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  • exposé - matière potentielle : succinct du discours du conférencier
  • dédoublement de la défense sociale
  • prison administration
  • lombroso
  • congrès sur la substance
  • double révolution dans la théorie du côté coercitif de la loi criminelle
  • justice pénale
  • criminels
  • criminel
  • condition
  • conditions
  • école
  • ecole
  • écoles
  • ecoles



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 25
Poids de l'ouvrage 14 Mo


Président :
Sir Evelyn Ruggles-Brise (Angleterre).
Secrétaire-général :
M. le Prof. /. Simon van der Aa (Pays-Bas).
Secrétaire s-généraux adjoints :
M. A. Danjoy (France).
Lord Polwarth (Ecosse).
Vice-présidents :
rMM. le D E. Bumke (Allemagne),
rle D A. Klein ,
rle D /. M. P. Anchorena (Argentine),
rle D I.Maus (Belgique),
rle D /. Servais .
M. Urriolagoitia (Bolivie),
rle D D.Minkojj (Bulgarie).
T. W. Bridges (Canada).
/. Gaete (Chili).
Chi-hong Ho (Chine),
rle D L. Cuervo-Marquez (Colombie),
rle D E. Regtieiferos (Cuba),
rle D Hihny Bey (Egypte),
rle D F. Cadalso (Espagne).
E. Kirotar (Esthonie).
B.Ogden Chisolm (Etats-Unis d'Amérique).
H. Hastings H art s .
A. P. Arvelo (Finlande).
A. Danjoy (France).
rle D J.-A. Roux (France).
M. L. W aller (Angleterre).
Lord Polwarth (Ecosse).
Tle D P. Scouriotis (Grèce). — 353 — — 352 —
rMM. le D Ph Rottenbiller (Hongrie).
le Col. W.Gillitt (Indes britanniques).
The MacDermott (Irlande, Etat libre).
rle Comte D U. Conti (Italie).
rle D E.Ferri (Italie).
rle D S. Motoji (Japon).
P. Mintz (Lettonie).
ASSEMBLÉE GÉNÉRALE Z. Balcevicius (Lithuanie).
du mercredi 5 août, à 10 heures du matin. A.Omsted (Norvège).
E. Page (Nouvelle-Zélande).
Présidence de A. J. Kingsley-Heath (Palestine).
rle D /. Simon van der Aa (Pays-Bas). Sir Evelyn RUÔjGLES-BRISE K. C. B.,
président de la Commission pénitentiaire internationale, J. F. C. Nienhuis (Indes néerlandaises).
président du Congrès.
R. R. Schreiber (Pérou).
M. A. K. Bahrami (Perse).
M. le Président. — Mesdames, Messieurs, la séance est ouverte.
rle D E. S. Rappafort (Pologne).
r Nous avons le très grand honneur et le très grand plaisir de le D J. J. Henriques da Silva (Portugal).
présenter au Congrès the Right Honourable the Earl of Oxford and
C. Cernât (Roumanie).
r Asquith, K. G., qui a très aimablement accepté de nous faire une le D /. Chilovitch ( Serbie-Croatie-Slavonie).
conférence sur: «Les principes de la pénalité». P. B. Bochanavisuddhi (Siam).
Nous n'avons pas besoin de répéter ici combien nous apprécions
V.Almquist (Suède),
le concours qu'il veut bien nous prêter. Sa réputation mondiale, rle D A.MiHcka (Tchéco-Slovaquie).
comme homme d'Etat et comme juriste, ne peut qu'augmenter
Fahri Bey (Turquie).
le lustre et le prestige de nos travaux. W. S. Bateman (Union des Etats de l'Afrique du
Inutile d'ajouter que les paroles qu'il prononcera sur ce sujet
Secrétaire-administrateur: seront du plus haut intérêt pour tous ceux qui suivent nos travaux.
M.A.J. Wall (Angleterre). Je donne la parole à M. le Comte d'Oxford and Asquith.
(Vifs applaudissements).
M. le Col. G. Z). Tumer (Angleterre). M. le Comte d'Oxford and Asquith commence par s'adresser
à la Commission pénitentiaire internationale en ces termes: Interprète:
Mr. Président, Mr. Secretary-general and other Members of M. Verhaegen (Belgique).
the International Prison Commission,
I consider it as a great honour that you have called me to this
platform in order to address the big Congress you have organized,
and I respond to your call with much pleasure. In days gone by,
when I held the office of Secretary of State for the Home Depart-
ment, I have had a good deal to do with the Administration of
Actes du Congrès pénitentiaire international de Londres, vol. I. 23 — 355 — — 354 —
mented and developed by the conception of the end of punishment Criminal Justice, and never since that time have I lost the keen
as not being déterrent but reformatory. Most of the enormous interest for the very difficult and highly important matters you
strides which have been made during the last century in the effi-are dealing with. It happened at that time to fall in my duty to
ciency, and not less in the humanisation, of the prisons of the select a new Chairman of the Prison Board for England and Wales.
world, have been due to the growing réalisation and ascendancy of The man I appointed for that very responsible task was Ruggles-
this two-fold révolution in the theory of the coercive side of cri-Brise, who shortly after has also been nominated as a delegate
minal law. of this country on your Commission. I am glad to say that from
Prof essor Kenny in his admirable chapters on the subject in ail I saw and heard about the way he acquitted himself of thèse
his "Outlines of Criminal Law" quotes from Henry Sidgwick's charges, I have gathered that I have done the very right thing
"Methods of Ethics" the statement that we have "outgrown the in calling him to thèse functions. Therefore it is a cause of profound
stage at which the normal réparation given to the injured—in-satisfaction to me to see him in the chair here to-day, presiding
jured i. e., to say by an act which we now regard as an offence over this grand assembly, which I am now going to address.
punishable by-the State in the interest of the Community—con-
Ladies and Gentlemen, sisted in rétribution inflicted on the wrong-doer".
Under primitive Systems of law, a crime like murder, was One of the most famous English jurists of the Victorian era,
looked upon, not exclusively or even mainly as a transgression whose book on "Ancient Law" I suppose still holds its own as a
of social order, but as a personal wrong for which the family of classic, Sir Henry Maine, once recorded his opinion that "ail
the victim was entitled to the right of vendetta, not only to give théories on the subject of Punishment have more or less broken
satisfaction to the natural instinct of vengeance, but to ensure down: and we are at sea as to first principles".
both reprisais and compensation. The distinction (to use the In the last 50 years the Sciences—if such they can be called
vocabulary of English law) between a crime and a "tort" was al-—of Criminology and Penology have been, in ail countries,
ways hazy, often imperceptible, and sometimes altogether non-assiduously cultivated with a wealth of new material, and illumi-
existent. The custom of giving what are called exemplary damages, nated on the physiological and psychological sides by an abundance
in civil cases, where only the assessment of the injury to the in-of critical acumen. But there is nothing so far as I know which
dividual is theoretically at issue, is a survival of the more or less has been said or written, that has brought the explorers and thinkers
shadowy sensé of the interest of the community in the days before in this still obscure domain, into any nearer approach in the matter
there was any technical boundary line between civil and criminal of first principles.
procédure. It is more than 150 years ago since Beccaria published his
So—to go on with my quotation from Sidgwick—even now, epoch-making treatise on Crime and Punishment, which is said
"we seem to keep the older view, i. e. the retributive, that resent-to have been translated into more than 20 European languages,
ment is universalised in criminal justice". For "the prin-and which had a powerful, practical effect on the pénal Systems
ciple that punishment should be merely déterrent and refor-then in vogue. He was, if npt the founder, at any rate the oracle
matory, is too purely utilitarian for current opinion". The sensé of the school, which secured in principle the adhérence of the
that punishment should be at any rate measured in degree as an utilitarians and in practice of reformers like Romilly—the School
expression of what may be called the Ethical Resentment of the which held that the prévention and deterrence are the main, if
Community has not yet been banished—if it ever will be—from not the sole, object of criminal punishment.
the pénal administration of civilised States. Perhaps the best That abstract doctrine—for, valuable and fruitful as it has
statement of the matter from the philosophical view is to be found proved itself, it was lopsided and incomplète—has been supple-— 357 — — 356 —
was his own, and the burden, not by any means wholly in capital in the chapter on the "Right of the State to Punish", in the Lec-
cases, was the heaviest of his Ministerial cares. The case is now tures on the "Principles of Political Obligation" by a profounder
différent owing to the too long delayed establishment of the thinker than Sidgwick—T. H. Green.
Court of Criminal Appeal, before which it is practically certain that "It is commonly asked" (he writes) "whether punishment
a conviction and sentence which can with any plausibility be im-according to its proper nature is retributive or préventive or
peached either on technical or substantial grounds will corne for reformatory. The true answer is that it is and should be allthree."
review. The opé

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