Prépa Sciences Po – Anglais– L’intégrale des fiches
102 pages
Français
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus

Prépa Sciences Po – Anglais– L’intégrale des fiches

Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus
102 pages
Français

Description

Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po Prépa Sciences Po Anglais - Fiches Sommaire Conditional sentences Futures: Future with will, going to, Present Simple, Present Continuous Sequence of Tenses with Infinitives and Participles Present Tense: Present simple vs Present Continuous Verb combination (Infinitive vs -ing form) Adjectives + preposition combination Prepositions Noun + preposition combinations Verb + preposition combination Phrasal Verbs - Ordered List by Verbs Some selected Tests and Quizzes for ESL/EFL Learners Used to vs Be used to vs Get used to 1 Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po Conditional sentences A. Zero conditional IF + DOES, DOES If + present simple tense, present simple tense 1. If is used to state general rules. If we heat water enough, it begins to boil. In statements like this, if means the same as when or every time. B. The 1st conditional IF + DOES, WILL DO If + present simple tense, will + bare infinitive 2. In 1st conditional if is used to speculate about the future consequences of a specific event. In this case, the verb in the second part of the sentence is preceded by will. If they offer a good price, we will buy the whole consignment. COMMON MISTAKE. We do not use will in the if part of the sentence. 3. When we talk about an event that will take place in the future, we can use if or when.

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Publié le 14 janvier 2011
Nombre de lectures 168
Langue Français
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Exrait

Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po
Prépa Sciences Po
Anglais - Fiches
Sommaire Conditional sentences Futures: Future with will, going to, Present Simple, Present Continuous
Sequence of Tenses with Infinitives and Participles
Present Tense: Present simplevsPresent Continuous
Verb combination (Infinitivevs-ingform)
Adjectives + preposition combination
Prepositions
Noun + preposition combinations
Verb + preposition combination
Phrasal Verbs - Ordered List by Verbs
Some selected Tests and Quizzes for ESL/EFL Learners
Used tovsBe used tovsGet used to
1
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po
A. Zero conditional
IF +DOES, DOES
Conditional sentences
If + present simple tense,present simple tense
1.Ifis used to state general rules. Ifwe heat water enough, it begins to boil.In statements like this,ifmeans the same aswhenorevery time.
B. The 1st conditionalIF + DOES,WILL DOIf + present simple tense,will + bare infinitive2.In1st conditional ifis used to speculate about the future consequences of a specific event. In this case, the verb in the second part of the sentence is preceded bywill.Ifthey offer a good price, wewillbuy the whole consignment.COMMON MISTAKE. We do not usewillin theifpart of the sentence. 3. When we talk about an event that will take place in the future, we can useiforwhen. I am flying to the States tonight. I'll give you a ringifI can find a phone.(The speaker is not sure if he will be able to find a phone or not.)I am flying to the States tonight. I'll give you a ringwhenI get there.(The speaker has no doubt that the plane will arrive safely.)4. In a sentence with anif-clause we can use the imperative, or other modal verbs, instead of will+ infinitive If you hear from Susan today,tellher to ring me.If the traffic is bad, Imayget home late.Note. We saythe trafficbuta traffic jam5. 1st conditional is usually used in such cases: Contingency plans, considering events that may/may not occur If I feel too excited to sleep, I'll try reading one of our reports.Planning your manpower We'll need more staffif / when / in casewe start the new project.Company forecast
2
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po Degres of certainty Project planning C. Conditionals:if, unless, in case, provided that, as long as, so that
6.Ifandunless
Unlessmeans the same asif ... not.It always refer to the conditional part of the sentence and not the result part of the sentence: Ifhe doesn'tgethere soon, we will have to start the meeting without him.Unlesshe gets here soon, we will have to start the meeting without him.We often usenot + unless, which meansonly ... if, when we want to emphasize a condition: Theywill only signthe contractifwe give them an additional discount.Theywon't signthe contractunlesswe give them an additional discount.7.Ifandin caseWe usein caseto talk about precautions we will take before a problem happens. We useifto talk about what we will do after a problem happens: We are going to insure the shipmentin casethe goods get damaged in transit.(We will take our insurance first; the problem may or may not happen afterward.) Ifthe goods get damaged in transit, we'll make a claim.(The damage may happen, and we will make a claim afterward.) Notethat that in sentence within case, we often usegoing torather thanwillbecause we are often talking about something that we have already decided to do.
8.Provided thatvsas long as, etc.
We can useprovided that/providing,as long as, andso long aswhen we want to emphasize condition.Provided thatandas long asmeanifandonly if(providingandso long asare a little less formal): I will agree to these conditionsprovided thatthey increase my salary.(I will only agree if they give me more money.) The strike will be successfulas long aswe all stay together.(It will only succeed if we all stay together.) 9.So thatWe useso thatto say what the result or purpose of an action will be:
3
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po I'll take a credit cardso thatwe don't run out of money.(The credit card will stop us from running out of money)
D. 2nd conditional
IF +DID, WOULDDO
If + past tense,would + infinitive
10.2nd conditionalcan be used to refer to less probable or impossible situations. The verb in the second part is preceded bywould / should / could / might.Theif-clause can come in the first part of the sentence, or the second. If I knew her number, I would send her a fax.I would send her a fax if I knew her number.COMMON MISTAKE. We do not usewouldin theifpart of the sentence.
11. This form refers to present or future time.
Ifthese machineswere notso expensive, we would buy them.Ifwehireda lawyer, we would recover our debts more easily.IfIlostmy job tomorrow, I would move to London to find the same kind of job.The first two sentences refer to present situation, and imagining a situation that is different from the reality. In the third we are talking about a possible event in the future, but using second conditional we make it clear that we do not really think it will happen.
12. 2nd conditional is usually used in such cases
Stating preferences Supposing If I were 10 years younger, I'd take the job.As long as / Providing it was well paid, I'd accept this proposal.Unusual circumstances I would / might join the army, if there was a war.I wouldn't go on strike, unless there was no alternative.13. First or second conditional If we think that future event is reasonably likely, we use first conditional If the market grows at 7% a month, it will involve new investment rapidly.
4
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po If we are talking about an event that is unlikely or impossible, we use the second conditional IfIhadas much money as Bill Gates of Microsoft,I would retire.14. Variation It is also possible to usemightandcouldinstead ofwouldIf we received credit, we could expand much more rapidly.In theif-clause , we can use were instead ofwas. This is very common when we give advice using the expressionIf I were you ...If I were you, I would have another look through those figures.
E. 3rd conditional
IF + HADDONE, WOULD+ HAVEDONE
If + past perfect tense, would+ presentperfect
15.3rd conditionalis used when talking about things that didn't happened in the past (and the consequence if they had happened). The verb in the second part is used withwould / should / could / might (+ have + past participle).If I'd known it was formal party, I wouldn't have gone wearing jeans and jumper. I would have worn suit.16. Positive and negative When we use the 3rd conditional we are imagining the opposite situation. If what actually happened was negative, we use a positive form. If what actually happened was positive, we use a negative form: If my client had given me her fax number, I wouldn't have had to post a letter to her.If I'd known it was a formal party, I wouldn't have gone wearing jeans and a jumper.If I had not been in Amsterdam at the last RIPE meeting, I would not have met Esther Dyson and I wouldn't have known she speaks Russian.17. Mixed conditionals If we talk about apast action and its result in the present we useif+ past perfect andwould not+ infinitive: Ifhehadn't donewell on the training courses, hewouldn't bea Project leader now.
5
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po
Futures: Future with will, going to, Present Simple, Present Continuous
There are several ways of referring to future time in English. 1. Prediction. At the present time we expect something to happen. 2. Future fact. Willcan be used with averb + ingto say that something will be in progress at a future time. We'll be waitingfor you.Will + have + past participleis used to talk about something completed in the future. By this time next monthwe'll have finished writing. 3. Promises, spontaneous decisions about the future I haven't got time to meet him tomorrow.OK, I'll meethim myself.4. Intentions Going tois used to refer to a future events for which we have present evidence Going tocan suggest great determination Theyare going to becomethe leading database software developers.5. Fixed arrangements and future certainties The present simple is often used in connection with travel or other activities that involve a schedule. The plane to Minneapolis leaves at 15.05 and arrives at 18.15.An infinitive can also be used to talk abou it definite arrangement; it makes arrangement sound offcial. Youare to behere at 9.30.Weare to seeMr. Kaffenbenger at his office tomorrow.6. Future plans Whenare you going? On Sunday.Iam seeingthe secretary tomorrow.
6
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po 7. The choice of the future form is not always easy. Sometimes it's possible to use more than one - at other times only one is possible. The company will be 50 years old next Monday.(future fact) The Company is 50 years old next Monday.(absolutely definite) We are going to establish a joint venture in Moscow.(intention) We are establishing a joint venture in Moscow.(plan) We're going to become the world's leading software developer.(intention) We will become the world's leading software developer.(promise or possible future fact) 8. These are some of the restrictions in the choice. We do not use present continuous to make predictions nor to make promises. It is not possible to announce spontaneous decisions usinggoing to / the present continuous / the present simple
7
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po
Sequence of Tenses with Infinitives and Participles
Like verbs,infinitives and participlesare capable of conveying the idea of action in time; therefore, it is important that we observe the appropriate tense sequence when using these modals.
Tense ofInfinitive
Present Infinitive (to see)
Perfect Infinitive (to have seen)
INFINITIVES
Role of Infinitive
To show same-time action or action later than the verb
To show action earlier than the verb
8
Example(s)
Coach Espinozaiseagerto tryout her new drills. [The eagerness is now; the trying out will happen later.]
Shewould have liked to seemore veterans returning. [The present infinitiveto seeis in the same time as the pastwould have liked.]
The fanswould like to have seensome improvement this year. ["Would like" describes a present condition; "to have seen" describes something prior to that time.]
Theyconsiderthe teamto have been coachedvery well. [The perfect infinitiveto have been coachedindicates a time prior to the verb consider.]
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po
Tense ofParticiple
Present Participle (seeing)
Past Participle orPresent Perfect Participle
PARTICIPLES
Role of Participle
To show action occurring at the same time as that of the verb
To show action occurring earlier than that of the verb
9
Example(s)
Workingon the fundamentals, the team slowlybeganto improve. [The action expressed bybeganhappened in the past, at the same time the workinghappened.]
Preparedby last year's experience, the coachknowsnot to expect too much. [The action expressed byknowsis in the present;preparedexpresses a time prior to that time.]
Having experimentedwith several game plans, the coaching staffdeviseda master strategy. [The present perfect participlehaving experimentedindicates a time prior to the past tense verb,devised.]
Auteur : Suzie Suriam Disicpline : Anglais Prépa Sciences Po
Present Tense: Present simplevsPresent Continuous
1. Present simplePresent simple is used to talk about Permanent situations - situations that are generally or permanently true Routines and frequency - routines and things we do regularly Scientific or other facts Programs and timetables - in this case present simple can refer to the future there are two flights from Minneapolis to Seattle. Oneleavesat 11.15 andarrivesat approx. 13.30, and another oneleavesat 17.15 andarrivesat 18.40
2. Present continuousPresent continuous is used to talk about Moment of speaking - activity taking place at the moment of speaking Current projects - actions or activities and current projects that are taking place over a period of time (even if they not taking place at the moment of speaking) Holiday Travel Company has moved into the health and leisure business. Itis setting upnew fitness club in the city and hopes to expand to other places.Temporary situation - indicates that actions or activity is temporary rather than permanent. Nicola organizes our conferences and booklets publishing.(The present simple is used because this permanent responsibility.) Nicola is away on her vacation, so I am arranging all relations with publishing company.Slow changes - current trends and slow changes that are taking place the latest market statistics show that American economyis strengthening, and that the dollaris rising.
3. Present simple vs Present continuous
When considering use of Present simple or Present continuous use the following rules
A. Routine vs moment of speaking
10
  • Accueil Accueil
  • Univers Univers
  • Ebooks Ebooks
  • Livres audio Livres audio
  • Presse Presse
  • BD BD
  • Documents Documents