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  • expression écrite
CHAPTER 7: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. What is an insertion anomaly? Ans: An insertion anomaly occurs when extra data beyond the desired data must be added to a table. 2. What is an update anomaly? Ans: An update anomaly occurs when it is necessary to change multiple rows to modify only a single fact. 3. What is a deletion anomaly? Ans: A deletion anomaly occurs whenever deleting a row inadvertently causes other data to be deleted.
  • list fds
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  • visitno visitdate patno patage patcity patzip provno provspecialty diagnosis v10020
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  • shipaddr
  • itemno
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[Text version of database, created 17/01/2012].

Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Lezgian group (North Caucasian family).

Languages included: Nidzh Udi [lez-udn], Vartashen Udi [lez-udv], Archi [lez-aqc],
Kryts (proper) [lez-krp], Alyk Kryts [lez-kra], Budukh [lez-bdk], Mishlesh Tsakhur [lez-
tkx], Mikik Tsakhur [lez-tky], Gelmets Tsakhur [lez-tkz].

Data sources.


Alekseev 1985 = М. Е . А л ексе ев . Вопросы сравнительно-исторической
грамматики лезгинских языков. Морфология, Синтаксис. [M. Y. Alekseyev. Issues
of comparative-historical grammar of Lezgian languages]. Москва, 1985. // Studies in the
historical morphology and syntax of Lezgian languages.
Comrie & Khalilov 2010 = Б. Комри, М. Халилов. С л о в а рь яз ы ко в и ди а л екто в
на ро до в С ев ерн о г о К а в к а з а . С о п о ст а в л ени е о сн о в но й л екси ки. Лейпциг/Махачкала, 2010
[B. Comrie, M. Khalilov. Dictionary of languages and dialects of the peoples of the Northern
Caucasus. Comparison of the basic lexicon. Leipzig/Makhachkala, 2010] // A thematic
glossary of East Caucasian and some neighbouring languages. See for on-line access and detail. The source is actually somewhat
unreliable, with a considerable number of erroneous forms.
Kibrik & Kodzasov 1988 = А. К. Кибрик, С. В. Кодзасов. С о п о ст а в и тель но е
и з уч ени е да г ес танских яз ык о в : Гл а г о л . Москва , 1988. // A thematic glossary of verbs in East
Caucasian languages. Supplemented by short sketches of the verb systems in individual
Kibrik & Kodzasov 1990 = А. К. Кибрик, С. В. Кодзасов. С о п о ст а в и тель но е
и з уч ени е да г ес танских яз ык о в : Им я, фонети ка . Москва , 1990. // A thematic glossary of
nouns in East Caucasian languages. Supplemented by short sketches of the phonetic and
nominal systems in individual languages.
LEDb = S. A. Starostin. Lezgian Etymological Database. // Computerized version of the
Proto-Lezgian corpus, available at


Includes some Proto-Lezgian etymologies (mostly basic lexicon items) that have not been
included in [NCED] due to their lack of external cognates in other branches of North Caucasian.
NCED = S. L. Nikolayev, S. A. Starostin. A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary.
Moscow: Asterisk Publishers, 1994. Reprint in 3 vols.: Ann Arbor: Caravan Books, 2007.
// Monumental etymological dictionary of the North Caucasian (Nakh-Daghestanian, a.k.a.
Northeast Caucasian + Abkhaz-Adyghe, a.k.a. Northwest Caucasian) language family. In
addition to approximately 2000 roots, reliably or tentatively reconstructed for Proto-North
Caucasian, also provides intermediate reconstructions for the protolanguages of the daughter
branches: Nakh, Avar-Andian, Tsezian, Dargwa, Lezghian, Abkhaz-Adyghe. Tables of
correspondences and detailed notes are given in the introduction, available online at All etymologies also available online on the StarLing
database server, at
Starchevskiy 1891 = А. В. Старчевс кий. Кавказский толмач. Переводчик с
русского на главнейшие кавказские языки. Санк -Птетербург, 1891. // Glossaries,
phrase-books and short grammar sketches for various languages of the Caucasus.

Udi (Nidzh), Udi (Vartashen):

Main sources:
Dirr 1903 = А. М. Дирр. Гра мм а ти ка уди нско г о яз ык а . Тифлис, 1903 (= Сборник
материалов для описания местностей и племен Кавказа, вып. 33).A gra // mmar of the
Vartashen dialect of Udi.
Dzheiranishvili 1971 = Evg. Dzheiranishvili. Udiuri ena. Gramat'ik'a, krest'omatia,
leksik'oni. Tbilisi, 1971. // Descriptive grammar of Udi mainly based on the Vartashen dialect.
Supplemented with several texts and a thematic glossary. In Georgian with a Russian summary.
Fähnrich 1999 = H. Fähnrich. Kleines udisch- deu tsches W ö rterver zeichnis. Jena:
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, 1999. // Author's own field records of the Vartashen dialect,
from the 1960s.
Gippert et al. 2008 = J. Gippert, W. Schulze, Z. Aleksidze, J.-P. Mahé. The Caucasian
Albanian Palimpsests of Mt. Sinai. 2 vols. Brepols, 2008. // A detailed edition of ancient texts
written in the so-called Caucasian Albanian language.
Gukasyan 1974 = В. Гукасян. Уди нско- а з ерб а й дж а нско- русс кий сло в а рь. Баку, 1974.
// The main (and, along with [Kibrik & Kodzasov 1990], the most reliable) lexicographic source


of Udi, supplemented by a grammar sketch. Covers both Nidzh (Cyrillic siglum Н) and
Vartashen (Cyrillic siglum В) dialects. NB: We presume that if a form is quoted by Gukasyan
without siglum, it is attested in both dialects.
Mobili 2010 = Р. Мобили. Удинс-акзербайо джанско-русский словарь. Бак, у2010.
// A new Udi dictionary based on [Gukasyan 1974], but with a number of new entries and/or
phonetical variants of dialectal nature (exclusive Vartashen forms are marked by asterisk *, but
common Nidzh-Vartashen forms and exclusive Nidzh ones are unmarked).
Schiefner 1863 = A. Schiefner. Ve rsu ch ü ber di e S prache der Uden . St. Petersburg, 1863.
// Grammar, texts and glossary of Udi Vartashen.
Schulze 1982 = W. Schulze. Die Sprachen der Uden in Nord- Az erba jd ž a n. Wiesbaden,
1982. // A descriptive grammar of Udi, covering both dialects.
Schulze 2001 = W. Schulze. The Udi Gospels. Annotated text, etymological index,
lemmatized concordance. München/Newcastle: Lincom, 2001. // Romanized and
grammatically elaborated edition of Vartashen texts from [Bezhanov & Bezhanov 1902].
Contains a selective etymological glossary of Udi. The Romanized text of the Gospels is also
available at [Accessed on 10.2010].
Schulze 2005 = W. Schulze. A Functional Grammar of Udi. Unpubl. ms. // Partial draft
version of a comprehensive descriptive grammar of Udi, covering both dialects (Nidzh and
Vartashen). Available on demand at the author's site:
Schulze-Fürhoff 1994 = W. Schulze-Fürhoff. Udi. In: R. SmeetsThe . Indigenous
Languages of the Caucasus, vol. 4. Caravan Books, 1994. P. 447-514. // A grammar sketch
that covers both dialects of Udi.

Additional sources:
Alekseev 2008 = М. Е. Алексеев. Удинская лексика в этимологическом словаре
лезгинских языков. In: Уди нски й с борн и к: Гра мм а ти ка , л екси ка , и ст о ри я яз ык а .
Москва, 2008. P. 311 -346. // Etymological elaboration of the basic Udi vocabulary.
Bezhanov & Bezhanov 1902 = С. Бежв,ано М. Бежанов. Г о сп о да на шег о Ии сус а
Хри ст а С в ят о е Е в а нг е л и е о т Ма тф ея, Ио а н на , Лики и Иоа нн а н а русс ко м и уди нско м
яз ык а х. Тифлис, 1902 (= Сборник материалов для описания местностей и племен
Кавказа, вып. 30) // Christian religious texts in the Vartashen dialect of Udi, recorded by S. &
thM . Bež a n o vs in the lat e 19 century. Supplemented by Russian translation. Pagination restarts
in each next Gospel. Re-edited in [Schulze 2001].


Dabakov 2008 = В. В. Дабаков. Лексика ниджского диалекта удинского языка
(дополнения к словарю В. Гукасяна). In: Уди нски й сб о рни к: Гра мм а ти ка , л екси ка ,
и ст о ри я яз ык а. Москва, 2008. P. 347-364. // Lexicographical addenda to [Gukasyan 1974]
from the Nidzh dialect.
Ganenkov et al. 2008 = Д. С. Ганенков, Ю. А. Ландер, Т. А. Майсак. Удинский
язык (ниджский диалект). In: А. Е. Кибрик (ред.)М а. л ые яз ык и и традици и :
С ущ ес тво в а ни е на г ра н и . Вып. 2: Текс ты и сло в а рн ые матери а л ы . Москва, 2008. P. 232-
259. // Several glossed texts from the Nidzh dialect.
Harris 2002 = A. C. Harris. Endoclitics and the origins of Udi morphosyntax. Oxford,
2002. // A detailed description of Udi verbal morphosyntax (covering both Nidzh and Vartashen
Maisak 2008a = Т. А. Майсак. Глагольная парадигма удинского языка
(ниджский диалект). In: Уди н ски й сб о рни к: Гра мм а ти ка , л екси ка , и ст о ри я яз ык а .
Москва, 2008. P. 96-161. // A detailed description of Udi Nidzh verb.
Maisak 2008b = Т. А. Майсак. Семантика и происхождение глагольных форм
настоящего и будущего времени в удинском языке. УдиIn: нски й с борн и к:
Гр а мм а ти ка , л екси ка , и ст о ри я яз ык а . Москва, 2008. P. 162-222.
Maisak 2008c = Т. А. Майсак. Варианты удинской орфографии: Краткий обзор.
In: Уди нски й сб о рни к: Гра мм а ти ка, л екси ка, и ст о ри я яз ык а. Москва, 2008. P. 443-460.
// A description of all the main Cyrillic and Roman orthographies ever used for Udi.
Schulze 2008 = W. Schulze. Deictic strategies in Udi. In: Уд и нски й с борн и к:
Гра мм а ти ка , л екси ка , и ст о ри я яз ык а . Москва, 2008. P. 241-308.


Chumakina et al. 2007 = M. Chumakina, D. Brown, G. G. Corbett, H. Quilliam.
Словарь арчинского языка (арчинско-англо-русский) [A dictionary of Archi: Archi-
Russian-English]. Махачкала: Деловой мир, 2007. Available online as: M. Chumakina,
D. Brown, G. G. Corbett, H. Quilliam. A dictionary of the language of the Archi villages,
Southern Daghestan, Caucasus, linguists/ [Accessed
on November 2011]. // Archi-Russian-English dictionary based on [Kibrik et al. 1977b],
thoroughly checked and supplemented with sound files. A number of new entries is added, but,
on the contrary, some lexicographic information as well as some entries (e.g., personal


pronouns), quoted in [Kibrik et al. 1977b], have been omitted. It is not recommended to use the
English definitions proposed in the dictionary when attempting to establish the exact meaning of
an Archi word; Russian definitions must be referred to for this purpose.
Chumakina 2009 = M. Chumakina. 2009. Archi vocabulary. In: M. Haspelmath & U.
Tadmor (eds.). World Loanword Database. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library. //
Available online at [Accessed on November 2011].
Dirr 1908 = А. М. Дирр. А рч и нски й яз ык. Тифлис, 1908 (= Сборник материалов
для описания местностей и племен Кавказа, вып. 39) // A grammar of the Archi
language, supplemented by texts and a glossary.
Kibrik 1994 = A. Kibrik. Archi. In: R. Smeets. The Indigenous Languages of the
Caucasus, vol. 4. Caravan Books, 1994. P. 297-365. // A grammar sketch of Archi.
Kibrik et al. 1977a = А. Е. Кибрик, С. В. Кодзасов, И. П. Оловянникова, Д. С.
Самедов. О п ыт ст руктурно г о о п и сания а рч и нско г о яз ык а . Т. 1: Ле кси ка , фон ети ка. Т.
2: Так соно ми ческа я г р а мм а ти ка. Т. 3: Ди на ми ческа я г ра мм а ти ка. Москва, 1977. // A
detailed grammar of Archi in three volumes.
Kibrik et al. 1977b = А. Е. Кибрик, С. В. Кодзасов, И. П. Оловянникова, Д. С.
Самедов. А рч и нски й яз ык: Текс ты и сло в а р и. Москва, 1977. // Various Archi texts with
Russian translation, supplemented by a detailed Archi-Russian dictionary. The texts have now
been re-recorded and published at the site of the LangueDOC project: [Accessed on November 2011].
Mikailov 1967 = К. Ш. Микаилов. А рч и нски й яз ык : Гра мм а ти чески й о черк с
текс тами и сло в а рем . Махачкала, 1967. // A grammar of Archi supplemented by texts and a

Kryts (proper), Kryts (Alyk):

Authier 2009 = G. Authier. Grammaire kryz (langue caucasique d'Azerbaïdjan,
dialecte d'Alik). Leuven/Paris: Peeters, 2009. // A grammar of the Alyk dialect of Kryts.
Saadiev 1994 = Sh. M. Saadiev. Kryts. In: R. Smeets. The Indigenous Languages of the
Caucasus, vol. 4. Caravan Books, 1994. P. 407-446. // A grammar sketch of Kryts, covering
main dialects.



Alekseev 1994 = M. E. Alekseev. Budukh. In: R. Smeets. The Indigenous Languages of
the Caucasus, vol. 4. Caravan Books, 1994. P. 259-296. // A grammar sketch of Budukh.
Meylanova 1984 = У. А. Мейланова. Б удух ско- русс кий сло в а рь. Москва, 1984. //
Budukh-Russian dictionary of ca. 8000 entries supplemented by a Russian-Budukh word-index
and a grammar sketch.
Talibov 2007 = Б. Б. Талибов Б удух. ски й яз ык. Москва , 2007. // A descriptive
grammar of Budukh supplemented by sample texts.

Tsakhur (Mishlesh, Mikik, Gelmets):

Main sources:
Dirr 1913 = А. М. Дирр. Ц а х урски й яз ык . [A. M. Dirr. The Tsakhur Language].
Тифлис, 1913 (= Сборник материалов для описания местностей и племен Кавказа,
вып. 43). // A grammar of the Mikik dialect of the Tsakhur language, supplemented by texts and
a glossary.
Ibragimov 1990 = Г. Х. Ибрагимов. Ц а х у рс кий яз ык . [G. Kh. Ibragimov. The
Tsakhur Language]. Москва, 1990. // A descriptive grammar of the Mishlesh dialect (Tsakh
group; with excourses into the Mukhakh-Sabunchi and Suvagil dialects) and the Gelmets dialect
(Gelmets group) of Tsakhur.
Ibragimov & Nurmamedov 2010 = Г. Х. Ибрагимов, Ю. М. Нурмамедов.
Ц а х урско- русс кий сло в а рь . [G. Kh. Ibragimov, Yu. M. Nurmamedov. Tsakhur-Russian
Dictionary]. Махачкала, 2010. // A Tsakhur-Russian dictionary (based on the Tsakh dialectal
group, mostly on the Mishlesh and Tsakhur-Kum dialects; some specific dialectal terms are also
included, sometimes with special sigla), supplemented with a grammar sketch.
Kibrik et al. 1999 = А. Е. Кибрик, Я. Г. Тестелец (ред.). Элементы цахурского
языка в типологическом освещении. [A. Y. Kibrik, Y. G. Testelets (eds.). Elements of
Tsakhur from a typological point of view.] Москва, 1999. // A theoretical grammar of the
Mishlesh dialect (Tsakh group) of Tsakhur, supplemented by texts and a glossary.

Additional sources:
Davies et al. 1999 = I. R. L. Davies, T. Sosenskaja, G. G. Corbett. Colours in Tsakhur: 7

First account of the basic colour terms of a Nakh-Daghestanian language. In: Linguistic
Typology 3 (1999), pp. 179-207.


Udi Nidzh, Udi Vartashen

Two dialects of the Udi language - Nidzh and Vartashen - are closely related, but it
is reasonable to treat them apart when applying lexicostatistics. The main lexicographic
sources are [Gukasyan 1974] (both dialect) and [Kibrik & Kodzasov 1990] (Nidzh

The following transliterational chart, covering our principal sources, can be
presented (for all the other alphabets ever used for Udi see [Maisak 2008c: 456 ff.])

[Gukasyan 1974], [Kibrik & [NCED] [Schulze- [Schulze 2001], [Harris [Mobili GLD
[Comrie & Kodzasov Fürhoff [Schulze 2005] 2002] 2010]
Khalilov 2010] 1990] 1994]

п p p p p p p p
б b b b b b b b
п1, пI p: ʼ ʼ ʼ ʼ ː

ф f f f f f f f
в v w v, w v v, w v v

т t t t t t t t
д d d d d d d d
т1, тI t t: tʼ tʼ tʼ tʼ tː

ц c c c c c ś c
дз ʒ ʒ ʒ ʒ ʒ z ʒ
ц1, цI c c: cʼ cʼ cʼ sʼ cː 8

с s s s s s s s
з z z z z z z z

ц c cː, č:I ? cʼ, ćʼ ? sʼ cː

ч č č č č č ç č
дж ǯ ǯ ǯ ǯ ǰ c ǯ
ч1, чI č č: čʼ čʼ čʼ cʼ čː

ш š š š š š ş š
ж ž ž ž ž ž j ž

чъ čI čI c ć č: č čˤ
дж1, джI ǯI ǯI ʒ ǰ: č ǯˤ
ч č I č:I c ʼ ćʼ čʼ: čʼ čːˤ

ш1, шI šI šI s ś š: š šˤ
ж1, жI žI žI z ź ž: ǰ žˤ

к k k k k k k k
г g g g g g g g
к1, кI k k: kʼ kʼ kʼ kʼ kː

ҝ g, gy g g g g g g, gʸ

хъ q q q q q q q
къ q q: qʼ qʼ qʼ qʼ qː

х X x x x
гъ R ʁ ĝ ğ ɣ ğ ʁ

гь h h h h h h h


м m m m m m m m
н n n n n n n n
р r r r r r r r
л l l l l l l l
й j j y y y y y

и i i i i i i i
е e e e e e e e
а a a a a a a a
аь ä ä ä ä ä ə ä
ы ɨ ɨ ь ə ə ı ɨ
о o o o o o o o
оь ö ö ö ö ö ö ö
у u u u u u u u
уь ü ü ü ü ü ü ü
Vъ VI, qI, šI VI, qI, šI V Vˤ Vˤ, qˤ, šˤ

Our phonetic interpretation of the Nidzh dialect is based on [Kibrik & Kodzasov
1990: 347].

According to Kodzasov's report [Kibrik & Kodzasov 1990: 347], the three-way
opposition of stops and affricates in Nidzh is as follows: t d t , c c and so on. As
noted by Kodzasov, the third series is pronounced with oral and glottal tenseness, but
without gemination. We are not aware of any detailed phonetic description of the
Modern Vartashen dialect, but according to Dm. Ganenkov (p.c.), the Vartashen three-
way opposition of stops and affricates is very similar to the Nidzh one. This is
supported by Gukasyan's description of Udi phonetics. In [Gukasyan 1974: 255] and
other works of this author, the third series in Udi is called "preruptive", scil. fortis,
without any difference between dialects. In order to avoid rare diacritics, we prefer to
follow the [NCED] and UdiLang systems and transcribe the third marked series of
obstruents with the sign ː. For the same reason, according to common practice, we omit
the non-phonological aspiration for the first series. Thus, in our notation the three-way


opposition of Nidzh & Vartashen stops and affricates looks as follows: t d tː, c cː
and so on.

It must be noted that in a number of publications by Kartvelologists or
Kartvelology-oriented authors (e.g., [Ǯeiranišvili 1971], [Fähnrich 1999], r[His ar2002])
the Udi system of stops and affricates is noted as t( ) d tʼ , c( ) cʼ and so on. Such a
notation with the third series marked as ejective is a convenient adaptation of the
Georgian alphabet, on one hand, and hints at the main etymological origin of the Udi
tense obstruents, on the other.

The difference between Gukasyan's frequent {ц1} and very rare {ц } is unclear. We
treat both as cː {ц1} (according to Ganenkov's p.c., modern speakers do not perceive the
difference between {ц1} and {ц }).

Pharyngealization (a prosodic feature, which is anchored on vowels or, if present,
on post-alveolar č ǯ č ː š ž and/or uvular q qː ʁ obstruents in a honetic word) can
robably be noted as (velo haryngeal friction), but we refer to use tche ommmor on e
notation ˤ. If there are no post-alveolar or uvular obstruents in a phonetic word,
pharyngealization is transcribed for the first vowel. Otherwise, pharyngealization is
noted after the first post-alveolar or uvular obstruent. Normally we do not discriminate
between a ä , o ö , u ü in pharyngealized words and transcribe these vowels as a, o, u.

Vowel length, noted in [Kibrik & Kodzasov 1990], normally occurs in recently
contracted forms or loanwords.

In the field Common Udi, the term "Proto-Udi" is sometimes used. This refers to the
language that yielded the modern Nidzh and Vartashen dialects. Proto-Udi is opposed
to "Proto-Caucasian Albanian-Udi" - an ancestor of the language of the Caucasian
Albanian palimpsests, on the one hand, and of Proto-Udi, on the other.

Caucasian Albanian.

Language of two palimpsests, which have been recently recovered, and several
short inscriptions. These texts have been elaborated and edited as [Gippert et al. 2008].