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T Inside This Issue 1 Message from the Superintendent 2 School News 6 School Committee Agenda December 2011 SWAMPSCOTT PUBLIC SCHOOLS Superintendent's Bulletin VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2 To the Swampscott Public Schools' Community, At this special time of year for family and friends, I send my best to everyone in the Swampscott Public Schools' community. This time of year allows us to reflect on everything for which we are grateful: our family, friends, and community.
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Step 1 5E Lesson Plan Format
Of Cabbages and Chemistry
teachHOUSTON Student Name:
th thMentor Teacher Name: Grade Level: 4 and 5
Lesson Teaching Date:

Concept(s): Substances can be classified by their chemical and physical properties. Students
will use scientific inquiry methods during laboratory investigations to classify substances.
(5.4)Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following
home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The
student is expected to:
(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

5.2)Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory
investigations. The student is expected to:
(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from
direct and indirect evidence;

(5.2)Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory
investigations. The student is expected to:
(E) construct simple graphs, table, maps, and charts using tools including computers
to organize, examine, and evaluate information;

Classroom Management Goals/Skills
 Uses attention-getting strategies
 Utilizes an effective “teacher voice”
 Uses of a method of knowing students names
 Assigns student tasks for cooperative groups
 Uses effective procedures and routines
o Starts and ends on time
 Utilizes power point to enhance implementation

Objectives Evaluation Question for each Objective
The student will be able to:
1. Classify a substance as acidic or Classify the following substances as acids or bases
basic using the pH diagram provided. using the pH diagram provided.
A) Baking Soda, pH 8?
B) Bottled Water, pH 7?
C) Vinegar, pH 2?
John has two beakers in front of him. Beaker A has 2. Analyze and interpret information to
vinegar only and is clear in color. Beaker B has a construct reasonable explanations
mixture of vinegar and cabbage juice and is pink in from direct evidence.
color. Based on this information what can John
conclude about Vinegar?
A. Vinegar is an acid
B. Vinegar is a base
C. Vinegar is neutral
Vinegar smells really bad!!
Using the information provided on the pH diagram fill 3. Categorize the information given in
in the table with information for the following the pH diagram into a table format.
Battery acid , Ammonia, Milk

Name of test Color change Group Name
Ex: Vinegar Pink Acid

For the teacher:
 3 colors of chalk or whiteboard markers: one blue, one pink, one purple.
 For baking soda solution, add equal parts of baking soda and water. Place in a spray
bottle. (Engagement activity – Teacher Demonstration)
 For vinegar solution, place vinegar in a spray bottle. (Engagement activity – Teacher
 Shallow tub
 Golden Rod Paper

For each student:
 Testing Chemicals worksheet
For each group:
 Directions sheet
 8 clear, plastic containers or dropper containers.
o 8 Pipettes or droppers if not using dropper containers
 1 neutral, 3 acids and 3 bases in small containers on a tray. (total of 9 solutions)
o Solutions:
 Neutrals- Rubbing alcohol
 Acids- vinegar, aspirin, lemon juice
 Bases-window cleaner, Baking soda, 409 Note: each container should have a separate dropper to avoid cross-
contamination. Additionally, each group will need a dropper for cabbage juice.
(Total of 8)
o Box of crayons with a wide array of colors. (Students will be attempting to
match their crayons to the colors of their cabbage juice, so a decent variety is

Safety Issues: Though using mostly benign chemicals as acids and bases in this experiment,
children must use caution when handling them. Do not taste any of the solutions during this
activity. These chemicals, though commonly found around the house, are irritants and it is
good to model safety procedures when handling potentially caustic chemicals in the lab. If a
student spills chemicals on themselves, they should be told to wash the area vigorously with
water for a few minutes.


What the Teacher Will Do Eliciting Questions/ What the Students Will Do
Student Responses
Write a “secret” message on Do you know what is Students will observe the
the paper in wax (with a wax happening here? changes that occur when the
crayon or something else that [various answers] base and the acid are poured
the students cannot see) on a onto the paper. They will
piece of golden rod paper (it Is it magic? answer questions presented
can be anything you want ex. [no, yes, I don’t know] by the teacher.
Go Coogs!). Place Golden Rod
paper into a shallow Do you think there is
rectangular bucket. Spray something about the paper
paper with baking soda that makes it special or is it
solution. Show students what just the baking soda solution
happens. Then revert the we put on it?
change using the vinegar [it’s the paper, it’s the
solution. (When goldenrod solution]
paper is placed in baking soda
[base] solution


The change you saw was called a physical change. It was caused by the baking soda coming into
contact with the paper. This goldenrod paper is colored with a dye that is an acid/base
indicator. An acid/base indicator can be used to determine whether a solution is an acid or a
base. Today we are going to use a different indicator to determine if some common household chemicals are acids or bases.


What the Teacher Will Do Eliciting Questions/ What the Students Will Do
Student Responses
Have students gather On your tables, you have a Gather materials to begin the
materials, and read over the tray of chemicals with activity.
directions with students. droppers in them, and each of
*Students may need to be you have an egg carton.
given assigned tasks for the Carefully pour the chemical
experiment. Distribute the from each container into the
testing chemicals sheet to corresponding slot in the egg
each student and give carton.
instructions on how to fill it in.
Let’s do the first slot together.
Directions: “One student Get a dropper full of the Students will perform the first
from each group come get indicator and place it in the task of the experiment with
your tray for the rest of the first slot. You will need to do the instructor’s guidance.
group.” Pass out the testing this until you see a color
chemicals worksheet and the change. Once the color
direction sheet. Explain to becomes constant, select the
students: “each solution has a square that is the same color
designated well, you can see of the new color of our first
that on your direction sheet. chemical.
Using your dropper, place
between 5 and 10 drops of Once you have done this,
your test solutions in their record the color in the right
labeled spot. Be sure that you section on your “Telltale Students will record their
use a different pipette for Colors” sheet I passed out to observations.
each test solution to prevent you.
contamination. Then, use a
new pipette to add around 10
drops of cabbage juice to each Ok, now remember before
test solution being careful not you get started that we are
to put the pipette tip into the working with chemicals here, Students will practice safety
test solution. Observe and so make sure to be careful while utilizing chemicals.
record the changes on your with them, as some of them
testing chemicals worksheet.” can be a bit dangerous if they
get on your skin. If this does
happen, please tell me right
away so we can wash off your skin really well, I think we are
ready to get started, so go
ahead, scientists!”

(While walking around among
the students):
-“What color do you see?

Did it change right away, or
did it take a while?
Groups will work
Why do you think it may independently.
change colors that way in that
liquid and a different way in Students will share their
THAT liquid? observations, as well as any
questions they may have.

Check with each group to
ensure students are on task
and are properly performing
the experiment. Make sure
students are recording their


Students, I think that we are making some great inferences and observations. Now, I would like
for everyone to share what they have observed, and see if we can collect a good set of class
data to figure out what the trends were that we were seeing and see if we can get to the
bottom of the reasons for these color changes.


What the Teacher Will Do Eliciting Questions/ What the Students Will Do
Student Responses Have a representative from -“How many different distinct The students will discuss, in
each group place their data colors did you get during your their table groups, first the
on the class chart. experiment?” classification and
[3] differentiation of the colors
Aid the students in narrowing they saw in their experiment
down their varying colors to -*Bear in mind here, that the and then to what colors out of
only green, pink and students may interpret their the ones available they are
blue/purple and the students varying shades as distinct the closest. The students will
will call out the colors they colors. The teacher must lead then, as the teacher points to
got for the various chemicals. them to try to narrow down the various rows on the
their colors. board, volunteer their
After the chart is filled in by answers as to what color
class consensus, the teacher Teacher may want to ask belongs on each section.
will ask the students to students what role did the
volunteer their cabbage juice play in the
interpretations as to what activity? Answer: acid/base
may be happening during the indicator
addition of the cabbage juice
to the chemicals.
-“Well, it is interesting that
you got 4 (5, 6…) colors, but I
**One big misconception have a problem. I actually The students will volunteer
here may be that, because of only have 3 differently any theories that they have
the color change, a chemical colored markers! So we are developed during the
reaction occurred. Clarify going to have to improvise. experiment, giving the
with students about the Here’s what I want you to do. teacher a chance to address
difference between chemical I have a green marker, a pink any misconceptions.
and physical changes. marker, and a blue (or purple)
one. I want you to talk in your
table groups and figure out
which one of those colors is
the closest to that color which
you have. When we are
finished, we will see if the
class has come to the same
conclusions about the colors.”
[Students may struggle with
changing their ideas about
which colors they saw and
may need leading in the right
direction to figure out which
color is closest to that which
they have.]
-“Now that we have all of
these colors on the board, do
we see any trends? Are there
any groups of similar colors which seem to have any other
[Students may find some
connections, but the desired
one here is that the pink ones
are all acids and the green
ones are all bases. The blue
or purple ones are all neutral]
-“Students, what do you think
may be occurring in this
change? What explanations
could we offer for this?”
[The cabbage juice is an acid-
base indicator.]
[*Again, this may be the time
when the misconception may
surface that perhaps a
chemical change is occurring.]
-“Well in fact, students,
cabbage juice is just one part
of a big group of substances
called an indicator. Cabbage
juice is a special kind of
indicator called an “acid-base
-“These tell us if something is
an acid or base and in just a
minute, we will talk about
what measurement system
scientists use to measure and
define acids and bases.”
-“Before we move on, though,
now that we have classified
these chemicals as acids and
bases, let’s fill in the third
column on out activity sheets
(group name) with either the
terms: acid, base, or neutral.
Remember that when we did
our experiment, the chemicals
which turned green were
bases, the pink ones were
acids and the blue (or purple)
ones were neutral.” Or
teacher can ask students to
recall the color relationship
with the indicator…


The models you have created represent how day and night occur. However, we don’t know
how long it takes for these events to take place. What are the limitations of this model? Size of
the objects, the distance they are away from one another, and the time it takes for these
processes to occur.


What the Teacher Will Do Eliciting Questions/ What the Students Will Do
Student Responses -“Students, what do you use The students will participate in
if you are trying to measure a this discussion by telling the
height of 1 foot?” teacher and class what pH and
[A ruler] acid/base definition they
-“Exactly. Now here on the believe each substance and
ruler, can everyone see that row is. The students will be
there is a scale? As you go challenged here and will need
farther down the scale and a good bit of teaching to gain
the numbers get larger, what an understanding here of the
happens to the height you general idea of pH scales. The
are measuring? students will be invited to ask
-“Well we as scientists have a questions or ask for
scale we use too, called the clarification on anything they
pH scale. As you can see don’t quite understand.
here, (referring to the Students will answer questions
graphic) there is a scale here and make predictions.
with different numbers
associated with them, and Student will add 5 drops of
they help us to know how acid and 5 drops of base.
acidic something is. A pH
less than 7 is called acidic Students will predict what
and a pH greater than 7 is color it will turn when they
called basic. Basic is just the add 5 – 10 drops of the
opposite of acidic. Now, in indicator.
the middle, right at 7, can
anyone tell me what these Students will carry out their
chemicals might be called?” experiment to see if their
[Neutral] prediction is correct.

Have students add baking I have baking soda and
soda to lemon and predict lemon.
what will happen when they What substance do you think
put in the cabbage juice is the acid and what
indicator. substance do you think is the
base. [lemon is the acid and
baking soda is the base]

What is the indicator?
[cabbage juice]

What color will it turn in the
acid (lemon)? [pink]

What color will it turn in the
base (baking soda)? [green]

What will happen if you mix the acid (lemon) and the
base (baking soda) and then
add the indicator? What
color will it turn?

Ask questions based on the
color the indicator turns in
the new solution. For
example: if it is still pink, ask