Economic Outlook
31 pages
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Economic Outlook

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En savoir plus
31 pages


  • revision
Economic Outlook Asia Fourth Quarter 2011 Economic Analysis • Growth in Asia has continued to moderate due to weakening external demand. Strong domestic demand has been a partial offset, but with exports slowing, the growth rebound previously expected in the second half of the year has not materialized. • The growth outlook is still robust, although downside risks have increased due to the uncertain global environment. We have revised down our 2011-12 Asian growth projections, but only modestly on expectations of strong domestic demand and a gradual rebound in exports during the course of 2012.
  • firm grip on monetary policy
  • further pressure
  • global outlook
  • indicators point to a soft landing
  • prospects of further housing market adjustments
  • strong credit growth
  • economic outlook
  • growth



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 10
Langue English


Community Foundations Stepping into
Community Foundations Stepping into
Community Leadership:
Lessons from the Social Capital Learning Circle
Doug Easterling, Ph.D.
Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
September 18, 2007The Changing Landscape for
Community Foundations
• Increased competition for donors (e.g., United Way,
commercial funds, giving circles)
• Donors have increased expectations for their funds, esp.
with regard to seeing impact
• Increased scrutiny of philanthropy by policy makers,
analysts, and others
– Do foundations deserve their tax-exempt status?
– Are foundations adding value to charitable dollars vs. serving
simply as a flow-through mechanism (Porter and Kramer)?How should CFs adapt to the
changing landscape?
Bernholz et al (2005), On the Brink of New Promise:
• Look outward – recognize that the job of a CF is to serve
its community, not to preserve itself
• Shift emphasis from management of assets to long-term
leadership on key community issues
• Shift role from transactional organization to
transformational organization
• Become indispensable to the community (find a true
niche) What does “Community Leadership”
mean for Community Foundations?
• “Leadership” inherently involves change
• CF’s identity shifts from Community Resource
to Community Change AgentWhat do Community Foundations need to
do to become Community Leaders?
A soft definition of “Community Leadership”:
• Mobilize community resources (dollars, time, talent) to address critical issues
• Serve as a neutral convener to foster coordinated problem-solving
A more challenging definition:
• Publicly identify critical community issues
• Advocate a particular vision for community change
• Implement foundation-designed strategies (rather than relying solely on grantees to
generate solutions)
• Encourage residents, organizations, and community leaders to stretch beyond their
comfort zones
• Evaluate foundation effectiveness according to community impactSpecific roles that CFs can play
in promoting community change
[from Hamilton, Parzen & Brown (2004)]
1. Build useful knowledge
• Conduct research
• Educate the public
• Educate decision makers
2. Shape community discourse
3. Link local leaders to one another
4. Broker regional solutions
5. Maximize access to government resources
6. Nurture high-impact philanthropists
7. Facilitate local systems reform
8. Support and advocate for policy solutions
9. Build community capacity (leadership, networks, organizational
10. Strengthen accountabilityOther roles that CFs can play
in promoting community change
[from James Irvine Foundation (2003)]
[from James Irvine Foundation (2003)]
1. Develop new programs that address critical community
2. Develop new organizations that address critical
community needs
3. Legitimize those who have historically been
disenfranchisedHow much of a stretch for CFs?
• Many of these activities go well beyond what CFs
currently do
• Community change is a different business from donor
relations, investment, and grantmaking
• Do CFs have the organizational capacity to do this work?
– Enough staff
– Appropriate skill sets
• Do CFs have the right culture for this work?
– Risk averse vs. Risk seeking
– Behind the scenes vs. Out in front
• Can this work be carried out without alienating major
donors?The Right Frame
• On what issue(s) should CFs exercise community
leadership? Issues that:
– Are of concern throughout the community
– Relate to the foundation’s areas of interest (ideally as an
underlying root issue)
– Lend themselves to solutions (especially solutions not yet in
• In addition to the issue to be solved, the CF should bring
a strategic framework for problem-solving
– Compelling
– InclusiveSocial Capital
• “the networks, norms, and social trust that
facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual
benefit” (James Coleman, 1988)
• “the glue that holds communities together”
(Robert Putnam, 2000)