A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei—Part 2∗


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A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei—Part 2∗ Joseph Lucas and Charles W. Lucas, Jr. Abstract. A physical Geometrical Packing Model for the structure of the atom is developed based on the physical toroidal ring model of elementary particles proposed by Bergman [1]. From the physical characteristics of real electrons from experiments by Compton [2, 3, 4] this work derives, using combinatorial geometry, the number of electrons that will pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements.
  • nuclear density near the center of the nucleus drops
  • center of the nucleus outward
  • physical basis
  • agreement with the observed charge density of nuclides
  • nuclear shell model
  • center of the nucleus
  • nucleus of the oxygen
  • binding energy per nucleon
  • shells
  • nucleus



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Background/Introduction Lesson to DNA  Subjectarea: Biology, Introductory Biology Associated Unit: Curricular unit: DNA Lesson title: Background/Introduction to DNA Application Grade Levels:9,10 Time Required: 1day, 50 minute class periods Students are introduced to the structure and function of Summary: DNA. Molecular BiologyUnderstanding basic concepts of DNA is necessary when Connection:studying molecular biology. Key Words:DNA, genetics, DNA fingerprint SB1. Studentswill analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells.b. Explain how enzymes function as catalysts. c. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins,
Educational Standards:
Learning Objectives:
lipids, nucleic acids).
SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations.
a. Explainthe role of DNA in storing and transmitting cellular information. Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture.
Students will be able to:  Describethe structure of DNA in relationship to its function the role of DNA in storing and transmitting Explain genetic information the role of this information in determining Explain