Unit 2: Chemistry
34 pages
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Unit 2: Chemistry

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34 pages


  • leçon - matière potentielle : the directions
  • cours magistral
  • cours magistral - matière potentielle : support
  • leçon - matière potentielle : assignment
  • leçon - matière potentielle : from the text book as appropriate homework assignments
  • exposé - matière potentielle : on the computer
  • cours - matière potentielle : on enzymes
Unit 2: Chemistry Unit Overview: This unit will focus on basic chemistry and some of the major process of organic chemistry (dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis, and enzyme action) that help form carbon based matter. The students will have the opportunity to view, first hand through three investigative laboratory experiments, the value of pH, the form and function of macromolecules, and the importance of enzymes in a living system. Unit Objective(s): • Identify the atomic properties of matter • Differentiate between the two basic types of chemical bonds.
  • complex molecules through enzyme action
  • regular 55 minute period to half of a 90 minute block period
  • enzymes
  • text book
  • text- book
  • text-book
  • organic molecules
  • organic chemistry
  • mass



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 20
Langue English


AIMS 2012

Seventh International Symposium

30-31 May, 2012
Aachen, Germany

as of 3 January, 2012

Rockbolting and Support Systems

-001 Performance analysis of resin and mechanical anchorage
bolting systems
J. Chen (Director - Technical Support and Services, DSI
Underground Systems, Inc., USA)
-002 The development and application of a logical framework for
specifying roof reinforcement and support in Australian coal
R.W. Seedsman (Director, Seedsman Geotechnics Pty Ltd,
-003 Development and first application of a cuttable OneStep
roof bolt
F. Schmidt (Group Manager Mining Bolts, Hilti
Entwickulngsgesellschaft mbH, Germany)
-004 Implementation of new cable bolting technology to OKD
N. Polysos (Geotechnical Engineer, OKD a.s., Czech Republic)
-005 Successful optimization of roadheading and support
technique on a chinese colliery
N. N (RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Germany)
-006 Introduction of roofbolting for improvement of roadway
support in galleries for international mining
N. N (RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Germany)
-007 Application of roof bolting system and ground control
management in weak strata in Indonesia
T. Sasaoka (Assistant Professor, Kyushu University, Japan)
-008 Development of a high-strength, low-cost resin bolting
D. O’Connor (Director, Minova RSA, South Africa)
-009 The introduction of room and pillar mining systems with
rockbolting into the South Wales Coalfield
G. Daws (Managing Director, Graham Daws Associates Ltd, UK)
-010 Rockbolting trials in underground coal mines in Japan
K. Matsui (Professor, Kyushu University, Japan)
-011 A database of mesh rock surface support responses to
static and dynamic loadings
E. Villaescusa (Professor of Mining Geomechanics, Curtin
University, Western Australian School of Mines, Australia)
2 of 34 -012 The interaction between rock surface support and internal
reinforcement systems
A.G. Thompson (Principal Research Fellow, Curtin University,
Western Australian School of Mines, Australia)
-013 The effects of excavation surface curvature and roughness
on rock bolting, cable bolting, meshing and shotcreting
C.R. Windsor (Professor, Curtin University, Western Australian
School of Mine, Australia)
-014 Numerical simulation of load of arch yielding support under
dynamic conditions
J. Tokarczyk (Leader of group for virtual prototyping, KOMAG,
-015 The substantiation of rope anchor length in the conditions
of mines in Western Donbas Coal Region
K. Lurii (Head of Department Mine Surveying, National Mining
University, Ukraine)
-016 New analytical model for grouted rock bolts
R. Rahmannejad (Academic Staff, Shahid Bahonar University of
-017 Consideration the effect of tunnel face on rock bolted
section of excavations
R. Rahmannejad (Academic Staff, Shahid Bahonar University of
Kerman, Iran)
-018 Yielding bolt support for rock burst prone workings
A. Campoli (Vice President Special Projects, Jennmar
Corporation, USA)
-019 State of the art in roadheading, roofbolting and injection
technique at RAG Aktiengesellschaft
H. Sablotny (Managing Director BT, RAG Aktiengesellschaft,
-020 The use and application of Thin Spray Liners (TSLs) in
N. Smith (Product Marketing Manager Chemicals , Minova
CarboTech GmbH, Germany)
-021 A dynamic numerical analysis of the behavior of fully
grouted rockbolts
H. Mortazavi (Geotechnical Specialist, ATSS Consulting Group,
3 of 34 Injection Technology

-022 Application of injection technology at RAG
F. Lüttig (Senior Manager KOP, RAG Aktiengesellschaft,
-023 The Application of two part resin injection techniques for
ground stabilisation prior to and during longwall production
in severely faulted ground at Daw Mill Colliery
J. Bowler (Strata Control Engineer, UK Coal, Daw Mill Colliery,
-024 Einsatz bergbaulicher Verfahrenstechnik zur
Injektionsmittelprüfung und Sichtbarmachung des
B. Pflüger (Head of the Expert Body for Injection and Building
Materials Technology, DMT GmbH & Co.KG, Germany)
Rock Mechanics

-025 Joining of geomechanical and geophysical monitoring at
coal and ore mines
V. Zubkov (SPSMU), Russia)
-026 Stability analysis of complex underground structures - from
data acquisition to 3D numerical simulation
G. Gschwandtner (University Assistant, Montanuniversität
Leoben, Chair of Subsurface Engineering, Austria)
-027 Ground control at the Spremberg Copper Mine
T. Lautsch (Managing Director, KSL Kupferschiefer Lausitz
GmbH, Germany)
-028 An innovative technology for simultaneous extraction of
two seams with the upper seam using blasting gallery
method? A case study
C.N. Ghosh (CIMFR), India)
-029 Modelling of effects of blasting operation on expansion-
shell bolts for roof support in potash mining
T. Frühwirt (Head of Rock Mechanics Laboratory, TU
Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany)
-030 Backfill as secondary measure for securing of insufficient
longterm-dimensioned mine excavations
H. Baumert (Senior Mine Manager, K+S KALI GmbH, Germany)
-031 Caterpillar Room & Pillar solutions
U. Paschedag (General Manager, Product Segment
Underground, Caterpillar® Global Mining, Germany)
4 of 34 -032 Affecting parameters on behavior of salt underground gas
storage cavern
H. Jalalifar (Lecturer, Shahid Bahonar Kerman University, Iran)
-033 Approximation methods of the continuous measurements of
the mining ground subsidence within short time period
allowing for the changes of longwall front advance
J. Bialek (Professor, Faculty of Mining and Geology, The Silesian
University of Technology, Poland)
-034 A review of subsidence prediction and control
methodologies in the USA - Experiences and new
M. Karmis (Professor, Dept. of Mining and Mineral Eng., Virginia
Tech, USA)
-035 An investigation of the effect on ground subsidence values
by using steel pipe umbrella arch method in weak rock
conditions at Izmir Metro Project
T. Onargan (Deputy Head of Department, Dept. of Mining, Dokuz
Eylul University, Turkey)

-036 Two new technologies for measuring the in situ
performance of rock bolts
A.J. Hyett (CEO, Yieldpoint Inc, Canada)
-037 Accoustic emission and pick forces in rock cutting
K. Nienhaus (Head of Institute, Institute for Mining and Metallurgy
Machinery, RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
Operational Experiences

-038 Training of roofbolting engineers for SUEK mines in Russia
N. N (SUEK, Russia)
-039 Planning of an inclined shaft on the mine Sadovaya to
develop a new mining field
N. N (RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Germany)
-040 Large-scale sylvinite mining in depths of more than 1,200
F. Schnürer (Head of Survey, Senior Mine Surveyor, K+S KALI
GmbH, Germany)
-041 Subsidence of the surface due the underground coal
mining operation in Indonesia
T. Hiroshi (General Manager, MMI Coal Tech, Japan)
5 of 34 -042 Maschineller Tunnelvortrieb in veränderlich festen
Gesteinen: Entfestigung und Verklebungen
M. Feinendegen (Senior Engineer, RWTH Aachen University,
-043 Mechanical and conventional road heading with combined
support under heavy geological conditions at the Auguste
Victoria colliery
S. Roßbach (Roadhead Department Manager, RAG
Aktiengesellschaft, Germany)
-044 How we can utilise the Atlas Copco intelligent
computerised system to improve the quality of rock bolting
in mines and tunnels
P.A. O’Neill (Product Manager-Bolting & Scaling, Atlas Copco
Rock Drills AB, Sweden)
-045 Project engineering for a gallery in great depth with methan
blowout risk
M. Adams (Department Manager BT, RAG Aktiengesellschaft,
-046 N.N.
A. Groten (Senior Project Manager, Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau
GmbH, Germany)
-047 Ankerarbeiten beim Bau der Kaverne für das
Pumpspeicherkraftwerk Vianden
S. Otto (Unternehmensbereich Tunnelbau 2L der Direktion IU, Ed.
Züblin AG, Germany)
-048 Comparison of the state of the art of the gateroads in the
Polish and German coal mining
S. Prusek (Head of Department of Extraction Technologies and
Mining Support, Central Mining Institute, Poland)
Machinery and Equipment

-049 Operation with semi-automated roadheader
P. Achilles (Senior Engineer BT, RAG Aktiengesellschaft,
-050 Use of diesel utility vehicles in longwall mining
T. Hobson (General Manager Operations, Anglo Coal Australia,
Performance analysis of resin and mechanical anchorage bolting systems
J. Chen (Director - Technical Support and Services, DSI Underground Systems, Inc., USA)
R. Walker (Director - Engineering/Business Development Central America, DSI Underground Systems, Inc.,

To build an effective entry roof beam, a roof bolting or supporting system must be able to provide a clamping
force to the bolted roof strata within the bolting horizon. This is especially true for layered or laminated roof
strata. Currently, two roof bolting systems are widely used to serve the purpose of providing such a clamping
force. They are resin and mechanical anchorage bolting systems. Under a layered roof condition, both
numerical modeling and double shear laboratory testing results indicate that a greater pre-installed load or
pretension of a bolting system during installation is very critical for effective beam building. It is generally
believed that a mechanical anchorage bolting system can provide a greater pre-installed load or pretension
than a resin anchorage bolting system. However, no quantitative definition and field testing data are available
to support such a conclusion.
This paper analyzes the results of our field tests on both roof bolting systems, explains why one roof bolting
system is better than the other under a typical roof condition, and finally discusses the effective means for coal
mine operators to determine the best roof bolting system for their roof conditions.
The development and application of a logical framework for specifying roof
reinforcement and support in Australian coal mines
R.W. Seedsman (Director, Seedsman Geotechnics Pty Ltd, Australia)

The logical framework recognises the potential for roof collapse following delamination along bedding,
compressive failure of relatively low strength rock, tensile failure when the vertical stress is much higher than
the horizontal stresses, or unravelling in fault zones. By comparing stresses induced at the excavation
boundary with various strength parameters (shear parameters, unconfined compressive strength, tensile
strength) a series of techniques for specifying reinforcement or the suspension of collapsed masses are
outlined. A simple flow chart is used to step through the necessary calculations. Examples are given of the
application to development driveage, maingate, and tailgate support in the Australian longwall industry. The
framework should be applicable to other underground coal sectors.
7 of 34 -003
Development and first application of a cuttable OneStep roof bolt
F. Schmidt (Group Manager Mining Bolts, Hilti Entwickulngsgesellschaft mbH, Germany)
M. Bayerl (Head of Development Mining, Hilti Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Germany)
A. Schell (Hilti Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Germany)

The Hilti revolutionizing self drilling OneStep roof bolting system has been introduced to the market and is well
known recognized indutry wide. The use of cuttable roof bolting system is a common technique in
underground coal mining. The aim of a new generation OneStep roof bolts was to combine the product
performance and advantages of the existing OneStep roof bolt with the need and requirements for a reliable,
safe and fast cuttable roof bolting system. This central question has been answered by the introduction of the
cuttable HOS-C roof bolting system. The design, testing and first application in mining will be presented.
Implementation of new cable bolting technology to OKD a.s.
N. Polysos (Geotechnical Engineer, OKD a.s., Czech Republic)
S. Meyer (Segment Manager Mining Europe, Hilti Deutschland AG, Germany)

The Hilti HTT cable bolting technology has been tested on OKD mines in order to acieve a better quality in
roadway development and life time of newly developed gateways. The use us bottom-up post grouted cable
bolts at various length has been tested. The perfromance and reliebiability has been monitored and evaluated
to prove the system´s performance under the difficult cinditions found on various OKD mines.
Successful optimization of roadheading and support technique on a chinese
N. N (RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Germany)
N. N (RAG Aktiengesellschaft AG, Germany)
N. N (China)

RAG Mining Solutions operates in international consulting projects aiming on technical optimization for mining
companies. Experts of RAG Mining Solutions and RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG cooperate for a large
Chinese customer, the owner of several collieries, in various projects. There is a high degree of
interdependence between the projects which are dealing with development of a strategy for automation, the
optimization of roadway support and roadheading, as well as optimization of supply chain and logistics.
The paper gives a description of the project work and results regarding the optimization of roadway support
and roadheading.
The work include planning and support design as well as qualification of supervisors and operational
consulting on-site at the Chinese colliery. Within the frame of the projects the improvement of support
elements and equipment was achieved as well as improvement of processes, management up to development
of instruments for controlling and monitoring.
The complete work is based on the consulting portfolio of RAG Mining Solutions, which has a modular
structure and the different steps of the projects are individual concerted and arranged with the customer and
8 of 34 Examples do figure out the special relevance of the project results for the project work in improvement of the
supply chain and development of technical strategies for the customer.

Erfolgreiche Optimierung von Vorleistung und Ausbautechnik auf einem chinesischen Bergwerk

RAG Mining Solutions führt international Dienstleistungsprojekte mit den unterschiedlichsten technischen
Zielsetzungen für Bergbauunternehmen durch. Für ein großes chinesisches Unternehmen mit mehreren
Bergwerken wurden verschiedene Projekte in enger Folge und mit Abhängigkeiten untereinander durch
Experten der RAG Mining Solutions und RAG Deutsche Steinkohle gemeinsam in Angriff genommen: Die
Entwicklung einer Automatisierungsstrategie, die Optimierung der Ausbautechnik, die Entwicklung einer
technischen Strategie zur Optimierung der Vorleistung und die Konzeption einer ganzheitlichen Logistik-
Der Vortrag beschreibt die Projektarbeit in den Teilprojekten Ausbau- und Vorleistungsoptimierung.
Die Arbeiten umfassten neben Planungsarbeiten auch die Qualifizierung des Bergwerkspersonals und die
Beratung vor Ort. Es wurde im Rahmen der Projekte das Ausbaudesign und die Vortriebstechnik in Hinblick
auf das verwendete Material und Equipment, aber auch die durchgeführten Prozesse und
Managementarbeiten, bis hin zu Controlling und Monitoring- Instrumenten optimiert.
Alle Arbeiten wurden auf Grundlage der Produktpalette der RAG Mining Solutions modular aufgebaut und
individuell in Abstimmung mit dem Betreiber umgesetzt.
Insbesondere von großer Bedeutung ist die Abstimmung der beschriebenen Projektarbeit mit der
Technikstrategie des Unternehmens und der Logistikkonzepte, wie an Beispielen verdeutlicht wird.
Introduction of roofbolting for improvement of roadway support in galleries for
international mining
N. N (RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Germany)
N. N (RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
N. N (Central Mining Institute, Poland)

The application range of modern roofbolting technology in German coal mining includes depth between 600
meter and 1600 meter. The load by vertical stress is increasing with the depth and causes specific deformation
of strata and roadway shape depending on the strata conditions (strength and separation) during heading and
during the following use of the galleries.
Already during the 1970ies the ratio between the effective stress and the strength of strata was determined as
an important planning parameter and quantified by operational roadway observation. For German coal mining
the parameter named "strata strain" was defined as dimensionless ratio between vertical stress and square
root of uniaxial compression strength of the strata.
Up to now the "strata strain" parameter is used in planning work for roadway design in great depth and is
implemented for prediction of roadway convergence and classifying the strata conditions.
The paper gives a retrospective view on geomechanical planning work taking into consideration the "strata
strain" and also gives an overview on modern planning processes. The experience from German coal mines is
implemented into international planning projects and offered as consultancy worldwide by RAG Mining
Solutions for optimized roadway design and heading.
The portfolio of RAG Mining Solutions is based on the experience of German mines and stands for
consultancy "by operator for operators" independent from manufacturing of products and equipment.
The benefit for international mining projects in practice is, that new technology can be introduced efficiently
and the customer does not have to learn the hard way and can safe the dearly paid own experience. For
9 of 34 specific hard geological conditions and extreme technical challenges effective solutions are also available,
which are proofed in German mines.
Specific consultancy products are concepted for the individual demands of different target markets for
introducing roofbolting technique. While operations under good strata strain conditions can be flexible
optimized for efficiency and quality, hard strata strain conditions require solutions focused on sufficient work
safety and stable support systems designed in optimized planning processes and heading.

Einführung von Ankerausbau zur Steigerung des Ausbauerfolges von Strecken im internationalen Bergbau

Der Anwendungsbereich von modernem Ankerausbau im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau umfasst Teufen
zwischen rd. 600 Metern bis rd. 1600 Metern. Mit den unterschiedlichen Teufen gehen unterschiedliche
Belastungen durch Gebirgsdruck einher, welche in Abhängigkeit der Nebengesteinseigenschaften zu
Gebirgsverformungen und Streckendeformation nach der Auffahrung und unter Abbaueinfluss führen.
Bereits in den 1970er Jahren wurde aus Streckenbeobachtungen abgeleitet, dass das Verhältnis von
anstehendem Gebirgsdruck zur Festigkeit des Nebengesteins eine wichtige Planungsgröße darstellt. Für den
deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau wurde für die Planung der Kennwert der Gebirgsbeanspruchung definiert,
welcher als dimensionsloser Kennwert zwischen dem vertikalen Gebirgsdruck und der Quadratwurzel der
einaxialen Druckfestigkeit des Nebengesteins errechnet wird. Bis heute hat sich die Gebirgsbeanspruchung
als wesentliche Planungsgröße in großer Teufe bewährt und wird für die Prognose der Streckenkonvergenz
sowie zur Klassifizierung der Gebirgssituation verwendet. Der Beitrag bietet einen Rückblick auf die Historie
der gebirgsmechanischen Planungen unter Berücksichtigung der Gebirgsbeanspruchung bis zur Darstellung
moderner Planung. Die Erfahrungen des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus werden auch in internationalen
Projekten genutzt und durch die RAG Mining Solutions weltweit für optimale Planungen und Streckenvortriebe
Die Produktpalette der RAG Mining Solutions basiert dabei auf den Erfahrungen des deutschen
Steinkohlenbergbaus und liefert produktunabhängige Unterstützung „vom Betreiber zum Betreiber“, womit sich
der Nutzen für internationale Bergbauprojekte konkret ableiten lässt: Neue Techniken lassen sich gemeinsam
wirtschaftlich optimal in den Betrieb einführen, ohne dabei das „Lehrgeld“ für Erprobungsphasen und
Fehlentwicklungen zahlen zu müssen. Aber auch für extreme technische oder lagerstättenbedingte
Herausforderungen stehen leistungsfähige Lösungen zur Verfügung, die bereits im deutschen
Steinkohlenbergbau angewendet wurden.
Für unterschiedliche Zielmärkte stehen für die Einführung der Ankertechnik speziell angepasste Produkte aus
dem Portfolio der RAG Mining Solutions zur Verfügung. Während Bergbaubetriebe unter geringer
Gebirgsbeanspruchung hinsichtlich der wirtschaftlichen Optimierung und der Qualitätssicherung
Schwerpunkte erlauben, sind bei hoher Gebirgsbeanspruchung Standsicherheit, Arbeitssicherheit und
ausreichende Planung und Konzeption der Strecken im Fokus.
Application of roof bolting system and ground control management in weak
strata in Indonesia
T. Sasaoka (Assistant Professor, Kyushu University, Japan)

Indonesia produced about 250 M tons of clean coal and about 75% of coal was exposed in 2010. Indonesia is
currently the world’s sixth largest coal-producing country. The domestic and International demand for coal is
increasing year by year. Additionally, the Indonesian government decided on an energy policy dictating that
33% of primary energy needs will be met by coal in the year 2025. Hence, the amount of coal produced in
Indonesia has increased dramatically in recent years. Over 99% of coal is produced from surface mines.
However, the conditions of surface mining are worsening each year as the stripping ratio is increasing,
approaching the economic ratio. To meet the domestic and international demand for coal, underground mines
10 of 34

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