enhanced over the past 30 years by computer-aided design and analysis tools such as CAD, FEA and CFD. The Metso Yankee dryer features a highly conductive internally ribbed shell, two curved heads and a through-going journal in two or three sections. The philosophy behind this design is to have as few sections and therefore as few screw joints
as possible. This design minimizes the risk of steam leakage as well as maintenance and overall stress levels. Together with a thermally efficient shell, a well-functioning condensate removal sys-tem is also of vital importance. The head-ers inside the shell contribute to maximum and evenly distributed heat flow to the out-er surface by keeping the inside of the shell free of condensate. Metso offers various well-proven systems for condensate removal, determined case by case according to cylinder size, shell de-sign and machine speed. These systems are mounted inside the Yankee dryer without attachment to the shell or other stressed or pressurized elements.
All parts of the Yankee dryer are de-signed to fulfill Metso Paper’s stringent and extensive design criteria and, of course, the requirements stipulated by authorities for steam pressure vessels such as the PED and ASME codes.
A triangular condensate header with straw pipe cassettes ensures correct positioning of the straw pipes in the grooves. This is a well functioning system and the best choice when short pipes are preferred, also for very wide Yankee dryers. Up to 12 headers per cylinder for minimal thermal variation.
Radiation and convection transfer considerable amounts of energy through the heads. The loss in energy is equivalent to approximately the amount of energy consumed to drive the Yankee dryer. To minimize energy loss and to improve the environment around the Yankee section, Metso Paper offers the option of its well-proven head insulation.
The shell geometry, rib profile and pitch, has been carefully optimized as regards high and even heat transfer from steam to paper while maintaining the stiffness and strength the total shell thickness provides. For high nip load applications such as with the revolutionary Advantage™ ViscoNip™ extended nip press, using higher ribs reinforces the shell. The strength is increased at an optimum yield of the shell blank and without compromising thermal performance. Simple, yet providing peak performance, the Metso way.
Condensate headers with long straw pipes in both directions offer advantages such as double the amount of pick-up lines per header and constant clearance between straw tips and groove bottom. This minimizes temperature variation and thermal deflection of the shell and results in less vibration, less surface wear and a more uniform sheet.
Metso has used Finite Element Analyses (FEA) for Yankee dryer development and engineering for more than 30 years. Today state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is also utilized, here to simulate the very complex multiphase mass flow at a condensate header.
A round condensate header with short pipes in radial direction is a well performing and robust system for Yankee dryers of lesser width or dryers with internally smooth bore shells.
Skill, experience and unique manufacturing processes
Good design is the foundation for a Yankee cylinder that pro-vides the safe operation, high availability and performance char-acterized by the Metso Yankee dryer. At least as important for the finished Yankee cylinder is its demanding and very special manu-facturing process. The Metso Yankee dryer is made of cast iron. Molding and cast-ing, especially of the shell, is a demanding and complicated proce-dure and the very heart of the manufacturing process. Few found-ries in the world are capable of it. Correctly produced and processed cast iron is a material with no residual stresses and strains and excellent vibration damping prop-erties.This ensures that the finished Yankee dryer will retain perfect dimensional stability during its entire service life, an especially im-portant factor for large and high-speed creping cylinders. Apart from these vital properties, our Yankee grade cast irons and alloys are developed to achieve high heat conductivity with good corrosion and wear resistance, while maintaining required tensile strength and good uniformity.
A giant vertical lathe All machining of the shell and heads is carried out on a giant vertical lathe. Machining in a vertical position results in perfectly plane flanges and a tight fit between the shell and heads to prevent steam leaks even after many years of service. While the perfect fit at the shell head joints may be the most no-ticeable effect of vertical machining, all other shell tolerances such as thickness variations and out-of-roundness also benefit from the process. Other machining, as well as the balancing and grinding of the assembled dryers, is done on custom-built machinery of the high-est standard.
Quality assurance The first quality assurance check occurs after the initial rough machining of the shell. This involves 100% ultrasonic testing and supplementary radiographic imaging to verify that the materials are sound and fulfill specifications. These tests are followed up by a number of other quality assurance procedures. The excellent performance, high availability and long service life characteristic of a Metso Yankee dryer are the result of simple
design, high-quality castings, high-precision machining and rigid quality assurance.
All resources in one place Finished Yankees are shipped from the harbor next to the Metso Paper manufacturing facility. The fact that all resources are gath-ered in one place – design, casting, machining and shipping – trans-lates into complete control of the manufacturing process and very high delivery assurance.
Metso’s development and introduction of a method for 100% ultrasonic testing of all Yankee shells as a complement to radiographic testing at the be-ginning of the 1990s drastically improved quality control and there-fore resulted in considerably safer Yankee cylinders. It is practically impossible to test the total Yankee shell radio-graphically. Previous to 100% ultrasonic testing, films placed on the shell according to a predetermined pattern covered about 10% of the surface of the shell. The shell was approved or disapproved based on the results of the radiographic test and the statistical probability that critical defects could appear in other areas. By test-ing the whole surface of the shell, we can detect all of the possible defects for further radiographic examination. Our customers and we have replaced chance with knowledge.
Yankee hood setting new standards
Higher dryer efficiency means extended drying area, higher heat transfer and lower energy consumption.
Advantage™AirCap™ Today, customers’ investments in both new and existing ma-chines are largely driven by the need for improvement in quality, productivity and competitiveness. Metso Paper with its Metso Ad-vantage AirCap technology platform and knowledge provides tis-suemakers with these values, setting new standards in tissue ma-chine performance. Metso Advantage AirCap Yankee hood is a new proven technol-ogy applicable to both new and existing tissue machines. It is avail-able in three versions depending on performance requirements:Basic (B), with High Temperature Toe (HTT) or Total High Tempera-ture (HT). Features common to all three versions of the Metso Advantage AirCap Yankee hood are: • Advantage CD Profiling with increased profiling zones for higher final tissue quality; • Advantage Drying with a new and larger drying area for higher drying efficiency; • Advantage Roof with an automatic washing system that elimi-nates fire risk and minimizes maintenance and cleaning.
Over 20 per cent more drying capacity When tissue makers need higher drying capacity for increased production or for making supersoft products, the High Tempera-ture Toe (HTT), or the Total High Temperature (HT), are options for obtaining 10 to 20% more drying capacity. One version of the Advantage AirCap Yankee hood is the Com-pact Advantage AirCap. With fans and burners built inside the sec-tions, this is designed to fit in space-constrained new or rebuilt in-stallations. Metso Advantage AirCap Yankee hood is easy to install even when this involves rebuilding existing tissue machines. With the addition of Advantage™ WetDust™ and/or Advantage™ Run™ concepts for tissue machine safety, machine hygiene, efficiency and runnability improvements, the equipment can be part of a partial or total process improvement.
Advantage Profiling enables faster reaction to moisture peaks, and easier grade changes. Wet toe profiling zones twice the normal size mean higher tissue quality standards.
Advantage AirCap Application Range
Advantage Service Concepts and Lifecycle support
Owners and operators of Yankee dryers and hoods can take ad-vantage of the wide range of service concepts Metso Paper offers. Among these are a number of often-requested services. In the field of Yankee safety, Metso primarily conducts annual and more extensive fitness-for-service inspections. The field of Performance enhancement includes the Crown opti-mization and the much-appreciated Energy-saving studies. Crown optimization is based on data collected during operation in combi-nation with calculations carried out by experienced structural ana-lysts. The Yankee drying process is very intensive and energy consum-ing. The Energy saving concept includes specialists measuring the system’s drying performance and specific energy consumption. An-alyzing and comparing this data with an extensive database of sim-ilar installations provides valuable information and helps to iden-tify areas of improvement. Short-term improvements such as fine-tuning energy usage of-ten result in immediate efficiency and service payback without any further investments. Medium and long-term improvements, offering the potential for significant drying cost savings, typically include modification or replacement of equipment. These studies provide customers with a solid base for future investments and im-provements.
Partnership with Bender Metso Paper works in partnership with Bender Machine Servic-es to supply customers with Yankee surface refurbishing. Through Bender, the market leader in this area, Metso Paper also provides Yankee dryer grinding, Infinikote™ thermal sprayed coating and surface repairs.
Metso Paper offers customers not only superior technology but also lifetime service and support or, in other words, Lifecycle Sup-port. Beginning at the time of purchase and continuing throughout the service life of the equipment, Lifecycle Support extends the lifetime of the Metso Yankee Dryer and Metso Advantage AirCap, while minimizing unplanned stoppages and reducing mainte-nance costs. Lifecycle Support includes equipment analyses and condition testing to prevent faulty operation and production disturbances as well as rapid delivery of spares and quick response to unplanned repair work when needed.
Lifecycle Support is not only about machines. It also concerns special resources for training and education and updating mill staff, either in the Metso Paper Learning Center or via internet-based e-learning, an interactive way of learning more about how the Metso Yankee Dryer and/or Metso Advantage AirCap Yankee hood func-tion in the tissue making process. The Metso Paper service organization is worldwide, with more than 40 service centers in 20 countries.
In the Metso Tissue Technology Center with its ultramodern pilot machine, skilled Met-so Paper staff can conduct analyses to determine the temperature profile, steam and condensate flows of the Yankee shell.
www.metsopaper.com tissue.info@metso.com Europe +46 54 171 000 North America +1 770 263 7863 Asia +86 10 6566 6600
All product names in this document are trademarks of Metso.
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