Semi-Riemann Geometry and General Relativity

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Description

  • cours - matière : physics - matière potentielle : physics
  • cours - matière potentielle : from the theoretical point of view
  • cours - matière potentielle : notes for a one semester course at the undergraduate level
Semi-Riemann Geometry and General Relativity Shlomo Sternberg September 24, 2003
  • frame field
  • invariant forms from representations
  • principle of general covariance
  • schwarzschild plane
  • weingarten map
  • differential forms
  • curvature
  • theoretical basis
  • point
  • course

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Oracle® Database
Backup and Recovery Basics
10g Release 1 (10.1)
Part No. B10735-01
December 2003Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Basics 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Part No. B10735-01
Copyright © 2003 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Antonio Romero
Contributing Author: Lance Ashdown
Contributors: Anand Beldalker, Tammy Bednar, Don Beusee, Senad Dizdar, Wei Hu, Donna Keesling,
Bill Lee, Muthu Olagappan, Francisco Sanchez, Vinay Srihari, Steve Wertheimer
Graphic Artist: Valarie Moore
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The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit, medical, or other inherently
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Oracle is a registered trademark, and Oracle Store, Oracle7, Oracle8, Oracle9i, PL/SQL, and SQL*Plus are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation. Other names may be trademarks of their
respective owners.Contents
Send Us Your Comments ................................................................................................................... ix
Preface............................................................................................................................................................ xi
Audience ................................................................................................................................................ xii
Organization....................... xii
Related Documentation ...................................................................................................................... xiii
Conventions.......................................................................................................................................... xiii
Documentation Accessibility ............................................................................................................. xvi
1 Backup and Recovery Overview
What is Backup and Recovery? ....................................................................................................... 1-2
Physical Backups and Logical Backups..................................................................................... 1-2
Errors and Failures Requiring Recovery from Backup........................................................... 1-2
Oracle Backup and Recovery Solutions: RMAN and User-Managed Backup .................... 1-3
Backup and Recovery: Basic Concepts ........................................................................................... 1-5
Physical Database Structures Used in Recovering Data......................................................... 1-5
The Database Recovery Process: Basic Concepts ......................................................................... 1-7
Forms of Data Recovery..................................................................................................................... 1-9
Datafile Media Recovery: Restore Datafiles, Apply Redo...................................................... 1-9
Complete, Incomplete and Point-In-Time Recovery............................................................. 1-10
Automatic Recovery After Instance Failure: Crash Recovery ............................................. 1-11
Backup and Recovery with RMAN............................................................................................... 1-12
Types of Oracle Database Backup under RMAN .................................................................. 1-12
Matching Failures to Backup and Recovery Techniques .......................................................... 1-14
iiiMedia Failure............................................................................................................................... 1-14
User Error..................................................................................................................................... 1-16
Automatic Disk-Based Backup and Recovery: The Flash Recovery Area ............................. 1-16
System Requirements for Backup and Recovery Methods ...................................................... 1-17
Feature Comparison of Backup Methods..................................................................................... 1-18
2 Backup and Recovery Strategies
Data Recovery Strategy Determines Backup Strategy................................................................. 2-2
Planning Data Recovery Strategy .................................................................................................... 2-5
Planning a Response to User Error: Point-in-Time Recovery and Flashback Features...... 2-5
Planning a Response to Media Failure: Restore and Media Recovery ................................. 2-6
Planning a Response to Datafile Block Corruption: Block Media Recovery........................ 2-7
Planning Backup Strategy................................................................................................................. 2-8
Protecting Your Redundancy Set ............................................................................................... 2-8
Deciding Between ARCHIVELOG and NOARCHIVELOG Mode..................................... 2-10
Deciding Whether to Use a Flash Recovery Area .................................................................. 2-11
Choosing a Backup Retention Policy ....................................................................................... 2-12
Archiving Older Backups .......................................................................................................... 2-14
Determining Backup Frequency 2-14
Performing Backups Before and After You Make Structural Changes............................... 2-15
Backing Up Frequently Used Tablespaces.............................................................................. 2-15
Backing Up after NOLOGGING Operations.......................................................................... 2-16
Exporting Data for Added Protection and Flexibility ........................................................... 2-16
Preventing the Backup of Online Redo Logs 2-17
Keeping Records of the Hardware and Software Configuration of the Server................. 2-17
Validating Your Data Recovery Strategy ...................................................................................... 2-18
Validating RMAN Backups: BACKUP VALIDATE and RESTORE VALIDATE ............. 2-19
3 Setting Up and Configuring Backup and Recovery
Starting and Exiting RMAN: Overview.......................................................................................... 3-2
Types of Database Connections.................................................................................................. 3-2
Authentication for Database Connections ................................................................................ 3-3
Setting Globalization Support Environment Variables for RMAN ......................................... 3-3
Connecting to the Target Database 3-4
Connecting to the Target Database from the Command Line ............................................... 3-4
ivConnecting to the Target Database from the RMAN Prompt ............................................... 3-5
Setting Up a Database for RMAN Backup .................................................................................... 3-5
Persistent Configuration Settings: Controlling RMAN Behavior ......................................... 3-6
Configuring the Default Device Type for Backups ................................................................. 3-7
Configuring the Default Backup Type for Disk Backups ....................................................... 3-7
Configuring Compressed Backupsets as Default for Tape or Disk....................................... 3-8
Configuring Disk Devices and Channels.................................................................................. 3-8
Configuring Tape Devices and Channels ................................................................................. 3-9
Configuring Control File and Server Parameter File Autobackup 3-9
Setting Up a Flash Recovery Area for RMAN............................................................................. 3-11
Choosing a Location for the Flash Recovery Area................................................................. 3-12
Files That Can Be Stored in the Flash Recovery Area ........................................................... 3-13
Planning the Size of the Flash Recovery Area........................................................................ 3-13
Setting Initialization Parameters for the Flash Recovery Area ............................................ 3-14
Configuring the Backup Retention Policy 3-18
How Oracle Manages Disk Space in the Flash Recovery Area 3-20
Configure Flash Recovery Area for Disk-Based Backups: Example................................... 3-22
Creating a Database with Multiplexed Files in the Flash Recovery Area: Scenario......... 3-23
Creating a Database with Only Archived Logs in the Flash Recovery Area: Scenario.... 3-25
4 Making Backups with Recovery Manager
Overview of RMAN Backups........................................................................................................... 4-2
Files That RMAN Can Back Up.................................................................................................. 4-2
RMAN Backup Formats: Image Copies and Backup Sets ...................................................... 4-3
Full and Incremental Datafile Backups ..................................................................................... 4-5
RMAN Backups and Tags ........................................................................................................... 4-5
Backing Up Database Files and Archived Logs with RMAN .................................................... 4-5
Making Consistent and Inconsistent Backups with RMAN .................................................. 4-6
Making Whole Database Backups with RMAN....................................................................... 4-6
Backing Up Individual Tablespaces with RMAN ................................................................... 4-7
Backing Up Datafiles and Datafile Copies with RMAN........................................................ 4-8
Backing Up Control Files with RMAN...................................................................................... 4-9
Backing Up Server Parameter Files with RMAN 4-10
Backing Up Archived Redo Logs with RMAN ...................................................................... 4-10
Using Compressed Backupsets................................................................................................. 4-12
vRMAN Incremental Backups.......................................................................................................... 4-13
Making Incremental Backups: BACKUP INCREMENTAL .............................................. 4-19
Incrementally Updated Backups: Rolling Forward Image Copy Backups ........................ 4-20
Improving Incremental Backup Performance: Change Tracking........................................ 4-23
Backing Up to the Flash Recovery Area: Basic Scenarios ......................................................... 4-25
Scripting Disk-Only Backups.................................................................................................... 4-26
Backing Up to the Flash Recovery Area and to Tape: Basic Scenarios ................................... 4-32
Configuring the RMAN Environment for Disk and Tape Backups.................................... 4-33
Writing Backup Scripts for Disk and Tape Scenarios............................................................ 4-33
Validating RMAN Backups............................................................................................................. 4-42
Overview of Querying the RMAN Repository ........................................................................... 4-43
Listing RMAN Backups, Archived Logs, and Database Incarnations.................................... 4-44
About RMAN Lists..................................................................................................................... 4-44
Listing Backups ........................................................................................................................... 4-45
Listing Backups in Summary Mode......................................................................................... 4-48
Listing Backups with Restrictions ............................................................................................ 4-48
Listing Database Incarnations................................................................................................... 4-50
Reporting on Backups and Database Schema............................................................................. 4-51
About RMAN Reports ............................................................................................................... 4-51
Reporting on Objects Needing a Backup ................................................................................ 4-52
Reporting Obsolete Backups ..................................................................................................... 4-53
Reporting on the Database Schema.......................................................................................... 4-54
5 Performing Recovery
Database Restore and Recovery with RMAN: Overview ........................................................... 5-2
Scope and Limitations of this Chapter ...................................................................................... 5-3
Restore and Recovery with Enterprise Manager ..................................................................... 5-3
Preparing and Planning Database Restore and Recovery 5-4
Database Restore and Recovery Procedure: Outline............................................................... 5-4
Determining Which Database Files to Restore or Recover..................................................... 5-5
Determining your DBID .............................................................................................................. 5-8
Previewing Backups Used in Restore Operations: RESTORE PREVIEW ............................ 5-8
Validating the Restore of Backups: RESTORE VALIDATE.................................................... 5-9
Basic Database Restore and Recovery Scenarios........................................................................ 5-11
Whole Database Restore and Recovery: Scenario.................................................................. 5-12
viRestore and Recovery of Individual Tablespaces or Datafiles: Scenario............................ 5-13
Restoring Different Types of Lost Database Files with RMAN.............................................. 5-14
Restoring the Control File from Backup.................................................................................. 5-14
Restoring the Server Parameter File (SPFILE) from Backup................................................ 5-17
Restoring and Recovering Datafiles and Tablespaces to a New Location ......................... 5-19
Restoring Archived Redo Logs from Backup......................................................................... 5-23
6 Recovery Manager Maintenance Tasks
Managing the RMAN Repository Without a Recovery Catalog................................................ 6-2
Backing Up and Restoring the Control File.............................................................................. 6-2
Monitoring the Overwriting of Control File Records ............................................................. 6-2
Maintaining the RMAN Repository in the Control File 6-5
Crosschecking Backups ............................................................................................................... 6-5
Deleting Backups .......................................................................................................................... 6-7
Crosschecking and Deleting on Multiple RMAN Channels ................................................... 6-11
About Allocating Multiple RMAN Channels for Maintenance Commands ..................... 6-11
How RMAN Crosschecks and Deletes on Multiple Channels ............................................ 6-11
Crosschecking Disk and Tape Channels with One Command: Example .......................... 6-12
Crosschecking on Multiple Oracle Real Application Cluster Nodes: Example ................ 6-13
Deleting on Disk and Tape Channels with One DELETE Command: Example............... 6-13
Releasing Multiple Channels: Example................................................................................... 6-15
Deleting a Database with RMAN............................................................................................. 6-15
Changing the Status of a Backup Record..................................................................................... 6-16
Marking a Backup AVAILABLE or UNAVAILABLE........................................................... 6-16
Exempting a Backup from the Retention Policy .................................................................... 6-17
Cataloging Archived Logs and User-Managed Copies ............................................................. 6-17
About Cataloging Archived Logs and User-Managed Copies ............................................ 6-18
Cataloging User-Managed Datafile Copies ............................................................................ 6-19
Cataloging Backup Pieces.......................................................................................................... 6-19
Cataloging All Files in a Disk Location ................................................................................... 6-20
Uncataloging RMAN Records........................................................................................................ 6-21
About Uncataloging RMAN Records...................................................................................... 6-21
Removing Records for Files Deleted with Operating System Utilities............................... 6-21
Flash Recovery Area Maintenance ................................................................................................ 6-22
Resolving a Full Flash Recovery Area..................................................................................... 6-22
viiChanging the Flash Recovery Area to a New Location ........................................................ 6-23
Flash Recovery Area Behavior When Instance Crashes During File Creation.................. 6-23
Glossary
Index
viii







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Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Basics 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Part No. B10735-01
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