Teaching Experiment Methodology: Underlying Principles and ...
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Teaching Experiment Methodology: Underlying Principles and ...


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  • cours - matière potentielle : year
  • cours - matière potentielle : the teaching episodes
  • cours - matière : mathematics
  • revision
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Steffe, L. P., & Thompson, P. W. (2000). Teaching experiment methodology: Underlying principles and essential elements. In R. Lesh & A. E. Kelly (Eds.), Research design in mathematics and science education (pp. 267- 307). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Teaching Experiment Methodology: Underlying Principles and Essential Elements 1 Leslie P. Steffe Patrick W. Thompson University of Georgia Vanderbilt University With Contributions by Ernst von Glasersfeld The constructivist is fully aware of the fact that an organism's conceptual constructions are not fancy-free.
  • experiment methodology
  • extended periods
  • conceptual foundations of school mathematics
  • mathematical reality
  • teaching experiment
  • mathematics of students as a legitimate mathematics to the extent
  • mathematics of students
  • mathematical experience
  • researchers
  • students



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 55
Langue Italiano
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

S.S.D.: L-LIN/10

Docente: McCourt
Insegnamento: Letteratura inglese II LTI
Mercoledì 16-18 (AULA B)
Giovedì 12-14 (AULA 16)
CFU: 9
Informazioni: jmccourt@uniroma3.it

Programma del corso
Il modulo intende offrire un panorama organico dei principali movimenti letterari del “Lungo
Settecento” (dalla Restaurazione al Romanticismo – dal 1660 al 1830), analizzando l'evoluzione dei
vari generi e, nello specifico contesto culturale, la poetica degli autori più rappresentativi. Il corso,
inoltre, si propone di fornire gli strumenti critici per consentire allo studente di orientarsi nel
campo degli studi culturali e letterari collegati al periodo.
Particolare attenzione sarà rivolta alla poesia, alla prosa e al romanzo. Il corso intende delineare i
tratti distintivi del romanzo inglese nel '700. Cercerà di inquadrare la lettura dei vari testi nel
contesto storico-culturale del periodo.

Materiale didattico
John Dryden “MacFlecknoe” (extract),
Alexander Pope, “The Dunciad” (extract), An Essay on Criticism, (extract)
Jonathan Swift, “The Lady's Dressing Room”
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, “The Reasons that Induced Dr S to writea Poem call'd the Lady's
Dressing room”, A Summary of Lord Lyttelton’s Advice to a Lady” etc
Oliver Goldsmith, “An Elegy On The Death Of A Mad Dog”, “The Deserted Village” (extract)
Thomas Gray, “Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat”, “Elegy written in a country churchyard”
William Wordsworth, “The Solitary Reaper”, “Tintern Abbey” (extract), “It is a beautiful evening
calm and free”,
Shelley “Ozymandias”, "Mont Blanc: Lines Written in the Vale of Chamouni"
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (extracts)

Il romanzo
Tre a scelta tra le seguenti opere:
Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (1726)
Samuel Richardson, Pamela (1740)
Henry Fielding, Shamela (1741)
Laurence Sterne, Tristram Shandy (1760) o A Sentimental Journey (1768)
Sydney Owenson (Lady Morgan) The Wild Irish Girl (1806)
Sir Walter Scott, Waverley (1814)
Maria Edgeworth, Ormond (1817)
Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (1817)
Jane Austen, Persuasion (1818)

Letture Critiche
Paolo Bertinetti (a cura di), Storia della letteratura inglese, Einaudi, Torino, 2000, vol. I. (Capitoli scelti)
Ian Duncan, Scott’s Shadow, The Novel in Romantic Edinburgh (Princeton University Press, 2007, capitoli
Duncan Wu (a cura di), A companion to Romanticism (London: Blackwell, 2004, capitoli scelti)
Stuart Curran (a cura di), The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism (CUP: 2007, capitoli scelti)
John Richetti (a cura di), The Cambridge Companion to The Eighteenth Century Novel (Cambridge: CUP 1998,
capitoli scelti)
John Sitter (a cura di), The Cambridge Companion to Eighteenth-Century Poetry (Cambridge: CUP, 2001,
capitoli scelti)
Franca Ruggieri, Laurence Sterne: oltre il romanzo, in: L’età di Johnson, a cura di Franca Ruggieri, Roma,
Carocci, 1998, pp. 81-100.
Altri saggi saranno consigliato all’inizio e durante il corso e altri testi primari potranno essere aggiunti.

Misure per studenti stranieri

Modalità d’esame: Le competenze acquisite dallo studente verranno verificate al termine del corso in un
colloquio orale.
Gli studenti lavoratori o comunque impossibilitati a partecipare in modo continuativo alle lezioni sono tenuti a
informare la docente della loro situazione sin dall’inizio del corso e a tenersi in contatto durante il periodo della

The period between 1660 and 1785 was a time of amazing expansion for England — or for
"Great Britain," as the nation came to be called after an Act of Union in 1707 joined Scotland to
England and Wales. Britain became a world power, an empire on which the sun never set. But
it also changed internally. The world seemed different in 1785. A sense of new, expanding
possibilities — as well as modern problems — transformed the daily life of the British people,
and offered them fresh ways of thinking about their relations to nature and to each other.
Hence literature had to adapt to circumstances for which there was no precedent.
One lasting change was a shift in population from the country to
the town. "A Day in Eighteenth-Century London" shows the
variety of diversions available to city-dwellers. At the same
time, it reveals how far the life of the city, where every daily
newspaper brought new sources of interest, had moved from
traditional values. Formerly the tastes of the court had
dominated the arts. In the film Shakespeare in Love, when
Queen Elizabeth's nod decides by itself the issue of what can
be allowed on the stage, the exaggeration reflects an
underlying truth: the monarch stands for the nation. But the
eighteenth century witnessed a turn from palaces to pleasure
gardens that were open to anyone with the price of admission. New standards of taste were set
by what the people of London wanted, and art joined with commerce to satisfy those desires.
Artist William Hogarth made his living not, as earlier painters had done, through portraits of
royal and noble patrons, but by selling his prints to a large and appreciative public. London
itself — its beauty and horror, its ever-changing moods — became a favorite subject of writers.
The sense that everything was changing was also sparked by a
revolution in science. In earlier periods, the universe had often seemed
a small place, less than six thousand years old, where a single sun
moved about the earth, the center of the cosmos. Now time and space
exploded, the microscope and telescope opened new fields of vision,
and the "plurality of worlds," as this topic is called, became a doctrine
endlessly repeated. The authority of Aristotle and Ptolemy was broken;
their systems could not explain what Galileo and Kepler saw in the
heavens or what Hooke and Leeuwenhoek saw in the eye of a fly. As
discoveries multiplied, it became clear that the moderns knew things of
which the ancients had been ignorant. This challenge to received
opinion was thrilling as well as disturbing. In Paradise Lost, Book 8, the
angel Raphael warns Adam to think about what concerns him, not to
dream about other worlds. Yet, despite the warning voiced by Milton
through Raphael, many later writers found the new science inspiring. It
gave them new images to conjure with and new possibilities of fact
and fiction to explore.
Meanwhile, other explorers roamed the earth, where they discovered
hitherto unknown countries and ways of life. These encounters with
other peoples often proved vicious. The trade and conquests that
made European powers like Spain and Portugal immensely rich also
brought the scourge of racism and colonial exploitation. In the
eighteenth century, Britain's expansion into an empire was fueled by
slavery and the slave trade, a source of profit that belied the national
self-image as a haven of liberty and turned British people against
one another. Rising prosperity at home had been built on inhumanity
across the seas. This topic, "Slavery and the Slave Trade in Britain,"
looks at the experiences of African slaves as well as at British
reactions to their suffering and cries for freedom. At the end of the
eighteenth century, as many writers joined the abolitionist campaign,
a new humanitarian ideal was forged. The modern world invented by
the eighteenth century brought suffering along with progress.

The dominant literary movement in England during the late seventeenth century and the
eighteenth century, which sought to revive the artistic ideals of classical Greece and Rome.
Neoclassicism was characterized by emotional restraint, order, logic, technical precision,
balance, elegance of diction, an emphasis of form over content, clarity, dignity, and
decorum. Its appeals were to the intellect rather than to the emotions, and it prized wit over
imagination. As a result, satire and didactic literature flourished, as did the essay, the
parody, and the burlesque. In poetry, the heroic couplet was the most popular verse form.

Dryden MacFlecknoe

All humane things are subiect to decay,
And when Fate Summons, Monarch's must obey;
This Flecknoe found, who like Augustus young,
Was call'd to Empire, and had Govern'd long;
In Prose and Verse was own'd without Dispute,
Through all the Realms of Nonsense, Absolute;
This Aged Prince now flourishing in Peace,
And blest with Issue of a large Increase,
Worn out with Business, did at length Debate,
To settle the Succession of the State,
And Pond'ring, which of all his Sons were fit
To reign, and Wage Immortal Wars, with Wit,
Cry'd 'tis Resov'd (for Nature pleads, that he
Should only Rule, who most resembles me,)
Shad--- alone my perfect Image Bears,
Mature in Dulness from his Tender Years;
Shad--- alone of all my Sons, is He
Who stands confirm'd in full Stupidity;
The rest, to some faint meaning make Pretence,
But Shad-- never deviates into Sence;
Some Beams of Wit on other Souls may fall,
Strike through, and make a Lucid Interval;
But Shad--- Genuine Night admits no Ray,
His rising Fogs prevail upon the Day;
Besides, his goodly Fabric fills the Eye,
And seems design'd for thoughtless Majesty;
Thoughtless as Monarch-Oaks that shade the Plain,
And spread in solemn State, supinely Reign; Heywood and Shirly were but Types of Thee,
Thou last great Prophet of Tautology.
Ev'n I a Dunce of more renown than they,
Was sent before but to prepare thy way;
I courtly Cloath'd in Drugget Russet, came
To teach the Nations in thy greater name;
My warbling Lute, the Lute I whilome strung,
When to King John of Portugal I Sung,
Was but a prelude to that Glorious Day,
When thou on Siluer Thames didst cut thy Way,
With well-tim'd Oars before the Royal-Barge,
Swell'd with the Pride of thy Celestial Charge,
And big with Hymn, Commanders of an Host,
The like was ne're in Epsom Blankets Tost.
Methinks I see the new Arion Sail,
The Lute still trembles underneath thy Nail;
At thy well sharpned Thumb, from Shore to Shore
The Treble squeaks doe fear, the Bases Rore;
Eccho from Pissing-Alley, Shad--- Call,
And Shad--- they resound from Aston-Hall;
About thy Boat the little Fishes throng,
And gently waft the over all along;
Sometimes as Prince of thy Harmonious Band,
Thou weild'st thy Paper in thy Thrashing-Hand.
St. Andrew's Feet ne're kept more equal Time,
Not even the Feet of thy own Psyches Rhime;
Though they in Number, as in Sence excel,
So Just, so like Tautology they fell;

That Pale with Envy Singleton forswore
The Lute and Sword, which he in Triumph wore,
And Vow'd he ne're would Act Villerius more.
Here stopt the good old Sire, and wept for Joy,
In silent Raptures of the Hopeful Boy;
All Arguments (but most his Plays) persuade,
That for Anointed Dulness he was made.
Close by the Walls which fair Augusta Bind,
(The fair Augusta much to Fears Inclin'd)
An Ancient Fabrick rais'd t'Inform the sight,
There stood of Yore (and Barbican it Hight,)
A Watch-Tower once, but now (so Fate ordeins)
An Empty name of all the Pile Remains;
From its old Ruins Brothel-Houses rise,
Scenes of lewd Love, and of Polluted Joys;
Where their vast Courts the Mother Strumpets keep,
And undisturb'd by Watch, in silence sleep; Near these a Nursery Erects its Head,
Where Queens are Form'd, and future Heroes Bred,

Where unfledg'd Actors learn to Laugh and Cry,
Where Infant Puncks their tender Voices try,
And little Maximins the Gods Defie.
Great Fletcher never treads in Buskins here,
Nor greater Johnson dares in Socks appear;
But gentle Simpkin just reception finds
Amidst these Monuments of Varnisht Minds:
Pure Clinches the Suburbane Muse Affords,
And Panton waging Harmless War with Words;
Here Flecknoe as a place to Fame well known,
Ambitiously designed his Shad--- Throne.

For ancient Decker Prophecy'd long since,
That in this Isle should Reign a mighty Prince,
Born for a Scourge of Wit, and Flaile of Sence;
To whom true Dulness should some Psyche's owe,
But Worlds of Misers from his Pen should flow:
Humorists and Hypocrite's his Pen should produce
Whole Raymond Families and Tribes of Bruce;
Now Empress Fame had Publish'd the Renown
Of Shad---s Coronation through the Town;
Rous'd by report of Pomp, the Nations meet
From near Bunhill, to distant Watling street;
No Persian Carpet spread th'Imperial way,
But scattered Limbs of Mangled Poets lay;
From Dusty Shops neglected Authors come,
Martyrs of Pies, and Reliques of the Bum;
Much Heywood, Shirly, Ogilby, there lay,
But Loads of Shad--- almost Choak'd the way;
Bilk'd Stationers for Yeomen stood prepar'd,
And Herringman was Captain of the Guard;
The Hoary Prince in Majesty appear'd
High on a State of his own Labors rear'd;
At his Right-Hand our young Ascanius Sate,
Romes other Hope, and Pillar of the State;
His Brows thick Fogs, instead of Glories-Grace,
And Lambent Dulness plaid about his Face.
As Hannibal did to the Altars come,
Sworn by his Sire a Mortal Fore to Rome;
So Shad--- Sworn, nor should his Vow be vain,
That he to Death true Dulnes would maintain,
And in his Fathers Right and Realms Defence,
Wou'd bid defiance unto Wit and Sense;
The King himself the Sacred Unction made, As King by Office, and as Priest by Trade;
In his Sinister-Hand, instead of Ball,
Was plac'd a mighty Mug of Potent Ale.
Love's Kingdom to his Right he did Convey,
At once his Scepter, and his Rule of Sway;
Whose Righteous Love the Prince had practic'd Young,
And from whose Loins Recorded Psyche Sprung;
His Temples (last) with Poppey were o'respread,
That Nodding seem'd to Consecrate his Head;
Just at that point of time, (if Fame not lie,)
On his Left-Hand Twelve Reverend Owls did flie;
So Romulus ('tis Sung) by Tiber's Brook,
Presage of Sway from Twice six Vultures took;
Th'advancing throng loud Acclamations make,
And Omens of the future Empire take;
The Sire then shook the Honours on his head,
And from his brows damps of Oblivion Shed:

Full of the filial Dulness long he stood,
Repelling from his Brest the Raging God,
At length burst out in this Prophetick Mood.
Heaven bless my Son, from Ireland let him Reign
To fair Barbadoes on the Western Mayn,
Of his Dominion may no end be known,
And greater than his Fathers be his Throne;
Beyond loves Kingdoms may he s[tr]etch his Pen,
He paws'd--and all the People cry'd--Amen.
Then thus continued he, my Son advance
Still in new Impudence, new Ignorance,
Success let others teach, learn thou from me,
Pangs without Birth, a fruitless Industry.
Let Virtuoso's in five Years be Writ,
Yet not one thought accuse thy Soul of Wit;
Let Gentle George with Triumph Tread the Stage,
Make Dorimant betray, and Loveit rage,
Let Cully Cockwood, Fopling charm the Pit,
And in their folly show the Writers Wit;
Yet still thy fools shall stand in thy Defence,
And justifie their Authors want of Sense,
Let them be all of thy own Model made
Of Dulness; and desire no Forreign Aid,
That they to after Ages may be known,
Not Copies drawn, but Issues of thine own;
Nay, let thy Men of Wit too be the same,
All like to thee, and diffring but in Name;
But let no Alien Sydney Interpose,
To lard with Wit thy hungry Epsome Prose: And when false Flowers of Rhet'rick thou wouldst cull
Trust Nature, do not labour to be dull;
But Write thy best on th'top, and in each line
Sir Formal's Oratory Wit be thine;
Sir Formal tho unsought attends thy Quill,
And doth thy Northern Dedications fill
Nor let false Friends seduce thy Mind to Fame,
By Arrogating Johnson's Hostile Name;
Let Father Flecknoe Fire thy Mind with Praise,
And Uncle Ogleby thy Envy raise;
Thou art my Blood where Johnson hath no part,
What share have we in Nature, or in Art?
Where did his Wit or Learning fix a Brand?
Or rail at Arts he did not understand?
Where made he love in Prince Nycanders Vain?
Or swept the Durst in Psyches humble Strain?
Where sold he Bargains? Whip-stich. Kiss mine A--s,
Promis'd a Play, and dwindled to a Farce.
Where did his Muse from Fletchers Scenes purloin,
As thou whole Etheridge dost transfuse to thine?
But so transfus'd as Oyls on Water Flow,
His always Floats above, thine Sinks Below;
This is thy Promise, this thy wondrous Way,
New Humours to Invent for each New Play;
This is that Boasted Bias of the Mind,
By which one way to Dulness 'tis Inclin'd;
Which makes thy Writings lame on one side still
And in all Charges, that way bends thy will;
Nor let thy Mountain Belly make Pretence,
Of likeness, thine's a Tympany of Sence.
A Tun of Man in thy large Bulk is Writ,
But sure thou art a Kilderkin of Wit;
Like mine thy Gentle Numbers feebly creep,
Thy Tragick Muse gives Smiles, thy Comick sleep;
With what e're Gall thou sets thy self to write,
Thy Inoffensive Satyrs never bite;
In thy Felonious Heart, though Venom lies,
It doth but touch thy Irish Pen and dies;
Thy Genious calls the not to purchase Fame,
In keen iambicks, but wild Anagram;
Leave writing Plays, and choose for thy Command,
Some peaceful Province in Acrostick Land.
There thou mayst Wings display, and Alters raise,
And torture one poor Word ten thousand ways;
Of if thou wouldst thy different Talent suite,
Set thy one Songs, and Sing them to thy Lute.
He said, but his last words were scarcely heard
For Bruce and Longvile had a Trap prepar'd
And down they sent the yet declining Bard;
Sinking, he left the Drugget Robes behind,
Born upwards by a Subteranean Wind,
The Mantle fell to the young Prophets part
With doubled Portion of his Fathers Art.
T.S. Thomas Shadwell, a poet and playwright.
Fleckno: Richard Flecknoe, an Irish Catholic priest and minor poet. Why Dryden singles him out for ridicule
isn't clear.
Augustus: Augustus became emperor of Rome when he was still young, and ruled during Rome's greatest
Own'd: "Admitted" or "acknowledged."
Large increase: That is, "blessed with many offspring."
Succession of the State:In other words, to settle who was to succeed him as king.
Wit:"The powers of the mind; the mental faculties; the intellects" (Johnson).
Sh —— :Shadwell.
Goodly Fabrick: "Significant body." Shadwell was fat.
Heywood and Shirley: Thomas Heywood and James Shirley, seventeenth-century playwrights not widely
admired in Dryden's day. Types is a technical term from theology, a kind of foreshadowing of a future figure.
Tautology:A redundancy or a logical error in which the obvious is stated: for instance, "Either it will rain or
it won't rain."
Norwich drugget: Coarse woolen cloth. Shadwell came from Norfolk.
Whilom:An outdated word meaning "once" or "in the past." It was a favorite word of Edmund Spenser.
King John of Portugal: Shadwell lived in Portugal and dedicated some of his work of King John.
In Epsom blankets toss'd:Shadwell was the author of a play called Epsom Wells, but the line "Such a fellow as
he deserves to be tossed in a blanket" is actually in Shadwell's Virtuoso.
Arion: In Greek myth, Arion is a poet and musician who was carried across the ocean by dolphins.
Pissing-Ally: A real alley in seventeenth-century London.
Toast: Waste.
St. André's feet: St. André was a French dancing-master — an disreputable profession — and did the
choreography for Shadwell's Psyche.
Number: "Verses; poetry" (Johnson).
Singleton: John Singleton, a court musician.
Villerius: Villerius is a character in The Siege of Rhodes, an opera by William Davenant.
Augusta: Used here for London.
To fears inclin'd: London had just gone through "the Popish Plot," in which a number of Catholics were
falsely accused of planning the murder of the king.
Barbican it hight: The Barbican, a fortified wall, stood in Aldersgate Street in London. Hight is an archaic
word for "was called."
Pile: "An edifice; a building" (Johnson).
Punk: "A whore; a common prostitute; a strumpet" (Johnson).
Maximins: Maximin was a character in Dryden's Tyrannic Love. He was a bombastic hero.
Fletcher never treads in Buskins here,/Nor greater Johnson dares in Socks appear: John Fletcher and Ben
Jonson, early seventeenth-century playwrights. Fletcher was best known for his tragedies, associated with
the "buskin" (the kind of shoe worn in stage tragedies); Jonson was famous for his comedies, where "socks"
were worn. Johnson's definition of sock explains it: "The shoe of the ancient comick actors, taken in poems for
comedy, and opposed to buskin or tragedy."
Simkin: Like Panton below, a stock character in plays for a simpleton.
Clinch: "A word used in a double meaning; a pun; an ambiguity; a duplicity of meaning, with an identity of
expression" (Johnson).
Decker: Thomas Dekker, attacked by Ben Jonson in The Poetaster.
Misers: The Miser, The Humorists, and The Hypocrite were plays by Shadwell. Raymond and Bruce are
characters from them.
Near Bun-Hill, and distant Watling-street: Bun Hill and Watling Street were in fact very close, suggesting the
limited range of Shadwell's real influence.
Martyrs of Pies, and Reliques of the Bum: Paper was expensive. When books ceased to sell, their paper
would be used for other purposes — sometimes to line pie tins, sometimes as toilet paper.
Bilk't Stationers: Cheated booksellers.
H ——: Henry Herringman, Shadwell's and Dryden's publisher.
Hoary: Literally "white" as if with hoarfrost, metaphorically "old" (with white hair).
Ascanius: The son of Aeneas.